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Under the patronage of the President of Republic of Moldova Igor Dodon

HISTORY OF MOLDOVA seconde episode

Movements of people in the VI-XIIth centuries

Wave after wave, various peoples and tribes

passed through the territory of nowadays Moldova.

In the sixth century, the Slavs arrived to the Balkans.

Our lands were also crossed by Pechenegs, Oguzes, Uzbeks, Cumans and Hungarians.

The latter came to the Pannonian Basin from the Urals.

In 1001 the Hungarian Kingdom emerged, ruled by Saint Stephen.

It will play its role in the establishment

and formation of the Principality of Moldova.

By the ninth century, there were several territorial associations

existingon the territory of the future Principality of Moldova.

associations existingon the territory of the future Principality of Moldova.

At that time, these were separate communities,

joining their forces in case of war. They were led by princes - voevods.

In different period of time, parts of the territories

fell under the influence of the Bulgarian state, Kievan Rus,

and the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia.

Golden Horde

In the 13th century the Tatar-Mongols arrived.

No state or empire ever surpassed the Golden Horde in extent and territory.

GRIGORE URECHE "THE CHRONICLE OF THE LAND OF MOLDOVA"

"Tartaria or, as some call it, the Tatar state, is a huge empire.

It is not confined to Crimea, spreading into all directions,

having great strengths and occupying vast territories

most part of Europe, all of Sarmatia in Asia, including Scythia."

EUGEN NICOLAE historian, Romania

According to recent studies conducted in both Romania and in Moldova,

in fact, it was not a desert land.

On the contrary, this areaexperienced demographic growth

and an impressive economic development during the Golden Horde.

Therefore, one cannot speak of the late Christian,

Moldovan colonization of these places.

Even under the Golden Horde, this society is growing,

developing to the level at which the emergence

of an independent state of Moldova is possible.

This territory was part of the "Tatar trade route",

which had to be controlled. Traders paid for transit.

For their convenience and safety, some caravanserais, inns were built.

Golden Horde cities were built in nowadays Trebujeni and Costesti.

The first one was called Shehr al-Jedid. The name of the second city is unknown.

These places were the center of civilization: active trade,

the first baths, water supply, numerous ceramics and ornaments workshops.

The Golden Horde administration was also located here;

it was collecting tribute from the local population.

Nevertheless, the raids continued,

the local inhabitants were taken into slavery.

There was a growing eagerness to get rid of strangers and pagans.

By the middle of the 14th century, the Golden Horde weakened.

This created prerequisites for the emergence of the Principality of Moldova.

The point of no return was the defeat of Tatar-Mongols by the Lithuanians

in the battle on the Blue Waters, a tributary of the Southern Bug.

The Horde was now being pushed back by Lithuania and Hungary.

The latter decided to expand its state by annexing the new territory,

the future Principality of Moldova.

The local inhabitants professed Orthodoxy.

They were calling themselves Moldovans even before the state was established.

"MIORITA" BALLAD XIIIth century

"Miorita" is the first piece of Moldovan oral folk art.

It reflects the genetic code of Moldovans, explains the character,

the fate of the people, their ability to sacrifice themselves,

belief in immortality, inherited from the ancestors - the Dacians,

the humility and acceptance of the highest goal.

The ballad talks about the complex relationship

between the neighboring peoples: Moldovans, Transylvanians and Vranchans.

"Near a low foothill At Heaven's doorsill,

Where the trail's descending To the plain and ending,

Here three shepherds keep Their three flocks of sheep,

One, Moldovan, One, Transylvanian And one, Vrancean.

Now, the Vrancean And the Transylvanian

In their thoughts, conniving, Have laid plans, contriving

At the close of day To ambush and slay The Moldovan"

The history will prove the truthfulness of this legend.

Moldova, Wallachia and Transylvania

will act as a united front for only short periods of time.

Most often, there is hostility, conspiracies, riots and wars between them.

The founding of Principality of Moldova

In 1352, the Hungarian King Lajos the Great

sent an expedition to the east.

Dragos Voevod from Maramures was given the task

to add new territories to the Hungarian crown,

and expel the Golden Horde from the heart of the kingdom.

Moldovan-Polish Chronicles 1359-1564

"By the will of God, Dragos Voievod came from Hungary,

from a place called Maramures near the river Maramures,

hunting for a bison, which he killed near the river Moldova.

He celebrated it with his boyars,

he liked the country, and decided to settle there.

He populated the country with his Moldovans from Hungary,

and he was their prince for two years".

Moldova was bordering Poland and Lithuania to the North,

the Golden Horde to the east, Valahia to the south and Hungary to the west.

Dragos became the prince of Moldova.

He chose Tirgul Moldovei,

later named Baia, as the first capital of the state.

The city became a place with flourishing crafts and roaring trade;

gold and silver mines were located in the proximity.

Dragos did not rule for long, just a few years.

Creation of an independent Principality of Moldova in 1359

It was Bogdan, not Dragos,

who was recognized as the founder of Principality of Moldova.

He arrived to the principality the same way as Dragos from Maramures,

having risen against the Hungarian king.

In Moldova, Bogdan replaced Dragos' grandson Balc.

The Principality became independent of Hungary.

1359 is the year

when the first Moldovan state - the principality, was created.

Bogdan the first Ruler of Principality of Moldova years 1359-65

Hungary recognized the independence of the principality not earlier than in 1365.

In an official document dated 2 February 1365,

King Lajos of Hungary expressed his sadness over the exile

of his fellow subject Balc, the grandson of Dragos,

from the east Carpathian Vvoivodeship.

The letter recognizes the independence of the new state.

The documents refers to the new state as Terra Moldovae, the Moldovan Land.

Bogdan had so much authority and the memory of him was so great

that for many centuries Moldova was called Bogdania.

The Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker

is the first stone church built in Principality of Moldova.

The temple was founded by Bogdan Voievod in 1359,

that is, at the same time when the state was founded.

The church was erected as a gift to God,

expressing the gratitude for God's help in the fight against the Hungarian ruler.

The temple will become a burial vault for seven Moldovan rulers.

Bogdan laid the foundations of the system of Moldovan state values:

independence, unity of the people, Orthodoxy.

For five centuries, Moldova was led by almost a hundred rulers.

Some of them were enthroned several times.

Only in isolated cases the ruler was replaced peacefully.

The throne could be claimed by both legitimate children

and the so-called "children of flowers", born out of wedlock.

There were cases when proteges of the suzerains

and sometimes even impostors came to power. Bogdan's successor was his direct heir.

The capital of the principality was transferred from Baia to Siret

during the reign of Bogdan's son Latco.

The Voievod hesitated between Orthodoxy and Catholicism.

Under his rule, diplomatic and trade relations

were established with the Central and Eastern Europe,

helping to strengthen the position of the state

and leading to prosperity of its cities, including Siret.

Toward the end of his life, Latco took a decision on his faith.

As the place for his burial, he chose

the Orthodox necropolis of his father in Radauti,

and not the Catholic bishopric in Siret.

The rulers of the Principality of Moldova throughout history had to maneuver

between the powerful of this world.

In Europe there was a constant change of powers,

which determined the political situation. The vassal oath was a forced measure.

These were military-political alliances.

They were a guarantee of Moldova's defense in the event of war.

Petru Musat the years 1375-91

In 1387 the Moldovan sovereign, Petru the First Musat

swore allegiance to the Polish King Jagiello.

In trade matters, Moldova is independent and successful.

The Principality could afford to lend 3 thousand gold to its suzerain,

for which it gets Pocutie,

nowadays part of Bucovina between the rivers Prut and Ceremos.

Such generosity became possible due to the Moldovan trade route,

which brought a considerable profit.

Products from the Black Sea ports: silk, jewelry, spices and wines

were passing this route on their way to European markets.

Under the rule of Petru Musat,

the principality began to mint its own coins.

LILIA DEGACEVA coin collector, Moldova

On the front side the main symbol is impregnated. This is a dynastic symbol,

but the question whether this is the coin

of the Musats or of Bogdan's descendants still remains.

The bull's head in this emblem has additional elements

that appear on the right and left sides of the bull's head.

It's a rose and a crescent or some variants thereof.

Between the horns of the bullthere is a star.

The principality has a new capital again.

It is moved from Siret to Suceava, which is also a trade center.

Several trade routes passed through this city at the same time,

one of which is the famous Moldovan route.

The throne fortress in Suceava was built during the reign of Petru Musat.

After the fortress had been erected, the capital city was moved here.

Petru Musat and other rulers needed reliable protection.

When coming to power, each new voivod strengthened the citadel.

Stefan the Great (Stefan cel Mare), for instance,

surrounded it with an additional wall. It is believed that by his order,

an underground passage was built between the fortress and the city.

The role of this passage was to provide an escape route

for the ruler in the event of the fall of Suceava.

The throne fortress became part of Moldova's defense system.

Overall, this system, in addition to Suceavea fortress,

consisted of such fortresses as Neamt, Hotin, Roman,

Tetina,Soroca, Bender, Cetatea Alba, Scheia, and Chilia.

MARIANA SLAPAC architect, Moldova

All fortresses in the Principality of Moldova

were built using the latest technologies for that time.

We can compare these fortresses with the most significant,

in my opinion the best defense objects in European countries.

With all their fortresses, the Middle Ages are something extraordinary for us.

Moldova's fortress defense system was completed by the end of the 15th century.

Its founder was Petru Musat the First.

During his reign Hotin became part of the Principality of Moldova.

The citadel served as the region's military center,

the customs post and a place for organizing fairs.

Under the rule of Alexandru the Good (Alexandru cel Bun),

a new Hotin was built in the same place where the old fortress was located.

It met all requirements of modern at that time fortification.

Stefan the Great continued the renovation of the fortress,

strengthened it and built up the walls, also erecting additional towers.

Nevertheless, from time to time Hotin passed from hand to hand.

Its loss was a personal tragedy for every ruler.

Its strategic importance could not be neglected.

The choice of the site for building the fortress is always justified.

The fortresses were located in strategically important places

that needed to be defended.

Next to Soroca Citadel there is a ford across the Dniesterriver,

used by Tartars for crossing the river.

They repeatedly tried to settle on the right bank of the Dniester,

but on the way there was an impregnable fortress, the garrison

the garrison of which was opposing resistance.

Embrasures could be seen even on the chapel.

After each battle the holy place had to be sanctified again.

The fortress had a secret.

At the entrance there was a trap, a pit, which was hidden from prying eyes.

Alexander the Good (Alexandru cel Bun) 1400-32

Alexander the Good formulated the principle

which guided his predecessors and descendants in their lives.

"Faith is the basis of the state."

Under Alexander the Good, the formation of Moldovan metropolia is completed.

Its autonomy is recognized by Constantinople.

Each church needs its own symbols.

Itfinally had its first saint, John of Trebizond.

This Greek merchant refused to convert to another religion

and paid with his life for it.

The relics of St.John were solemnly brought from Cetatea Alba to Suceava.

His biography is described in the first Moldovan original written work

"Martyrdom of St. Jphn the New."

Alexander the Goodestablished the Council. It included, for example, the "logofet"

the head of ruler's office, the seal keeper,

vornic, responsible for ensuring collection of taxes

and the enforcement of the decrees of the ruler, and vistiern - the treasurer.

The reign of Alexander the Goodlasted long, for almost 32 years, and was calm.

This period was akin to silence before the storm.

After the death of the sovereign, the battle for the throne began.

In this war, the son of the sovereign and the father of Stefan the Great,

Bogdan the Second, was killed by his half-brother

For a quarter of a century, Ilie I, Stefan II, Petru II, Roman II, Ciubar Voda,

Alexandrel, Bogdan II, Petru III Aron replaced each other on the throne.

The descendants of Alexandru divided the principality

into the Upper and Lower Countries.

It was his grandson Stefan the Great who managed to unite the state,

restore order, and repulse the enemy.

Wallachia's legendary Vlad Tepes was the one to help him ascend to the throne.

Stefan the Great ruler 1457-1504

In 1453, four years before Stefan came to power,

fell the Byzantine Empire, a pillar of Christianreligion.

The Ottoman Turks seized its capital, Constantinople.

With the Ottoman's expansion into Europe,

a new stage of centuries-old confrontation of Islam and Christianity began.

The Ottomans were imposing their religion.

They converted the Great Christian Cathedral of Hagia Sophia into a mosque.

Crosses were replaced by the crescent moon.

The Turks defiled Orthodox churches throughout the empire,

"poking" the eyes of the saints out, thus making the church frescoes blind.

Moldovan churches also keep traces of such barbarity.

With the fall of Constantinople, began the search for a new "king",

the defender of Christians and the continuer of the traditions of the Byzantine Empire.

EMIL DRAGNEV historian, Moldova

The "king" title is essentially the equivalent

of the Byzantine title "basilus", which we translate as "emperor".

The title of "basileus", "king"

was of symbolic significance, granting a special honor.

The only authorized person to elevate someone to the rank of emperor was God.

In other words, the emperor is the one-of-a-kind anointed of God.

So God is the one to appoint the emperor.

According to the concept of the empire,

all other monarchs become rulers by the grace of the emperor.

The idea of the Third Rome penetrated the masses.

In the middle of the XVth century,

everything related to the Byzantinebecame fashionable, in contrast to the eastern.

SVETLANA REABTEVA historian, Moldova

Moldovan rulers and their entourage were big fans of fashion, of luxury,

they followed the European fashion.

Stefan the Great's clothes are a good proof of this statement.

It is known that he is illustrated in fresco images mainly in Byzantine fashion,

a heavy clothing, the so-called mantle.

On parchmentimages and miniatures he is portrayed as a man of the Renaissance.

Wide clothes without sleeves, tailored to the basics of the human body.

Among those claiming the title of "king" or "emperor" of the Third Rome

there were two Orthodox princes,

the Princeof Moscow and Vladimir Ivan III and the Moldovan ruler Stefan the Great.

Both married the heirs of Byzantium, representatives of the Paleologues.

Ivan the Third married Sophia,

while Stephen the Great married Maria of Mangup.

After their children got married, the former rivals became relatives.

Stefan's daughter Elena Volosanca

became the wife of Ivan the Young, the son of the Prince of Moscow.

LUDMILA SAVCENKO historian, Russia

After the death of Ivan the Young the struggle for the royal throne

of the Moscow Grand Duchy began

between two women, Sophia Palaeologus and Elena Volosanca.

Well, first the fate befell Sophia Palaeologus,

who was also removed from the political struggle,

and at that moment Elena Volosanca gotthe power.

For the first time in the history of the Moscow principality

Ivan the Third crowned his grandson Dmitry.

But after a few years everything simply turned upside down

and Elena Volosanca with the grandson of Ivan the Third Dmitry

fell into disgrace. The story ended very badly,

they were taken into custody, and as a result she died. "

The struggle for the role of the earthly king was won by Stefan.

He was recognized as the patron of Christians in the Balkans and Eastern Europe.

Grigore Ureche "Chronicle of the State of Moldova"

"There was this Voivod Stefan, a man of short height,

quick-tempered and quick to shed innocent blood;

many times he killed people at feasts without any trial.

Nevertheless, he wasof an upright character, not lazy,

and his mind reached unimaginable limits.

A master in military affairs; when necessary, he personally went into battle and,

seeing him, the army did not retreat;

and therefore there were few battles he did not win.

And where others won, he did not lose his spirit,

after he had fallen, he rebelled against the victors.

Among the symbols of the sovereign power there were a crown,

a scepter, a mace and a sword. Each ruler preferred to order new weapons.

Stefan the Great entrusted the manufacture of his sword

to Italian armorers from Genoa. Its length is one meter 25 centimeters.

It is made of steel and silver.

The hilt bears an inscriptionin Old Slavonic - "Stefan Voivod the Ruler".

Such swords were protected like the apple of their eyes.

In the battle they used other weapons, much lighter.

Stefan chose George the Victorious as his patron.

George was the heavenly protector of the principality,

while the sovereign wasthe earthly ruler. Stefan reformed the army.

It was directly subordinated to the ruler.

Artillery troops were formed for the first time.

The Moldovan army consisted

of a small army of 10,000-12,000 soldiers and a Large army.

In addition, peasants, townspeople, and ordinary people were also called upon.

During the heyday of the principality,

the total number of soldiers reached 40,000.

Under Stefan, the Principality of Moldova had its own fleet.

It consisted of military and merchant ships.

The shipyards were located in Cetatea Alba and Chilia.

Moldovan oak was especially appreciated for building ships.

The Moldovan fleet carried goods along the Black Sea to Istanbul,

reached the Mediterranean Sea, the island of Crete.

One of Stefan's most significant victories was in the battle at Vaslui, Podul Inalt.

The Turkish army was three times bigger than the Moldovan army.

120,000 against 40,000.

Thanks to the Moldovan trumpeters, who penetrated into the rear of the Ottomans

and gave the signal to the decisive attack,

the Turks started to panic, thinking that they were surrounded.

Stefan was congratulated on his victory by the European rulers

and Pope Sixtus IV, who called him "an athlete, a warrior of Christ."

Stefan the Great had a tradition

ofbuilding a monastery or a church in honor of every military victory.

The master-warrior set a record both on the battlefield

and among the votaries, the founders of the holy monasteries.

34 victories and about 40 temples.

Putna monastery became his main project in terms of scale, importance and reverence.

Stefan built the monastery literally from scratch. These were deserted places.

According to a legend, Stefan climbed to one of the hills and shot a bow.

The arrow fell here. This is where they began to build the future Jerusalem,

as Putna used to be called and is still called by believers.

Stefan helped the monastery on Athos.

Under the Ottoman Empire, it had a miserable existence.

The Moldovan ruler revived the Zograf monastery of Mount Athos.

A cathedral church, a jetty and a refectory were built.

A shrine from those times is steel carefully preserved on Athos -

the flag of St. George the Victorious, embroidered by Stefan's daughter Elena.

On Moldovan soil, Stefan continued to build temples.

The stone slab in Belgorod reminds us of it.

ANDREI KRASNOJON archeologist, Ucraine

The church was built by Stefan the Great in 1480

with the assistance of his two Parcalabs who ruled in the city at that time.

This is how he shows that his power here is serious and established for a long time.

The church was built four years before the Turks came,

so we see here the name of Stefan - the son of Bogdan Voevod,

the names of the two parakalabs, the date 1480

and the traditional emblem of Moldovan statehood.

This is the coat of arms in the form of a pointed board and a bull,

the head of the bull, which means

that the slab in this case is the passport of the building.

Stefan was a true reformer, his decisions were non-standards.

He confronted Poland, Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, all at the same time.

The relations with the neighboring principalities

of Wallachia and Transylvania were mixed.

Temporary unions were an exception to the rules.

Wallachia has repeatedly opposed Moldova on the Turks' side.

Stefan took revenge. He twice set Bucharest on fire.

To avoid treachery and ensure the support of his neighbors,

the Moldovan ruler helped his like-minded to get to the throne of Wallachia.

Transylvania also played a double game. The murderer of Stefan's father,

his own uncle Petru Aron hid on Transilvania's territory.

He claimed the Moldovan throne.

Stefan invaded Transylvania with his army and killed his opponent.

Miron Costin "The Chronicle of the Land of Moldova"

"So willingly did these lands fight with each other.

And this had to be paid for later. And this payment has dragged on for ages."

In 1485 Stefan was forced to swear an oath to Poland.

This made it possible to count on military support.

Unlike other vassals, Stefan did not bow his knee before the king,

he did not break the shaft of Moldovan flag.

The latter was traditionally sent to the custody of the Polish treasury.

In 1486 the ruler recognized the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.

The possibilities to confront Porte

were exhausted and some political gains were ensured.

EUGEN NICOLAE historian, Romania

You know, in my opinion, everything is much more complicated.

It is true that he began to pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire,

by the end of his reign he lost fortresses,

and yet he ensured the independence of Moldova

on a long-term basis through the preservation of its statehood.

When the principality started paying tribute again, he won a kind of victory.

Ottoman documents show that it was a question

of a peace treaty with Stefan, not of his surrender.

So to say, between themselves they recognize the statehood of the principality,

even in spite of its defeat.

No mosques were built on the territory of the principality,

the Turks could only stay here temporarily, they were forbidden to buy land.

The Principality preserved itself as a state unlike other Balkan countries,

which had become Turkish Pashalyk provinces: Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia.

Revolts against the Porte the XVIth century

The Ottoman Empire constantly attempted against the freedom

of Moldovans and their territories. In the south, in Budjak,

some rais appeared, which were territories under Turkish administration.

The same happened with the fortresses of Bender, Cetatea Alba and Chilia.

The uprising against the Turks was started, oddly enough,

by the Porte's protege, John III the Terrible.

He refused to pay the double tax harych.

The voivod gathered the "great army" of Moldova,

he was supported by the Cossacks.

They were opposed by Turks, Wallachians and Tatars. The forces were unequal.

The uprising was suppressed. The Moldovan prince is executed.

Another attempt to overthrow the Turkish government

was undertaken by Wallachian Voivod Mihai the Brave.

In hiw opinion, the only way to confront Porte was by unification

of the principalities of Moldova, Wallachia and Transylvania.

In 1600, after the conquest of Transylvania,

Mihai ascended to Moldovan throne for several months.

The Wallachiansdid not find support among the local boyars.

In addition, the Porte, Poland and Austria united against him.

Another anti-Turkish uprising was defeated.

In the XVIth century the balance of forces in Europe changes.

By 1533, Hungary ceased to exist, being divided by the Porte and Austria.

In 1569, Poland unites with Lithuania,

creating the Commonwealth, which will exist until 1795.

The power of the Ottoman Empire was growing.

The Moldovan boyars were divided into parties according to their sympathies.

There was a Polish party, a Hungarian, a Turkish one.

The Musatinsdynasty, the heirs of Bogdan the First,

were among the victims of one of such conspiracies.

At the end of the 16th century, the influence of the Polish party intensifies,

it puts forward a new dynasty of Movilas and Mogilas on Moldovan throne.

These dynasties were related to Moldovan Musats

and the Polish Potocki at the same time.

The Movilasdynasty have been in power for forty years

and were overthrown in the course of another conspiracy.

A representative of this dynasty is the son of Moldovan ruler Petru Movila,

who became the metropolitan priest of Kiev, Galicia and all Russia.

In the XVIth century an Orthodox brotherhood was established in Lviv.

The organization's goal was to preserve Orthodoxy in Rzeczpospolita.

Its leaders often sought support from Moldovan and Wallachian leaders.

The latter readily provided help.

One of the brotherhood's pupils was the son of Voivod Simeon Petru Movilar.

Few could recognize in the persistent youngster

the future metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and All Russia.

He also founded the Kiev-Mohyla Spiritual Academy.

The main supporter of Petru Movila in Moldova was the ruler Vasile Lupu.

Vasile Lupu ruler between 1634 and 1653

In 1646 the first code of laws was written in the principality:

the criminal and administrative codes in one volume.

They became part of the "Code of Vasile Lupu."

The document was based on the Roman-Byzantine legal norms.

The country has become attractive to foreigners.

A number of incentives were adopted for them.

The resettlers were exempted from payment of taxes for 10 years.

In a large number came colonists from Transylvania and the Rusyns from Poland.

VLADISLAV GROSUL historian, Russia

Lupu himself was a quick-witted, a clever man.

He got personally involved in trade, participated in trading enterprises.

With him, Moldova rose, including in terms of culture.

Under him, Moldovan was adopted as the official language.

Before that, the official language of the state was the Church Slavonic.

It was used in official procedures, in religion and in education.

Dimitrie Cantemir "Description of Moldova" 1716

"The same ruler established the Greek and Moldovan printing press

and ordered printing of liturgical books and civil laws.

Thanks to this, the gospel and deeds of the apostles,

laterthe whole liturgy, were read in the native languagefor the first time.

During Lupu's reign, 30 churches and monasteries were built and restored.

Thanks to him, one of the most unusual temples of Moldova was built

the Causeni Assumption of the Mother of God.

It was built in contradiction to the instructions of Nogai Khan.

The Turks allowed the steppe Horde to stay in these places.

Local residents appealed to the khan

with a request to allow the construction of the temple. He gave his permission,

but only if it is not higher than the spear of a horse rider.

That is why the building is so squat.

It is built one and a half meters below the ground level.

Moldovan Christians experienced the pressure of Muslims

both from the south, by the Porte and from the east, by the Horde.

Therefore, each new acquisition of the Moldovan church was symbolic.

Vasile Lupu brought from Constantinople to Iasi the relics of Parascheva Saint Friday.

Moldovans had the first female saint.

Parascheva is considered a protector of the house,

livestock, aprotector against diseases.

Moldovan rulers took upon themselves the mission

to protect the Orthodox in neighboring lands.

In honor of Parascheva, the ruler built a church in the Catholic Lviv.

He found the money for that by selling a herd of oxen.

St. Parascheva's Church also served as a temple and a defensive structure.

The loopholes speak about this.

It is likely that one of the levels of the temple was occupied by a battle gallery.

This combination of militant Christianity was a sign of the times, the Middle Ages.

The founder of the church, the Moldovan ruler Vasile Lupu,

cared not only about the spiritual life of his subjects,

but was also concerned about how to protect them during hard times.

The Church of St. Parascheva sheltered his parishioners

from the enemymore than once.

A trade route passed through the city.

The parishioners of St. Parascheva church were Christian merchants.

PAVEL VERBINSCHI Protopriest of the Church of Parascheva Saint Friday, Lviv, Ukraine

Moldova itself has something to be proud of,

that God gave such a person as Vasile Lupu. He not only built this temple,

those who know history, realize how much he did.

This man devoted himself to God. He was a founder.

To this day, our church is praying for him.

As a founder, we mention him in every service.

Lupu found allies thanks to marriage diplomacy.

His daughter Maria married the son of the Lithuanian hetman.

The son of the hetman of the Zaporozhye army of Bogdan Khmelnitsky Timofei

wanted to marry the second daughter of the sovereign.

This marriage would have allowed the Cossacks to legalize their situation.

The usual methods of "marriage diplomacy"

on the part of Bogdan Khmelnitsky and his son Timush did not impress Vasile Lupu.

The family did not succumb to persuasion.

Then they decided to influence her in a different way.

Bogdan and Timush used the conflict between the Crimean Tatars and Moldova.

Cossacks entered the principality and practically destroyed

the Moldovan capital Iasi, sparing only the monasteries.

In the fourth capital fire was set onboyar houses.

The Moldovan sovereign surrendered.

He agreed to an unequal marriage of the daughter with the Cossack.

Ruxandra's husband Timofei soon died in the defense of the Suceava Throne Fortress.

This is when Moldavan princess showed her true character.

LILIA ZABOLOTNAIA historian, Moldova

After the death of her husband, and then after the death of Bogdan Khmelnitsky,

she wrote to the Russian Tsar: we are under your protection,

I beg you, please, send me confirmation that Rashkov is my wedding gift.

She requested a city!

After the death of Maria Radzivil, her sister, she wrote to the Polish king:

do not forget that my sister's six cities must belong to me.

Medieval Moldova stands out against the general background.

Women received education and had equal rights to inheritance.

The only thing that the princesses of Moldova

were deprived of was the right to inherit power, the throne of the Ruler.

Vasile Lupu turned his attention to Wallachia.

He wanted to place his eldest son Ioann on the throne.

But the voivods of Wallachia and Transylvania

joined their forces against Vasile Lupu. They were supported by the boyars.

Thus, in 1653, by the order of Porta,

Gheorghe Stefan was appointed Moldovan voivod.

The overthrown ruler fled to the Crimea first, then, by order of Porta,

was imprisoned in a prison located in the Seven-Towers Castle in Constantinople,

where he spent the remaining years. Vasile Lupu died here in 1661.

The price of Moldovan throne is high.

Some paid for it by exile, others with their own life.

Moldova XVIII-XIX

In the 18th century, the centuries-old confrontation

between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire entered an active phase.

The Porta covered the land of the Balkans, the Mediterranean,

all the coasts of the Black Sea, the Middle East and the north of Africa.

The main task of both powers is to secure control over the Black Sea

and the entrance to the Mediterranean,

the straits of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles.

The Principality of Moldova had access to the sea.

Thus, it became an important acquisition for both sides.

The ruler Dimitrie Cantemir supported the struggle of Peter the Great

against the Ottoman Empire and joined the Prut campaign in 1711.

VICTOR TVIRCUN historian, Moldova

Do not forget that it was not Russia that started this war.

The war was declared by the Ottoman Empire against Russia.

And as a response to this provocation began this military campaign,

which in 1711 ended in the battle of Stanileºti.

It brought losses not only to Russia, but also to Moldova.

But first one factis worth noting: both in the Moldovan princedom and in Wallachia,

and not only there, to take, for example, Serbs and Bulgarians,

people were ready to join the military forces of the Russian army

in order to fight together against the Ottoman Empire.

Dimitrie Cantemir ruler in 1693, 1710-11

Dimitrie Cantemir knew his enemy well.

He lived in Constantinople for two decades.

At first, like many children of the rulers, he was a hostage,

thenhe came as ambassador of the Principality of Moldova.

During his second period in Constantinople, as ambassador,

Dimitrie Cantemir began construction of his own palace.

He chose the right place

on the left bank of the Golden Horn Bay, in the area of the Fener.

The future ruler, as an Orthodox man,

chose the Byzantine style for the new building.

The construction was proceeding successfully,

but as usually the envious persons interfered.

They reported to the Vizier Ali Pasha about the indecent dearness of the project,

which costed 35,000 gold pieces. Due to Cantemir's talent as a diplomat,

the story was hushed up, and the construction resumed.

In Constantinople Dimitrie was known as a scholar, polyglot, musician and composer.

In 1710, Cantemir brought a vowal oath to Sultan Ahmed the Third.

It was a standard ceremony of initiation as Moldovan ruler.

All voivodes in the time of the Ottoman influence on the principality

passed this procedure.

In the first hall of Topkapi the ruler was treated

with chorba soup from the common pot of the Janissaries.

There he was clothed in voivod clothes.

On his head he was wearing a headdress "kuka".

It was decorated with ostrich feathers in a silver frame,

which were fastened to the cap with a brooch with precious stones.

Only the Moldovan and Wallachian princes, the Crimean Khan

and the Grand Vizier of Porta has such luxurious outfits.

In the next room followed the exchange of phrases,

written long time ago and learned by participants by heart.

Sultan Ahmed the Third promised the throne of Wallachia to the Moldovan ruler,

but he did not keep his word.

This is one of the reasons why Cantemir took the side of the Russian Tsar.

A number of subjective and objective reasons

led to the defeat of Peter the Great:

the betrayal of Wallachian voivod Constantin Brancoveanu,

the lack of forage, unpreparedness for a long way.

18 thousand people were lost before the start of active military operations.

The success in battles alternated with defeat.

On July 21, 1711 Peter, realizing the hopelessness of the situation,

suggested to the military council to conclude a peace treaty with the Turks.

The Moldovan ruler and his entourage had to follow Peter.

In the Lutsk agreement, signed before the start of the campaign,

the Russians committed to support the prince in case of defeat.

VICTOR TVIRCUN historian, Moldova

He becomes a secret adviser of Peter the First,

a member of the Russian Government Senate.

I want to say that it included only twelve people.

Dimitrie Cantemir was among these twelve.

This allows us to talk about his contribution

to the development of very important documents, basic documents

that existed and were enforced throughout the Russian Empire,

for example, the Table of Ranks. This is the hierarchical structure

of social strata, groups of the Russian Empire.

It was introduced in 1722. Dimitrie Cantemir was involved directly

in the development and discussion of the content of this document.

In exile, the ruler began a new life, a scientific life.

On behalf of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, of which Cantemir was a member,

he wrote "Deccriptio Moldovae", "Description of Moldova".

In writing the "History of the Elevation and Fall of the Ottoman Porte,"

he relied on the knowledge acquired during the over two decades of life in Istanbul.

Most of the estates, city buildings

that belonged to the Cantemirs in Russia were lost.

But there is the famous Tsaritsino,

which used to be the estate of the Cantemirs, called "Black Mud".

During the construction of the Moscow metro,

the family tomb in Moscow's Nikolsky Greek Monastery was destroyed.

But a paradox! In the same metro,

one of the stations was named Cantemirovskaia,

in honor of the tank division, which is called after Cantemirovs' estate,

where it underwent baptism of fire.

After the Prut march the sultan changed the status of the Principality of Moldova.

It was no longer independent. The rights were significantly curtailed,

Porta was now appointing the rulers from among

the Greeks from the Istanbul district of Fener. The fanaritarian period began.

The Moldovan throne became an object of purchase and sale

and a post of bureaucrats.

During the Russian-Turkish wars,

the Fenariots gave way to the Moldovan throne

of the Russian military administration.

In a foreign territory, the Russian army was faced with a problem:

what kind of coin to pay for food and forage?

ANA BOLDUREANU historian, Moldova

They wanted to introduce Russian banknotes, paper money,

which were already widely used in Russia.

But the population, accustomed to metal coins, especially silver and gold,

did not want to accept new paper money.

The attempt to introduce a copper coin, which was also widely used

in the Russian Empire, again faced opposition from the local population,

as it was not used to it.

Using gold and silver Russian was no longer convenient to the Russian Empire.

In these conditions, the General Pyotr Rumyantsev

decided to mint a local coin on the territory of Moldova,

to be used in both principalities: both in Wallachia and Moldova.

The coins were of two denominations.

The obverse depicts shields with the coats of arms of Moldova and Wallachia,

crowned by the crown. The coin was minted in a temporary establishment

in the outskirts of Cernauti Sadagura.

The Battle of Cahul

One of the main battles of the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-74

took place near Cahul. The Turks numerically outnumbered Russians:

150,000 soldiers against 32,000, 140 guns against 118.

As part of the Russian army, there were several detachments of Moldovan volunteers.

Still, with the numerical superiority of the Ottoman troops,

the Russian army won.

The General Peter Rumyantsev won not by number, but by skill.

Winners got guns, six flags of the defeated.

On the battlefield, 20,000 Turks were killed.

On the Russian side, casualties did not exceed a thousand people.

The war resulted in the Kyuchuk-Kainarji Peace Treaty.

The Porta undertook to observe the interests of the Orthodox peoples

who remained on the territory of the Empire,

including the inhabitants of Moldova and Wallachia.

However, the Turks have repeatedly violated the terms of the treaty.

In the course of this war, the Principality of Moldova lost this part,

with the former capital of the principality Suceava, the monasteries of Putna,

Moldovita, Humor, Voronets, Radauti, the region from Chernauti to Noua Sulica.

The land was illegally appropriated by Austria. This area got the name Bucovina.

Russian-Turkish war 1787-91

The Russian-Turkish war of 1787-91

became part of the "Greek project" of Catherine II.

The Empress intended to defeat the Porta.

In its place, the Greek Empire was to be reborn.

From Moldova and Wallachia, it was planned to create a buffer state Dacia.

But these plans did not come true. According to Iasi Treaty,

the Russians reserved the right of veto for decisions made by the Porte

regarding the Principality of Moldova, as well as the influence on the church.

But the Turks again and again violated the terms of the treaty.

Russian-Turkish war of 1806-12

The new war was instigated but Porta.

It violated the agreement on the seven-year rule of the voivods

and removed from the throne two rulers at the same time:

in Moldova, Alexandru Moruzia and in Wallachia Constantine Ypsilanti.

Russia responded to the challenge. Its troops took the fortresses of Hotin,

Bender, Ackerman and Chilia without a fight.

Peace negotiations began in 1811.

They were dragged out by France, Austria and Prussia.

Everyone understood, Napoleon's campaign against Russia was ahead.

Still it is not known how it will end. The Russians were in a hurry.

They needed to expand the territory of the country

by removing the enemy from the borders.

This was possible due to the accession of the Principality of Moldova,

creating a buffer zone. In the camp of Porta,

there was a supporter of Russia, or rather an agent,

an Armenian by birth, Manuk Bay Mirzayan.

In parallel with his diplomacy assignments, Manuk Bay buys up lands.

On one of the sites in Bucharest, he is building the "Hanul lui Manuk" palace.

On May 16, 1812, the Bucharest peace treaty

is signed there between the two empires, the Russian and the Ottoman.

Manuk-bey, the personal interpreter of the negotiator

on the part of Ahmed Pasha, as well as the Minister of Finance of the Porte.

He led a great game, obviously playing along with Russia.

After signing the treaty, friends recommended

that he flees to the left bank of the Prut, which he did.

Manuk Bay settled in Hancesti. He was followed by his fellows.

The city became the Armenian capital of Bessarabia.

Armenians, like many other immigrants, enjoyed incentives.

The descendants of Mirzayan built the palace of Manuk Bey,

the luxury of which amazed contemporaries.

The new border between empires in 1812 passed along the Prut.

The Moldovan principality was divided.

The territory on the eastern bank, which will later be called Bessarabia,

became part of the Russian Empire.

Part of the principality remained under Turkish rule for 65 years more.

The United Moldova and Wallachia

will declare independence from the Ottoman Empire on May 9, 1877.

It will be legally confirmed as a result of the next Russian-Turkish war.

EUGEN NICOLAE historian, Romania

Russia and the Ottoman Empire took a decision which,

I think, was not considered a long-term one.

More precisely, Russia planned the accession,

integration of the whole Principality of Moldova,

and many others expected the same. It was just a phase.

On the other hand, if we evaluate the whole epoch,

we will see that peace and prosperity came to this region.

There were some gaps too, but still there was progress,

one should be able to notice it.

A demographic boom begins in Bessarabia.

It will become an attractive region with benefits for immigrants, with no serfdom.

On a hundred years the population will grow tenfold:

from 250 thousand to two and a half million.

The Description of История Молдовы 2 серия