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okay so the most commonly spoken Romance

languages are Spanish Portuguese French

Italian there was one more what was it

Oh Mickey stop that what are you doing

okay anyway so the Romance languages

came from the Roman Empire that the

languages of Rome um what was it again

Oh Mickey Mickey what are you doing give

me that okay anyway so what was it

[Music]

hello everyone welcome to the lange

focused channel and my name is paul

today's topic is the romanian language

or lombardo munna in Romanian as you can

see the word Romanian contains the word

Roman in it why because it developed

from the language of the Romans Latin to

clarify Romanian is a member of the

Romance language family when speaking of

Romance languages Romanian tends to get

overlooked and I'm guilty of that myself

maybe it's because of its geographic

isolation from the other Romance

languages you can see that the other

major Romance languages are all spoken

in western europe but Romanian has

spoken in Eastern Europe and is

separated from the others by the Balkans

and parts of Central Europe Romanian is

part of the eastern Romance branch and

there are other languages of this branch

which are spoken by minorities

throughout southeastern Europe notice

that the names of these languages

contain the word Romanian these

languages are all closely related to

Romanian sometimes the word Romanian is

used to refer to all of these closely

related languages together and some

Eastern Romance speakers consider them

to be dialects of one language the

language of romania and moldova is

sometimes referred to as de co romanian

to distinguish between it and the others

deco Romanian has the largest number of

speakers out of all of those languages

by far and in this video I'm basically

focusing on deco Romanian Romanian is

spoken by around 24 million native

speakers and around 4 million second

language speakers it is the official

language of Romania where it is the

mother tongue of around 93% of the

people or around 18 point 6 million

people as well as the official language

of Moldova where it spoke

by around 2.75 million people in Moldova

the language is referred to as Moldovan

by some people and as Romanian by others

Romanian is somewhat unique amongst the

Romance languages because it developed

in close contact with other languages

mainly the Slavic languages which have

influenced its pronunciation and

vocabulary the closest Romance language

to Romanian is reportedly Italian which

shares about 77% lexical similarity with

Romanian compare that to 82% for Italian

and Spanish or 89% for Italian and

French history the people living in the

area before the arrival of the Romans

were known as the Dacians or duchy in

romanian Daisha was conquered by the

Roman military in 106 C II and the

population adopted the Latin language

very quickly exactly what happened is

not clear

maybe the Dacian people simply adopted

the Latin language of their conquerors

but it's also possible that the area was

flooded with Roman settlers who

intermarried with the local Dacians

there's also the theory that the Dacian

language was already an italic language

closely related to Latin what is clear

is that the area became very latinized

very quickly the Roman Empire withdrew

its military from Dasia in 271 to 272 C

II but left behind a romanized Latin

speaking population the next few

centuries are fairly mysterious but the

local dialects of Latin gradually

evolved and sometime before the ninth

century proto Romanian the ancestor of

Romanian and all the eastern Romance

languages arose there are different

opinions about whether proto Romanian

developed from the vulgar latin spoken

by the romanized asian population or

from a variety of vulgar latin spoken by

people south of the Danube River who

later migrated to the north Slavic

influence notice again that Romanian is

surrounded by mostly Slavic languages

that's because of the migration of

Slavic speakers into the area between

the seventh and ninth centuries CE II

contact with Slavic speakers had an

influence on Eastern Romance

particularly in vocabulary and

pronunciation but also in grammar and

other areas it's thought that many

Slavic speakers adopted the local

Romance dialect but because it was their

second language they spoke it with an

accent and they continued to use certain

Slavic words that felt natural for them

to keep using old Church Slavonic must

have also

an influence on Romanian because it was

the administrative language until the

16th century and the liturgical language

until the 17th century it's hard to know

exactly how Romanian developed during

the Middle Ages because there are no

existing Romanian texts from before the

16th century the earliest Romanian text

is niak shus letter which dates to 1521

it was written with the Cyrillic

alphabet which was used to write

Romanian until the 19th century this is

an obvious result of the Slavic

influence on the language the modern

period it's beyond the scope of this

video to go into detail about the

history of Romania and the governments

that ruled over its different parts

what's important for us to remember is

that despite changing borders and

governments that remained an ethnic and

linguistic group that considered

themselves Romanian with a growing sense

of Romanian national identity efforts to

standardize the Romanian language began

at the 18th century the first Romanian

grammar was published in 1780 in the

1800s Romanian linguists made a

concerted effort to reel Athen eyes the

language and remove Slavic and other

influences from the language and

interestingly in replacing a lot of the

non Romance vocabulary they drew words

not only from Latin but also from

Italian and especially from French when

Romania became an independent country in

1878 its official language became

Romanian its borders changed several

times during the 20th century while

Moldova spent much of the 20th century

under Soviet rule as it gained

independence Moldova made Moldova its

official language the consensus is that

Romanian in Moldova are a single

language just with some regional

variation the standard written language

is exactly the same for both Romanian

and Moldovans so how did this Romance

language survive in this area when most

others didn't survive well nobody really

knows but as I said before the area

known as Dasia became thoroughly

latinized probably more than other areas

in the region so whereas in other areas

the Latin influence faded after the

departure of the Roman Empire in Daisha

that Latin influence did not fade there

are also various theories about the

people fending off invaders better than

others or that the geography of their

land insulated them from being overrun

and assimilated for example some say

that the Carpathian Mountains provided

barrier for attack from the north and

east or provided refuge and strategic

high ground above invaders but again

nobody really knows so what is Romanian

like well since Romanian is a Romance

language that developed from Latin it's

obviously quite similar to French

Spanish Italian and other Romance

languages but it's also been influenced

by other languages particularly the

Slavic languages because of its position

in the Balkans rock boot the Balkans

brach bunte

is an area in which the various

languages have mutually influenced each

other including Romance languages Slavic

languages Greek and Albanian it has also

been influenced by other nearby

languages like Hungarian vocabulary the

majority of Romanian vocabulary is of

Latin and romance origin based on one

study 63 percent of Romanian vocabulary

is romance while 11.5 percent is Slavic

with other vocabulary coming from

Turkish Greek Hungarian and German but

if we focus on the most common 2500

words in Romanian the percentage of

romance vocabulary is around 76% and

Slavic around 15% let's look at some

sentences and examine their vocabulary

who knows

historia Europa farted Billy this means

I know the history of Europe very well

word-for-word it I know history da

Europe's very well all of these words

are romance words who knows means I know

or unfamiliar with and it's like conozco

in Italian or jolkona in French historia

means history and is like storia in

Italian or East wha

in French Europa means European and is

like a arrow pale in Italian or whoo-ho

pea in French for today means very in

Romanian and is related to the word

meaning strong in Italian forte and in

French for so here it means very and

it's not used that way in Italian or

French being it means well like the

Italian word bene and like the French

word beyond another example booms bull

machinae for a problem a lymphatic a sea

this means I washed the car in front of

the house without any problems word for

word it myself I wash cars ah without

problems in face houses the

um means me or myself like me in Italian

or ma in French it's the indirect object

pronoun which is used here because the

verb is reflexive bul means wash in the

first person singular this word

developed from vulgar latin expert

Levada and is like the portuguese word

pet Lavar meaning to wash machine ax

means car and is similar to machina in

italian and like machina in spanish

which means machine or engine further

means without and comes from latin for

us like 40 in Italian which means

outside problema is also a romance word

coming from Latin problema which

ultimately came from ancient Greek blood

means in and comes from Latin and

ultimately goes all the way back to

proto-indo-european phatso means face or

front and comes from vulgar latin

eeeh it's similar to Fatiha in Italian

and fuss in French kasi means house like

Casa in Italian and Casa in Spanish

another example today with oprima is

boiled this means we must stop the war

word-for-word it's must subjunctive stop

war the today blue means have to and is

a Slavic loanword comes from Latin see

and that this sentence indicates the

subjunctive mood opreem mean stop and is

a Slavic long word but as Boyer means

war and is also a Slavic loanword many

commonly used Romanian words are of

Slavic origin a few more examples are

created friend by UB to love up leti to

pay Tracy to wake up a good see to find

so as you can see the majority of

Romanian vocabulary is romance

vocabulary but Slavic vocabulary is also

quite evident word order the word order

of Romanian is very similar to other

Romance languages with one particular

difference that will notice

Kono's historia Europa for table a

conozco la storia delle ropa molto bene

the key words in these sentences are all

in the same order what's different is

that the Romanian sentence has no

standalone definite article or

preposition for of that's because while

other Romance languages no longer have

case

declensions for nouns and adjectives

like latin did romanian does have them

well it has three case declensions for

nouns languages that don't have case

declensions often use prepositions

instead to indicate the same information

in the sentence aerobic is in the

genitive case meaning of Europe or

Europe's the most basic form of the noun

is actually l dopa with an a but the I

at the end is a definite article and the

e indicates genitive case because the

genitive case indicates possession we

don't need a preposition meaning of like

in Italian as for the definite article

in Romanian it comes at the end of the

word and works together with the case

declension in the word estonia the a

shows that the word is definite so we

don't need a definite article before the

word noun cases let's look at a noun in

Romanian and see how it changes form

depending on its case meaning its role

in the sentence the noun is but but

which means man first in the singular

indefinite nominative and accusative

wound but but genitive and dative only

but but definite but bottle but Batali

and in the plural indefinite initiative

bird Bites bone or bird box definite

burbot see but but see Lord here are a

couple of examples of case declensions

in context focusing on the word but but

but bottle a comparator

oma sheena this sentence means the man

bought a car word forwarded man the has

bought a car the form of the word for

the man but a bottle is in the

nominative case because it's the subject

so we use the definite declension for

nominative case that we saw before

another example in blotchy machinable

bodily this sentence means

I like the man's car word for word it

myself or to me like car the man the

possessive the form of the word for the

man is in the genitive case because it's

showing possession so we use the

definite declension for genitive dative

that we saw before the UL coming after

the word but but represents the definite

article if the definite article is

followed by UI that indicates genitive

or dative

but is a masculine noun feminine nouns

and neuter nouns take different case

declensions yes romanian has maintained

neuter gender unlike the other Romance

languages let's look at one more

Romanian sentence together and see what

we notice Dean cows of ramie Pliocene

one booted Majella picnic the sentence

means due to the rainy weather we

couldn't go to the picnic

word for word it's from cause weather

rainy no we have could go to picnic Dean

is a contraction of day plus in which

both come from Latin causa is a romance

word that was borrowed from French cozy

the rain me means weather and is a

Slavic loan word it's a feminine noun

and the base form is very me but in this

sentence it's in the dative case

represented by this ending I plus the

definite article I blow us see means

rainy and comes from Latin Flavio sees

this adjective is also declined to agree

with the singular feminine dative case

now Vera me no means no and comes from

Latin known um is the first-person

plural form of the verb for to have

similar to in other Romance languages

past actions can be expressed by using

the auxiliary verb to have along with

the past participle what do means could

and it's the past participle of a put

there which comes from Latin botella de

so together

um and patoot mean could or were able to

merge it means go and comes from the

Latin Medici a meaning to dip or to

plunge but in Romanian it means to go la

is a preposition meaning to and comes

from the Latin ELAC and picnic means

picnic and comes from the French word

picnic if you speak a Romance language

or if you've ever studied a Romance

language then you'll probably notice a

lot of similarities with Romanian but

you may have to look a little closer to

notice those similarities Romanian

clearly developed in a somewhat

different direction from other Romance

languages and even though it was real a

tonigth it still feels more Slavic in

some ways in the way words are

articulated in the way words are formed

and in some details of the grammar

that's what makes Romanian interesting

and unique amongst the Romance languages

its development in geographic isolation

from the others and its contact with

name

languages so the question of the day for

speakers of Romanian how similar do you

think Romanian is to the other Romance

languages like Italian and for speakers

of other Romance languages how similar

or different do you think Romanian is

from your language and what stands out

to you as the biggest difference let us

know in the comments down below be sure

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nice day

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The Description of Romanian: The Forgotten Romance Language