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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Literary Theory 3, Structuralism, Semiology, English Literature UGC NET/JRF, MA/BA

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hello and welcome to miracle I'm Vika

siddhappa Shima and this session is

dedicated to the discussion of literary

theories and we've already done two

videos this is the third in the series

and the previous two videos were on new

criticism and new critics formalism

let's start with structures okay is

structures you know what I already told

you that form is the only content of the

text and when you have a form you have a

structure so this particular study is

devoted to structuralism now do you

understand a language how do you

perceive this world isn't it very

complex you have men for each and every

object in this world you have names for

each and every human being you even have

names for your pets you have names for

the birds you have name for the animals

every little or big things they have

names what are these names these names

are the science with which we recognize

them and these sites they have symbols

to denote and these symbols or signings

they are understood in a larger

structure you know if you named palette

palette the largest structure is but

then a larger structure is living being

living things

so all this rule and our and individual

thing it is related to a bigger

structure and these structures are

already thin embedded in a brain you

know what while growing up we learn

these things this larger structures


we study the formation complete form of

the Society of along the language we

learn the ways and the customs in which

we have wrapped in so suppose and the

hick made also they are so stubborn that

they cannot be changed easily

suppose if if a person comes and says

that his name is Jacob or hand or a girl

says it's and the name is chuckling so

what will you understand what will you

did use these names are they are

Christian names and you think that the

person is from the Christian community


unless you don't know the Sonny so

suppose what happens if if you know if

you come to know that it is Jacob Varma

or Jacqueline Sharma what will change

say okay they have Hindu surnames that

means they must be coming from the Hindu

society or community so are we being

again you will see why this first name

is Christian type so you would imagine

again your thinking will go back okay

they might be from some in the religion

marriage or so but then the structures

are always there the linguist or the

structuralist you should say ferdinand

de saussure

and the anthropologist like Claude

lévi-strauss and even robots these

people have all worked and given us the

explanation of language structures you

know language is also a complete body of

science and structures we learn language

how by the structures only a a b c d and

if you combine CA T then the structure

you will the children are always taught

from those books

where the photographs pictures of the

meanings are there so all the languages

have got a particular script like in

Hindi we have got they've not escaped

and English we have wrong script even

French German and Spanish they are

written in German script it's easy to

learn these language because the scripts

are same but then Mandarin spoken by the

Chinese people it doesn't have any

script it is directly communicated in

the form of symbols transcription when

we do the transcription in English we

have different symbols for each alphabet

for the Esalen songs and the consonant

sums so in China you don't have that so

every sign has got two things one is the

signifier and the signified what is

signified meaning what is signifier the

symbol and this science of science is

called semiology if you have suppose if

you're talking about a house house is

the complete symbol sign what is

signified the meaning meaning means we

live in a house something where we live

someplace some structure where we live

and what is a signifier H owe us e that

is house that way we understand a

particular word the sign which has got

the signified and the quad signifier

let's understand some terms related to

structuralism lately life and parole

lang Lang is the complete system of a

language complete system of language

that means it has everything every word

ever spoken or written or even thought

comes in

amudha sparrow patroller is that

individuals language individual any

person who speaks or right from the same

big structure that is for parole lang is

a bigger structure and this is a smaller

structure another way we can say lag is

what people think and parole is what

people write and speak the other terms

are competence and performance

confidence means a person has a

competence of writing writing listening

speaking hearing competence again is a

bigger structure a person has lot of

competence but the performance is always

less than the competence performance

would he performs in read in speaking

and writing

he may know much inside his mind but

then he would not be able to speak or to

write everything he knows you know there

are times when we think of any sequence

afterwards and then we regulate oh we

could have said this and done this and

all so the remaining capacity is always

more than the reading too pastor

speaking capacity so this way the

competence is more and the performance

is less so again structuralist worked in

the science and the semiology the

science and various aspects of

linguistics so here we are talking about

the structures which we are this time

you know the whenever we get a text so

breeder you read those words we read the

description of community and we have

mind goes back and try to understand

with whatever we already know we just

set in our mind it's all psycho all lot

process you know what you have the

science of psycholinguistics also in

this child when he learned starts

learning by seeing pictures and by

pronouncing the symbols for the songs by

saying Papa mama all these things so it

is already there and he's shown certain

things need this is their services

listen know when he grows up and reads a

text he has so many images already in

his mind and what he does is he tries to

bring those structures and understand

those symbols with the structures

already present you know what this kind

of thing will come again and again with

explaining you the literary theory

because it is too much attached to the

formation of the images in the brain in

a language these signs are also governed

by another system of who and codes which

is called grammar now this gram

according to the rules of the grammar

also you understand so it is again if

the grammar is already set in the brain

there are times when we will learn this

language that it children when they are

born as a mother tongue suppose if we

learn English along with a mother tongue

it read rust fit very nicely and

completely but if a person close to him

to a certain age and then he starts

learning it not just as a second

language but as a foreign language or

say he doesn't know a word and then he

starts abrupt later learning it would be

very difficult for him to learn because

all the grammatical structures of his

mother tongue are already there in the

brain and to take in new structures of

grammar is very difficult that's why

people find it very difficult to learn

any language at after a certain age I

tried to learn Spanish but I could

cutlery or certain phrases of very small

sentences I could not get what the

fluency at all and it's really very very

difficult so I have this regret that why

did I learn these foreign languages at

an early States

so all those the young learners please

do go and try to take learn some extra

languages foreign so in short we can say

structuralism is that the whole system

of language is governed or ruled by

science and those signs are understood

in a larger structure and if this these

structures are shared by the people of

the same community they govern our

thoughts and the basic thinking

therefore while reading a text the

people of the same type may deduce the

same kind of meaning but then that is

not sufficient to know so we require

another theory which is called or

structuralism post-structuralism will be

discussed with modernism and

post-modernism because post-modernism

deconstruction post structuralism they

are all saying they overlap each other

and there or they are all from the

modern literary theory so we finished up

our discussion of today here and in the

next we will be discussing modernism and

post-modernism do not forget to

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watching this video and till next take



The Description of Literary Theory 3, Structuralism, Semiology, English Literature UGC NET/JRF, MA/BA