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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Gaby Lawson Teaching HOT (Higher Order Thinking) Reading skills October 2019

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time will put this recording teaching

for 20 years having completed her Selter

and diploma in education and then after

working as a supply teacher in the UK

for five years she taught TEFL in Canada

the UK and Italy she started out her

career as a history teacher but then as

she says quickly fell in love with a

fascinating problem of teaching and

learning languages during her time in

the UK she taught in many summer schools

and later became a director of studies

of a language school in Bristol for a

few years she's been working at Monash

College in Melbourne in Australia since

2008 and during this time has been an

IELTS examiner I'll teach her EAP

teacher assessment writer curriculum

developer and most recently teacher

developer she loves teaching English

currently has an enthusiasm for growth

mindset and cognitive load theory and

the best part of the job she says is

helping both the students and the

teachers to get the best out of


so that's great so over to you Gabi

thank you hello hello well thank you so

much for showing an interest in reading

skills I think reading skills is an area

where could do with some development in

EAP so it's great that you have made the

effort to tune in today umm so this talk

is going to be about teaching reading

skills with two strategies the first one

is at my own adaptation

point evidence an example known as PE

and the second one which we'll look at

in the second half of the talk is KWL

which is what I know what I want to know

and what I learned comebacks

okay nothing well later so I think it's

important when we think about teaching

reading that we try and go beyond

comprehension questions in our reading

lessons and in fact

in Peter Watkins recent teaching and

developing reading skills book he says

that the material is designed to promote

reading tend to be dominated by question

types that test factual comprehension

focusing on finding explicit information

and the correct response which is of

course a focus on not a focus on process

but a focus on product and then he goes

on to say that comprehension questions

have a place but they don't in and of

themselves teach reading and I think

that agrees with what Leckie was writing

back in 1993 in fact Becky said that

sometimes Singh tests as linguistic

artifacts can even engender poor reading

skills so reading lessons need to

promote authentic responses I think

before people rave during and after

reading so that's why it's useful to

know strategies like PE and KWL EAP

generally has a cognitive approach to

reading so most of our syllabus and

textbooks tend to look at skimming and

scanning looking for the main idea just

guessing meaningful context many of

these are testable and so they were

incorporated into the IELTS test and

it's just important to remember that

there is a difference between teaching

reading and testing reading and as

someone who taught oils for many years I

think it is if students are doing

preparing for IELTS or PTA is really

important that we prepare them for the

tests but when we're teaching EAP we're

trying to teach a much broader set of

skills particularly if we're doing

precessional undergraduate and

postgraduate bridging courses so we have

to bear in mind that teaching and

testing reading are not exactly the same


looking for the main ideas is what

heading matching questions are

traditionally based on so in order to

help students with heading matching

questions you actually have to think

about what is summarizing so it's

important when we're looking at what is

summarizing that way that a reader can

recall and understand the main points of

a text so you should be able to sequence

text and retailer text in their own

words and at the point where you're

retelling a text in your own words is

the point where you're moving into more

of a high order thinking skill rather

than just with comprehension questions

locating details in a text and when you

can sum up the most important ideas

you're making some sort of analysis

again it's more of a higher-order skill

so I think the West students can find

main ideas efficiently

I think students will find critical

thinking in L to challenging so these

strategies are going to help students to

find the the main ideas efficiently

which gives them more sort of space on

the hard drive if you like for being

able to express creep or ideas right so

let's look at what evidence in sample is

and so we've got the I've made it into a

hamburger so it's a sort of friendly

friendly kind of format and then maybe

it helps students younger students to to

sort of understand that paragraph is

made up of different parts we've got the

the point which you can also call the

main idea the topic sentence it doesn't

really matter what you call it as long

as you're consistent otherwise

tend to get a bit confused in courses so

you know if you're going to call it

someone I observed today was doing me ma

instead of point I guess they didn't

want to confuse students so point P made

some people use topic sentence T it

doesn't really matter but we've got

point evidence an explanation or example

so you're getting the students to see

that you can often divide paragraphs

into these three different parts so

let's see how that works with a

paragraph now this paragraph I took from

Healthline calm it's a nutrition

magazine so I adapted it I've simplified

some of the vocabulary because I think

if you teaching students who are is 4.5

or IELTS 55.5 and you're trying to teach

them something like paragraph structure

I think you vocabulary is challenging

they'll get distracted and they'll start

trying to look everything up in the

dictionaries and then they might not the

teaching point might get a bit lost so I

think it's really important to either

work with a topic that you've used

before so that your recycling vocabulary

or a text that's not too linguistically

difficult for the purposes of teaching

structure so we can see we've got the

yellow is the P if you eat too much

added sugar it will have a negative

impact on your brain health and this bit

you're at the risk of diseases is

actually the link from the previous

paragraph and then we've got the e which

is in this case the evidence because

we've got research research has shown

that the diet with lots of sugar results

in a bad memory smaller brain volume

specifically in the part of the brain

that is your working memory also known

as the short term memory so that's the

evidence and then the example is very

easy for the students to find because it

says for example right ah so yes you can

start with something simple and if you

actually look at the original text that

I took this from the the authentic text

is all structured as as PE a

it is quite a common way to structure

things and in fact it's taught in

secondary schools as a writing tool but

it I've adapted it as a reading tool

because I think for students who want to

fight to make a summary they need

something very clear and very simple

like a sort of framework that they can

work with so here i've i've put the PE

into what we call a graphic organizer

you don't have to put it into a graphic

organizer you could just get students to

highlight paragraph in groups or

individually if you are lucky enough to

have laptops or devices they can do it

on Google Docs in groups or as

individuals or you can get them to fill

in a table so if you are going to use a

table and you're using color I would

recommend that you stick to the same

colors so that the P or the T is always

yellow the evidence and explanation is

always green and the example is always

blue because for visual people that can

be very confusing if you change the

colors so yes so you get the students to

write in the boxes and that's very easy

outcome for you to measure if they're

doing it on a piece of paper you can

walk around the classroom and see that

they can find that if it's on a duck on

a laptop or a Google Doc again it's

easier for you to measure now um yeah I

think before learners that a four point

five to five point five because it's a

super simple P is super simple it

reduces the cognitive load because what

you really want them to do is to be able

to distinguish between what is the point

and what is everything else so between

office of four point five to five point

five will be one that's all you're

looking for you just want them to be

able to find the point if they can get

into a sort of heated discussion about

whether it's evidence or explanation

then you can sort of measure that

outcome and say I'm great they're really

understood because they're now thinking

oh is this evidence

Oshin so they've understood it for the

purposes for your purpose which is

either to scale towards writing a

summary or to right heading to do

heading matching questions now if you

happen to be teaching a postgraduate

bridging course processional course or

undergraduate you may prefer to use um

teal which is the topic sentence

evidence and explanation example and

then the link because obviously when you

simplify things you lose a bit of the

complexity and if you're dealing with

peer-reviewed material that might not

work so well and so for sort of iOS 6

and above you might like something a bit

more complex a lot of teachers where I

work they quite like to put another

column to the right with sources so if

students are doing a pre session or

bridging course and they have to find

they have to fill in the boxes then they

also have to fill in in the green

section or the blue section they have to

fill in the sources as well and again

it's very easy to measure walking around

or on a laptop ok so let's look at and

see how we would use this to teach we'll

go back from precessional bridging

courses back to teaching or as with our

courses it might be that you you need to

prepare your students for their AP

reading tester heading matchings are

very popular they're very practical easy

to mark so they're used a lot so the way

I think he's best to do it is you've got

a paragraph like this one so this one is

about housing everyone has a stake in

housing including those with

disabilities those who are elderly or

can't walk that's the background bit

with the number of new communities and

housing developments big planning in

Britain councils developers and builders

should consider accessibility as a

fundamental design principle ok it's

clear that the lack of accessibility in

new houses not only has a negative

impact on personal independence you can

have a knock-on of negative affective

Social Inclusion employment maintaining

good physical and mental health as such

accessibility needs should be taken into

account when houses are being built so

in my mind maybe I the whole week's

topic was on housing and buildings I

wouldn't just bring a random topic in

and then I've written some called

distractors there's one answer that's

correct and the rest of distractors and

I would give maybe students in pairs

like they have this and they need to to

choose the heading that they think well

first of all they need to put the PE

mark it up for PE and then when they've

decided what the P is so they've marked

up the p e we've got a bit of background

then they have to look at each one of

these distractors and decide whether or

not it matches the yellow part that

they've identified and and even doesn't

then they know by process of elimination

that's probably not the answer because

obviously we're heading matching the

problem is not just that they have to

summarize I mean that's basically what

they have to do is the first step but

they didn't have to choose a paraphrase

so heading matching is also about

paraphrase which is an extra degree of

difficulty just students who don't have

a lot of depth of vocabulary right so

then they the students can choose we

challenge so they think it is and then

compare with their partner see if they

got the same answers or not do some peer

checking and then because I'm not aiming

to have this take any more than ten

minutes out of my lesson because I've

got a packed syllabus to teach I would

probably put my own answer up on the

board and then I would get them to all

that why each one is wrong like for

example everyone a stakeholder that's

background the answer is number two and

then social inclusion are important the

words are all in the text but it's not

actually the answer houses should be

designed by councils again it doesn't

say that in the actual text have you

read it

the words are there and then number five

is just a mismatched mishmash of

vocabulary from the text so so yes so

it's good that in students do this

little and often however of course I'm

probably thinking but all paragraphs are

not that simple

so but I still think once you've given

students a strategy especially students

that are weak at reading it's it's still

gonna help them with a paragraph like

this which is quite challenging so yeah

I was getting on so so if we look at the

this one actually comes from a lot of

Cambridge is books Cambridge academic

English it's the upper intermediate book

and you can see that the it's mainly

evidence of explanation sorry and then

just a couple of a little bit of point

of point or topic sentence I think what

you do because some IELTS paragraphs or

aap are quite difficult like this one is

you slowly increase the degree of

difficulty so you're doing maybe one or

two paragraphs in class every day spend

at 10 or 15 minutes just helping

students to automate is that process of

identifying the point the evidence the

example deciding what the point is

looking at the paraphrases and getting

more and more and more confident with it

and you slowly make the paragraphs more

and more a more difficult until they can

manage much harder stuff and it's not

just for IELTS I believe the PTA exam

students also have to summarize a

written text 300 words in one sentence

and they have ten minutes to do that

they don't have to choose the paraphrase

but they still need to use the strategy

like PE in order to particularly if

they're not confident readers to help

them try and identify what the the point

is so that they can paraphrase that

point and I think it's really important

if you are training students for high

stakes exams to remember that automata


is really important to be able to

perform under test conditions if that's

not something you've done lots and lots

and lots once you get into a stressful

situation it will all fall apart so it's

it's good to train a little and often so

you can write your own heading many

matching distractors for your students

but or you can get them to write their

and for themselves but that is quite I'm

not aiming for this to take up a lot of

the lesson we go back to simple

paragraphs it's not difficult to write

different move on to KWL tables because

I realized I miss ER running out so I

think with PA and awareness of how texts

are organized is a really important part

of a reader's ability to comprehend it

and in PE is a super simple way of

introducing that I think if we're

talking about training students for

things like heading matching or PTA I

think little and often is the key to

helping them build their summarizing

skills and I think also graphic

organizers will help learners and color

as well to make sense of operating so

it's good to have a range of strategies

okay so let's move on to look at KWL

because there is actually connection now

higher-order thinking skills are really

important they should be embedded in the

process of English language teaching and

learning so obviously if we think about

those comprehension questions um where's

not so much higher order thinking

involved in locating details but at the

point where you're retailing your text

and then you're analyzing it you get

higher order thinking skills coming out

in the task so empirical evidence

suggests that teaching critical thinking

skills has a positive impact on learning

and so this is blooms revised taxonomy

so you can see that level 1 remembering

we've got memorise recall repeat and

with KWL I hope to sort of move up to

yet a point so this is dr. John lengua

an Australian expert on teaching and

learning so he says to learn the surrey

C critical creative and curious thinking

students need to develop essential

mental attitudes and mindsets that are

used in these types of thinking thinking

by ourselves is hard mental work so we

need to develop some positive attitudes

so I think yes because it's hard work

that's why I think these things like KWL

or Pease is helpful I've looked at a few

studies on KWL tables and a lot of the

peer-reviewed research suggests that

they work quite well so just from IG KWL

is what I know what I want to know and

what I learned okay so it's really

important that students when they read

in academic texts they ask themselves

why am i reading this text and what do I

want to know especially if they're doing

research for precessional bridging

course and if we go back to Leki's work

she says you know you need to that

separation between reading and writing

is quite artificial so students need to

do something with what they've read make

a great presentation

minimal minimum we have a discussion

maybe reflect on it using an app like

flipgrid if you familiar with it it's

quite handy to use or maybe write using

their summary to write a reflection so

an example would be like first-year

University textbooks often have revision

questions at the end of every section so

this is content books so we're talking

about business your communication and so

if you're teaching your undergraduate

precessional students how to read a

subject textbook you can look at

revision questions and you can put those

into what do I want to know and your KWL

table so this is your KWL table we've

got if you look at the top we've got the

review question which is business

courses business English courses

identify what's involved in managing

your downsized workplace and then we've

got the table with what do I know

so it's listening from the students own

knowledge what do I know about

downsizing people is their jobs

I think it's expensive to hire people in

Australia what do I want to know well I

what I want to know is the review

question for the chapter which is

identify what is involved in managing

the downsized workplace and then

students of reading with a purpose you

can get students to write research

questions when you're using in AP

textbooks but I find that unless you've

embedded that in the larger task that

has a an ultimate purpose it doesn't

work so well so you might have something

like this where you've got your KWL

table and then you've got your

undergraduate business text so you can

see managing the downsides workplace and

then there's a table with examples of

examples of the striking companies and

then hit the paragraph at the bottom

I've made a big one right so I'm gonna

bring back P and I show you how to

combine KWL and P so the first paragraph

from that business text book manage your

communication textbook you can see the

yellow is the P and then there's some E

and then a bit of explanation and then

it goes back into an example again so

the students gonna use the PE to find

the P and you're gonna put the P into

what I have learned all right so what do

I know they write what they know what do

I want to know they write their research

question and then what I have learned is

they write the main idea so they have to

they're thinking about how to managers

manage a downsized so this is a bit of

background so they're not going to

necessarily need that to answer the

review question right doesn't answer the

research question so again P is in

yellow and then we've got example and

explanation so again the what they've

learned doesn't answer their research

question but this one identify what is

involved in managing it asks has

workplace this one answers the research

question the answer is open and honest

communication is critical managers who

have been through downsizing efforts

point out the importance of

communicating openly and as soon as

information is available so the students

going to take that point and they're

going to put it in their KWL type of a

piece so okay in the zone handwriting

many companies get rid of stuff when

they want to cut costs and then this

view question and then here open a nice

communication is essential that's the

point from the paragraph and then the

two following paragraphs that's the

yellow point so now they've got a

summary that actually answers their

research question so it's very good if

they have to write a research report

question works quite well with that so

you want them to find you've got fiber

but a journal article or five journal

articles and they have to use it to

support that then what you do is you

tell them to put the original text away

and they're going to write their summary

from one to three in their table and

they're not going to look at the

original text it's almost time to finish

up so I'll just go back through the main

points which is I think using like point

evidence explanation example is a way of

breaking down the paragraph and it's

useful like the simplest one is very

useful for sort of IELTS four point five

I think P can help students with

attempting heading matching questions

and PT a because it helps you to teach

them how to separate the difference

between main ideas and detail it gives

them a strategy a basic strategy and I

think if you practice that strategy a

little and often using pair work they

build up automatisation when preparing

for I stats exam so they can do it under

pressure even with more difficult

vocabulary I think for postgraduate and

undergraduate bridging courses KWL

tables our useful strategy to teach

students how to read for purpose and

that's your higher order thinking skill

is that you're ready for a purpose and

then you're summarizing that and then

you can do something with it you can

make a presentation you can write a

response you can reflect and it works

quite well you just want to train

undergraduates how to read the

university textbooks effectively which

is a really important trading skill for


undergraduate I think and I think you

can actually combine P and K double well

so that when the students you want them

to fill the KWL table

in order to get them to fill in the L

the PE will support that especially if

they're particularly weak because I

think it's really important that you

know when students were coming out of a

reading lesson um there's you know what

did that what could they do by the end

of the reading class that they couldn't

do at the beginning and to come back to

my earlier point about the difference

between teaching reading and testing

reading is that you ask yourself that

question what could they do at the end

of the lesson they couldn't do it the

beam and if you can say well I taught

them to identify like PE or they learn

how to use a cane WL table you can feel

like there was a value added there so I

think it you can make your teaching

practice more effective by using P or

KWL you can google any of the similar

ones tea or peel and I think if you use

them together with a more authentic aap

task design critical thinking and

reading outcomes will improve and

there's more scope for creativity so

thank you for your time I think that's

taken us to half an hour um I have

references here if anyone is interested

in where I got some of my Thank You Gabi

thank you thank you very much for that

and somebody asked the question which I

was gonna I was going to actually ask

you could you could you flick back to

the PE slide to write the bidding just

in case where people Johnny I might not

have seen it and somebody made that

point what was his piece if you joined

late and it looks like that in hamburger

form but it looks like that in paragraph

form so the P is the point

or the main idea or the topic sentence

and that's yellow this particular

paragraph the evidence or the

explanation is the green part and then

the example is the blue part it's it's

traditionally used or has been used

quite a lot as a frame to teach

secondary students have a right and

again you know that connection between

reading and writing that like he talks

about but you can like for example this

paragraph that came from health line a

lot of paragraphs do actually break into

PE many don't you have to kind of be

confident with PE but it's a good it's a

really good starting point for students

who who do we struggle with finding the

main idea

okay that's great so could you go back

to the references that the last light as

well as somebody's asked that and while

you're doing that you did mention there

was was it a conversation app was it

Flik group or something that you

ventured sleep sleep Creed flick grid

okay Flickr great it's a really good app

for videos of themselves doing

reflections written in there yeah great

thing okay yeah in the questions box

sorry good yeah it's really it's really

user friendly and it has an actual

rubric like worked into the function so

you can you can put your feedback into

the the rubric in the the grid and I

think the best thing about it is it all

the videos are sort of within the app so

they're not available on the internet I

think they're contained within the app

but anyway it's very user friendly if

you need to get students to like you

want your class to reflect on something

they've read in the lesson and you want

them to video themselves talking for two

minutes reflecting on might be way

quicker someone with the sugar paragraph

and memory reflecting on whether they

add a lot of sugar doesn't affect their

own memory yeah so it's quite a useful

and they can do it on

great stuff if you have any questions

anybody please do put them in now see

people are raising lots of different

points which is good first question that

I had in during the webinar is can the

PAE model be applied to different types

of reading and different types of

reading or you mean I think it was with

I should have said expository texts yeah

I'm not sure okay and could you

recommend to first students who have

difficulty with the vocab early when

they're reading do you have any

strategies for there I think you meant

going to their dictionaries a lot anyone

that has a bit of an issue with you know

slowing them down because they don't

disturb the vocabulary yeah well I mean

I think that's a huge issue because I

think you know about threshold reading

threshold I think nation estimates that

students need about three thousand or

three thousand seven hundred and fifty

word vocabulary to start engaging with

texts and then they're below that

they're going to find reading expository

texts like the ones I showed difficult I

mean I find that if I have to do it I

would for the purposes of explaining the

PE or the teal I would make sure that I

took all of the difficult vocabulary out

of that particular test but if I want to

teach students to to improve their

vocabulary I do find online dictionaries

and chunking very useful so students

really need to have a systematic way of

recording chunks of vocabulary some

students use notebooks our students seem

to love using Quizlet I don't know if

people are familiar with Quizlet um it's

an another app that's very popular where

I work

so but yeah it is it's going to be for

any student that has a vocabulary of

below about 3700 words they really need

to work on their vocabulary and not just

individual words

chunks of language and using our an

online dictionary but I think if the

purposes if you've got like a level or

you put like a be one sort of class yes

think very carefully about which text

you used to model don't might lead into

the next question as well says how do

you initiate reading skills into sort of

with with um let's say unmotivated

students how do you how do you motivate

the students with the reading because

this is always a motivational question

always pops up yes so that's an

excellent question and I mean obviously

I think what like he's saying about

reading and writing students need to

have a purpose for reading often if it's

just to answer questions in a textbook

they're not going to be very interested

so they have to do something with it

like they have to retell it to their

partner or they have to talk talk about

in a group I mean I know that you often

don't have control over the topic but if

you can control the topic I find what

you said earlier you know I have an

interesting growth mindset I just find

things that students can talk about like

growth mindset you know which is about

some being afraid to take risks or just

a topic like that or power of positive

thinking that they can easily

personalize so they read something and

then it's a theory marshmallow test is

another example a theory that they can

personalize they can talk about

themselves their lives then I think

they'll be a bit more motivated to read

it especially if they know they have to

do something with it so task design

having an ultimate purpose can help if

it's heading if they're not motivated

about doing heading matching questions

gamify it so you know like they've got

the paragraph and the choices and you

put them in teams and the teams have to

choose the correct answer and then you

guys get points you know so you could do

it like that if it's exam preparation

if you're teaching English academic


try and make it into a holistic kind of

task and especially if they can then

using an app like

flipgrid to you know do the final part

they might find that a little bit more

interesting hmm another question how can

you how can you evaluate the students

using these models very effectively to

know if they're improving I guess um

improving well I said I usually measured

that outcome by walking around seeing

you I give them a paragraph they can

highlight or they can locate the the

main idea individually or as a team or

if I put something in boxes if they

filled in the box I know they can

identify the main idea that's usually

how I evaluate whether or not if I give

them a paragraph they can find the main

idea quickly is that the question how do

I evaluate it I mean you can if you're

asking me how you would test that how

you test main ideas I think you if it's

a formal test people use heading

matching questions but I think for just

in the classroom just giving them a text

and asking them individually to

underline the main idea of each

paragraph would be very simple way of

doing it okay another question here how

do you teach hot reading skills to

students with different levels I think

you mentioned the other one was maybe

better for the higher level students and

that PE you know you could use it with

everybody but I guess well I mean you

can use kW LPP within any level above

about sort of IELTS four point five

because the difficulty is not the PE the

difficulty is text they're using so it

really depends on which text you use so

I just remind me what the question was


it says have a question how hot reading

skills to students with different levels

was in the same class it could be yeah

it could be it doesn't say but would you

yeah I mean that's a common a common

issue like having different levels in

the same class I mean I if I've got

different levels in the same class I

always try and build like extension into

the task so for example I'll have like a

minimum level that I want most of the

class to have achieved I'll have a very

simple first part so for example I've

got like some strong readers and some

weakly readers and I want them to use PE

the weak ones I might get them all I

want them to do that listen is to

highlight that point the evidence in the

example in a paragraph and if they can

do that I'm really happy with the

stronger readers I might that paragraph

might be the second paragraph out of a

whole text I might want them to go on

have done for four of the paragraphs and

in the really strong ones I might want

them to have actually taken those points

out and started writing a summary so I

think it's okay to have different

students working on the same task but

maybe not necessarily everybody being on

the same part of it at the same time

certainly it was yeah sorry thank you

so just want to squeeze in as many

there's lots of questions here just in

the back how many hours should a student

deal with reading so they won't get

bored or overwhelmed in class I suppose

that's just hammer home much do you

dedicate to reading obviously that's one

thing I'm I came to the conclusion of

detention for many IELTS courses for

many years is that having students doing

a lot of text reading in class doesn't

really help like they they have read a

really long text it takes sort of 25

minutes of class time but because and

then they do that to fall start giving

questions or the heading mention

questions and then they get half of the

rock and then you spend like 30 minutes

going through why each one of them is

wrong and I don't know

they'd actually learned anything in the

end so that's why I started doing micro

reading tasks where I would just like I

would write ten true/false not giving

questions for three sentences or I would

have like one parent two students have

one paragraph each and they have to find

the main idea of that paragraph it's

fine if what's simple are different

about their paragraphs and you know

choose the correct heading like very

quick that really short activities that

really get right to the point of what

they're doing with exam preparation so I

don't think reading I think reading a

really long text in the in the classroom

without a kind of clear learning outcome

it can use a lot of class time okay I

think we've got time for one final one

do teachers need to provide extensive

reading materials to support the course

book to teach higher-order thinking can

you recommend some materials I suppose

this is where do you source your you're

reading from yeah I mean look I haven't

done a lot of research myself on

extensive reading I mainly do this is

really about intensive reading I mean I

think a lot of research since that

extensive reading is highly beneficial

and certainly graded readers are quite

popular where I work but I mean if I

have to source materials for my class it

really will depend on their destination

course so if they're going into

undergraduate business I'll go and get a

managerial communication textbook if

they're doing you know like IT I'll go

and find a peer-reviewed article or a

matter like an article on web design for

them to read you know it's I try and

find things that um because I think the

vocabulary and the type of structural

language especially when you're getting

up to postgraduate students really is

really quite specific so I try and

source it from the destination course


bridging students okay I think that's

all we've got time for

I'd just like to thank everybody for


thank you very much we've got a number

of people still still on the line and I

don't know if you want to say anything

Gabby um I just like to really thank

everybody for taking half an hour out of

their busy day to listen to a webinar

about reading skills I think reading

skills are really important and it's

great that everybody was interested

thank you lovely and thank you Gabby

thank you very much indeed so just


The Description of Gaby Lawson Teaching HOT (Higher Order Thinking) Reading skills October 2019