Practice English Speaking&Listening with: How Does a Website Work?

Difficulty: 0

Okay. In this video, I'm going to show you how a website,

specifically a web server, works.

This is picking up where we left off in my last video on

"How Does the Internet Work?". In that video, I showed you

the high-level concept of how a website works.

We left off at the section here where the HTTP request goes into the web server

and gives you back the website.

So, what is actually happening right there with that web server?

The question we're going to answer is: what happens with this HTTP

request that's coming in? HTTP stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

and it's the protocol used to basically communicate

the web back and forth. Like I said in the last video, there's also HTTPS, which is just

a secured version of that protocol.

So when that request comes in, it's going to be coming into a web server.

And so, I would say the very basics of

what we need for this web server to work is a server.

At the very bottom level here, we have our server.

Our server is comprised of normal hardware that you would find in your

everyday computer,

except it's going to be higher grade and ready to handle higher traffic than what your

normal computer would be.

Now on top of that server, there's going to be an operating system

or an OS, for short. Now there are several different types of operating systems

that could be on this server.

It could be running a version of Windows

or, more likely, it's running a version of Linux.

Now there's different variations of Windows and Linux that could be running the web server.

You could be running something like Red Hat or CentOS

or Ubuntu for Linux. Different common

things, but most likely it's going to be running Linux. That's what I would say

is the backbone of the Internet.

Now on top of the operating system, there's going to be a web service.

The web service is what communicates with the operating system.

The operating system is what communicates with the server.

The web service is going to be something on a Windows server.

It would most likely be IIS, which is

Internet Information Systems,

or on Linux, most likely-

or on Linux, most likely Apache.

These are web services that run on these operating systems,

so that we can continue on with building our web server.

Now on top of the web service, there's going to be a coding language.

For coding languages, this could be

something as simple--- basically,

ultimately, our goal is to get to HTML coding.

Our coding language could just be HTML,

which in that case,

on our web server we would have an index.HTML file.

When the HTTP request comes in,

it would grab this file and send it back

through the internet back to your computer.

But more modern-day websites don't run just pure HTML,

there's another coding language that's going to build

the site dynamically to output an HTML file that it'll send back to you.

And so the coding languages that I'm speaking of here would be something like

PHP, Perl, ASP, C, C#...

The list goes on of possible coding languages

that would be- that'll work-

that'll actually run on the server and output this HTML file

that you actually see on the website.

Another layer on top of this coding language

could be a content management system, or CMS for short.

You probably will recognize the term Worpress.

There are other control management systerms,

[but] Wordpress is one of the most popular.

What Wordpress does is, it creates a graphical interface

for you to create and edit your website without having to know one of these coding languages.

So Wordpress and others' content management tools are

powerful because they let you create dynamic looking sites

without having to know coding languages. Now, Wordpress is built on PHP.

Let's go ahead and make the connection there.

Wordpress also uses another technology called a database

and so, on this server, you may also have a database.

We'll say DB for short.

Wordpress is going to require a database in order to function.

Now you could write your own website code without needing a database, but most likely an advanced

website or anything that has, like, products or a vast amount of

information is going to need

a central database so that your code has a central place

to talk to and has a place to get information from.

So in this case,

after we get through all these layers, the content management system

will produce our output

or our HTML code.

So the request will come into the server and we will

send it back the final rendered HTML code page.

Now this output in HTML code... it could also contain-

Let's just say this output is going to contain

HTML code; it could also contain JavaScript,


and possibly some other

client-side coding languages.

Here we had a coding language and here we have

client-side languages. The difference is these languages:

you as a person browsing the internet

would never experience these languages; you're never going to see this code.

These are the codes that are sent back to you

and so things HTML is what your browser reads. JavaScript, your browser reads.

Some more advanced JavaScript actually requires you to download the Java

application, which you may have on your computer.

CSS is what gives it the visual graphics and colors and stuff like that.

And so these languages are actually sent back-

as in our previous video-

are sent back through the internet to your web browser

so that you can actually get content displayed on your web browser.

If you want to know more about any one of these parts of a web server,

leave a comment either in the comments below or go to my website at

There's a forum there. You can ask a question about any of these languages.

Some of them I'm more familiar with than others, but

I'd be happy to at least help point you in the right direction if you need help

with one of them or if you just have more questions.

Let me know if you're interested. Maybe I'll make some more videos

on some of these different concepts. I am definitely working on a HTML

video, so as to teach some of the basics about HTML code, since it is

something you will encounter on the web. Whether you're programming

server-side applications or whether you're building a website in Wordpress,

you will need to know HTML code.

That's my video on the basics of how a website,

specifically web server, works. Thank you for watching.

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