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First World War begun in Europe on 28 July 1914

For Italy the war begun one year later, on 24 May 1915, under general Luigi Cadorna command

During 1915 more than 500.000 italian soldiers reached Friuli region by train

on october 1917 they were 1.200.000

After three weeks, on 16 June 1915, Alpine assault troops conquered the top of Mount Nero

It was a brilliant victory, but not enough to completely defeat the Austrian Hungarian army

In the next years Italian army organized other eleven big offensive, the objectives were cross the Alps and reach the city of Trieste

on 24 October 1917 the imperial army counterattacked, helped by German reinforcement

it's the so called Battle of Caporetto

The Historical Path of Mount Cum

The project to enhance the Cum mountain comes with support

from various municipalities: Stregna (leader), Grimacco and Drenchia. The aim is to enhance the path of the Great War,

important retrograde of Isonzo front

The project purpose

is to

develop tourism in our territory and to enhance the whole area of the Natisone Valleys

Welcome to Tribil di Sopra - Gorenji Tarbij, in the municipality of Stregna

The municipality of Stregna is located between Natisone and Judrio Valleys, at the extremes

of eastern Friuli next to the border between Italy and Slovenia

Here in the village of Tribil Superiore rises Mount Cum

a hundred years ago this peak was heavily

involved in the events of the Great War

It was an important backstage of the second Italian army and an important battlefield in the Battle of Caporetto

At the beginning of the Great War, Mount Cum and the surrounding area

faced the current border between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire

On May 24, 1915

the war begun on the Italian front

the forces of the second Italian army, the brigade Bergamo and the Alpine battalion Aosta were

the first to march over the border into Judrio valley coming down from

mount Cum, next to the ridge that descends towards Castelmonte. The operations

brought the Italian army up to Isonzo river in just 24 hours

From late May 1915

until the Battle of Caporetto (late October 1917)

the area surrounding Mount Cum was area of deployment of the second Italian army

It was during this time

that the Italian army built a considerable number of roads, mule tracks,

entrenchments,

artillery posts, right in the area of Mount Cum, which massif was a fundamental part

of the fourth defensive line, the most rearward defensive line that the Italians

had prepared in the Julian Prealps sector

During the German-Austro offensive, known as the Battle of Caporetto, Mount Cum was the theater

of one of the battles

that characterized the events between 25 and 26 October 1917

In that date two German regiments of the fifth division

attacked Elba brigade who was perched in defense of the mount Cum.

The outcome of the fight was favorable to the Germans. They also succeeded in capturing General Spiller,

commander of the Elba brigade. However, Italian resistance was important to allow the remains

of the second army to retreat

in Cividale area and further back along the Torre basin

The caves located on Mount Cum are part of a station

for four medium-sized artillery pieces, built by the second Italian army in 1916

In practice each of these caves used to host a cannon

facing east.

The caves collapsed, but we can still recognized their function very well

Since 1916 many trenches were built on the south-eastern slope of Mount Cum

by the second Italian army

along the path we can still appreciate

remains of trenches excavated into the rock

the trenches are connected with a cave that used to allow

the soldiers passing from the mule road that climbed the mountain on the western side

to the camp fortifications, in a covered way

The numerous artillery batteries that the Italian army had deployed on Mount Cum were directed by an observatory

situated on the top of the mountain. Still today we can recognize the remains of it. In this place, in August 1917

king of Italy, Vittorio Emanuele III of Savoy climb mount Cum to observe the terrifying

bombardment that the second army was performing against the Austro-Hungarian front of the Bainsizza

It was the preparation of the eleventh Battle of the Isonzo, the so called Battle of the Bainsizza,

also the artillery deployed on Mount Cum took part to this big bombardment

a really big artillery piece was used, a very large British cannon that was sold to the Italian army

by the british army

Along the mule track of pre-war origin that furrows the north-western slope of Mount Cum, the Italian army

organizes an important logistics base for the artillery men and the engineers who were deployed in the sector

in here there are remains of barracks and

deposits capable of providing all the services necessary for the survival of hundreds of soldiers

This is the last

part of the historical hiking ring of Mount Cum that leads towards Tribil Superiore. In about

half an hour walking we can go back to the starting point with all ease

My name is Antonio De Toni and I'm the president of Nedike Doline - Valleys of Natisone association

since 2004 we promote Natisone Valleys in a touristic way

we make hiking tours in the Natisone Valleys

important historical and cultural topics are expounded

such as the First World War, the ancient alpine churches, the Cold War border and others.

Our proposal is therefore directed to a slow tourism, careful and respectful of this place

that's interesting for the proximity of two great cultures; Latin culture and Slavic culture

Those who come to walk with us can touch the richness of this place. About history, here we can talk about the major events

of the twentieth century. It's also possible to overnight in beautiful villages and

last but not least, you cannot fail to get in touch with the local cuisine and the local tradition

The Description of GGN - WW1 - L'anello escursionistico della Grande Guerra sul Monte Cum / Hum