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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Errors Involving Participial Phrases, Part I

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this video should help you see when

there's a problem with participial

phrases that are standing outside your

main clause separated by a comma that is

a problem with what they modify

participial phrases when they are set

off by commas from the main clause

always modify the subject of the main

Clause whether you want them to or not

that's what they do and here are look at

some sentences where that causes some

problems now now these sentences all

have participial phrases that are built

around present participles I have

another video dealing with participial

phrases that are built around past

participles this one will deal with

present participle so I've got two

examples of good participial phrases and

good sentences of at the top here having

one gavel will depart ok now gab or is

the subject and having one is a parcel

new phrase beginning with a present

participle even though it's then

followed by a past participle but it is

this is our primary participle here and

it is correctly modified gavel well how

do I know it's correctly modifying gavel

well a test you can do you can take the

subject if you're this is a test

specifically for seen whether parts of

the phrases are separated by town for

the main Clause are working properly so

and present participle for the phrase is

built around present participle so the

subject is gap or and if we follow that

with the participle turn into a verb

well then we would get gap more has one

so the happy hour present participle

will be just

into the verb and having won the parts

of your phrase becomes this verb phrase

has one so gab or has one and you ask

yourself well does that correctly

express what the author or what I am

trying to say is that part of what I'm

saying that gabba gabba or has one well

right that is what that is what the

speaker's trying to say gap or has one

and having one he will depart okay so

here's another one breathing deeply teka

relaxed so the subject is tech up and

breathing deeply so there's our present

participle we turn that into a verb and

we get breathes deeply so we get tech up

breathes deeply and it's that part of

what we're trying to say in the sentence

and indeed it is so these sentences work

fine so now let's look at this sentence

having worked all night seeing the dawn

was a relief well having worked all

night that is a Parsifal phrase and

indeed it is separated by comma from the

main clause the main clause is seen the

dawn was a relief now taken by

themselves there's nothing wrong with

that parts of your phrase in itself

having worked on line and there's

nothing wrong with that main clause and

self seeing the dorm was relief those

are both fine the problem comes in when

we try to join them together in the way

that they are joined together so our

test here would be what what is the

subject of this main Clause seen the

dawn was a relief wealth the subject is

seeing that all seeing

there is the simple subject I mean

that's really the stuff that is a gerund

obviously not a participle it's

functioning as a noun it's not the

reports of reverb so seeing the dawn is

the subject and what happens if we turn

the participle the present participle

into a verb seeing the dawn well now

having worked all night becomes has

worked now I'm now I'm not going to

bother writing all night though i would

say that to myself if our test is so

what we get here is is seen seeing the

dawn has worked all night well something

has worked all night but it certainly

isn't seeing the dawn it's some person

and whoever it is it was worked on I

isn't even mentioned in this sentence so

this sentence does not work because

there's nothing I mean that well there

is something for this to modify name was

seeing the dog but that doesn't make any

sense the dawn seen the dawn hasn't

worked all night so if you were to

correct this sentence and if you were to

sort of be committed to beginning this

way having worked all night what you

want then is the entity the person who

has worked on so having worked all night

I saw the dawn with relief that that

would be perfectly correct first in the

sentence because then the test would be

I have worked all night which is what

would be met but but here this farcical

phrase does not modify the sentence

correctly now this one sleeping through

his alarm Bella arrived hours late now

this actually in a way is a little bit

of a

sinon intended as a trick but this is

actually another part another kind of

problem because our test would be the

subject with a bail up and if we turn

sleeping through his alarm to sleeps

make it a verb sleeps through his alarm

etc etc bailiffs sleeps through his

alarm well that that works fine so

that's not the problem but there is a

problem here the problem has to do with

time because here we had clearly have

two things that are happening in a

sequence they're not happening

simultaneously so in breathing deeply

techno relaxed while she's relaxing she

is breathing deeply me these things are

happening at the same time similar from

up not by contracts gab or is first

going to win and then he's going to

depart and that showed in similarly here

first there's going to be working all

night and then not seen the dawn but

then I will experience relief or

something like that so first is the

winning and then is the departing so the

lesson here is you will have guessed is

that when the action named by the

partisan feel phrase happens or happened

or will happen before the action named

by the main verb in this case arrived

what you have to do is that you cannot

have a just a present participle like

sleeping you have to have having plus

the past participle so in this case

slept it has to be having slept through

his alarm Bayla arrived hours late so

here the problem was not caused by

sleeping through his alarm the parts of

the phrase modifying the wrong thing

because indeed fell asleep through his

alarm that's that is correct the problem

is is that when if the action name by

the participial phrase is prior to the

action name by the main verb you have to

have having plus past participle you

can't simply have a present participle

like sleeping in this case so that shows

you two different kinds of problems that

you can have when the parts of the

phrase is standing outside the main

Clause one is it's probably the more

common one you're just not modifying the

right thing and that's that's what this

sentence is about and the other is this

this temporal problem when the actions

aren't lined up correctly temporally

because you can't be sleeping through

your alarm and arriving hours late at

the same time you have to say having

slept through his alarm Bella arrived

hours late

The Description of Errors Involving Participial Phrases, Part I