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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: 20. Punctuation Basics. Restrictive and Non-Restrictive.

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the Kama is undoubtedly the punctuation

mark that gives people the most trouble

so I want to try to clear things up here

first thing to understand about the

comma is that really the comma does two

very different kinds of jobs the first

kind of thing a common does is simply to

join elements in a list for example it

has a big bold flavor for the comma

between big and bold big and bold big

involved are both adjectives they are

grammatically equivalent and the comma

between them is simply functioning as a

substitute for the coordinating

conjunction and it has the big and bold

flavor so any comma that is functioning

like this it's simply joining elements

in a series and hence is called a serial

comma that's serial with with an X right

from series so it has a big bold flavor

so here are two adjectives joined by a

serial comma serial commas are our lone

wolves they act totally independently of

anything else they're just like little

words or just like and in a sentence so

we need stamps squill squid and wax

here's a list not this title this is not

adjectives but a list of nouns stamps

swell squid wax these nouns are all

grammatically equivalent and even though

there are well there's more than one

comma here they each of them is working

by itself stamps and swell and squid and

wax so this

is the serial comma and that's really

all I'm gonna say about that if there

are those a few little tricky situation

with it but it basically is is not very

complicated now the more tricky use of

the comma is when it's not functioning

as a serial comma and here the thing

that the comma does is sets off parts of

a sentence that are what we call non

restrictive don't get alarm I don't

explain this but the thing to keep in

mind here to start off with is that the

serial comma ylim works alone this other

kind of comma really is sort of like

parentheses and as you know parentheses

work in pairs and this kind of problem

when it's performing this function of

setting off certain parts of the

sentence for the rest of the sentence

this kind of comma also works in pairs

let's take an example electricity which

can shock you is useful electricity

which can shop you is useful now the

element that concerns us here is this

subordinate clause which can shock now

the thing to ask yourself let's look at

me let's make use of embedment diagram

okay

here is a set that represents

electricity this is everything that is

electricity it's inside that server now

if I were to ask you what does the set

electricity which can shock you look

like in relation to this set

you would say well in fact it's exactly

the same it overlaps the set electricity

because there is no electricity that

can't shock you right all electricity

can shock you so the set electricity

which can shock you is identical to the

second electricity and that means that

this which can shock you does nothing to

further define what we're talking about

once you say electricity you have

adequately defined what we're talking

about consequently this subordinate

clause is not essential to the meaning

of the sentence and should be set off

with commas let's look at a contrasting

examine this is indeed difficult if

you've never had this explained to you

before pictures who are left handed are

called South Poles now the clause here

who are left handed is in a

corresponding position to this one and

I'm asked if I would ask okay is it

acting the same way is it adding

anything to our definition of the

pictures or not well let's look at the

Venn diagram again suppose this is the

set of pictures this represents all

pictures what about these set pictures

who are left-handed what does that look

like well indeed that is a subset of

pictures so look so think what who are

left-handed has done it has restricted

the meaning we've gone from picture

two pitchers who are left-handed and

therefore who are left-handed has

further restricted further defined what

we're talking about and for that reason

who are left-handed would be called a

restrictive element and restrictive

elements must not be set off by commas

these kinds of things though like which

can shock you in the phrase electricity

which can shock you

it does not further restrict the

definition of electricity and therefore

it is called non restrictive and

non-restrictive elements must be set off

with a pair of commas so that is first

thing to grasp and memorize that

restrictive elements must not be set off

with commas and non restrictive elements

must be set off with commas

The Description of 20. Punctuation Basics. Restrictive and Non-Restrictive.