Practice English Speaking&Listening with: elephant

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The largest land mammal on Earth, the elephant.

Forming herds around their females, elephants build advanced societies based on highly developed intelligence and memory.

Present day elephants are broadly classified as belonging to either the African or Asian families,

both of which live in herds bound together by strong social ties.

Elephants have delicate sensors on the distinguishing features on their body.

On such example is the trunk.

Elephants have a keen sense of smell that helps them distinguish whether something is edible or not.

The tip of the trunk is also equipped with a kind of smell sensor which they use to search for salt to replenish their supply of minerals.

Their thick, round feet are also an important sensor.

Elephants can swiftly detect the slightest ground vibrations caused by other animals,

such as a herd of herbivores, using the soles of their feet.

The highly conspicuous ears of African elephants also possess phenomenal abilities.

While the ear lobe is the most predominantly visible part,

its size has no direct connection with hearing sensors.

Elephants can hear low frequency sounds indistinguishable to humans.

According to one theory, they can identify lightning that strikes 40 kilometers away.

It was reported that elephants quickly escaped to high ground after the Sumatra Earthquake as they knew a tsunami was coming.

This seemingly supernatural ability is certainly the result of sensors that can detect ground vibrations and low frequency sounds.

Furthermore, we are beginning to understand that this ability to distinguish low frequency sounds facilitates an essential elephant activity.

Namely, communication.

We have revealed that female elephant herds call back and forth to each other,

constantly communicating in low frequencies inaudible to humans.

This calling becomes particularly active should one of them wander from the herd,

with other members frequently wrapping their trunks around the agitated elephant to calm them down.

While this voice is inaudible to humans, elephants use it to confirm each others location and bring certainty and balance to the herd.

Male African elephants have a developed linea temporalis,

and some elephants may excrete a liquid from this region when they become excited or worried.

Elephants have been observed with wet temples even after straying from the herd for short times and distances.

The herds leader rushes to such an elephant and wraps its trunk around to calm it and to deepen their bond.

Elephants have achieved survival on the great plains not by using their immense size as a weapon,

but through the bonds of the herd which are nurtured by intimate communication.

And deepening these bonds are sensors that detects low frequency sounds inaudible to humans.

Humans do not have such refined sensors with which to measure the natural world.

However, humankind posses the power of analysis, one that goes beyond our natural limitations.

The protection of this diverse and beautiful earth through the analysis of nature is a mission that has been entrusted to humankind.

The Description of elephant