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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Phonics Fun & Games for Infants and Primary

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hello everyone and welcome to today's

Cambridge University Press

ELT webinar I'm delighted to welcome as

today's presenter Karen Elliott karen

has worked teaching English for more

than 20 years in many different


she stood English as a foreign language

at the British councillor in Bilbao

where she's also a teacher trainer she's

especially interested in topic and story

based learning and encouraging learner

autonomy and learning through thin setec

synthetic phonics she works on a variety

of projects as consultant with different

schools and writes for Cambridge

University Press

so over to you Karen it's very nice to

be here I'm in Spain and Alistair said

and how do I sound

am i the right volume yeah but that's

that's great Karen thanks so first of

all welcome to the phonetics webinar

this webinar is mainly for infants and

primary teachers but it is useful for

everyone and the aim of the women

webinar is to demonstrate the phonics

process while providing activities that

you can use in the classroom and please

contribute with your questions and ideas

in the chat box we have a few moments

where I will answer some questions but

I'll be keeping track of the time so

they'll be if I can't answer your

questions hopefully you can ask them

again at the end if they're very

important and they haven't been answered

and so some common questions about

phonics what is it which we're going to

look at briefly and then go into more

detail through activities and why do we

teach phonics in English as a foreign

language do I have to be a native

speaker I'm going to answer this one

right now because I get asked this a lot

and the answer is you certainly do not

have to be a native speaker

it's phonics is the study of the of the

language in a

certain way and anyone will benefit from

understanding and using the method and

how do I teach it so we're going to have

a look at that of course and another

thing that people often ask is about

tricky words and don't be afraid of

tricky words we're going to have a look

at them at the end so phonics is the

relationship between the spoken and

written language the spoken language is

a series of phonemes and the written

language is a series of symbols it is

all of this is in the alphabetic code

which is the key to understanding

phonics and the alphabetic code sets out

the letters and the sounds that go with

them and the sound spelling patterns of

the English language all right and then

there are some things that actually fall

out some words that fall out of this

pattern and they need to be learned

separately we teach phonics in steps of

phases and today we're going to start by

looking at phase one and moving on up to

phase three phonics

and the most important thing for you to

know about phonics is that it is best

learned as you go along

so as you teach your students as you as

you have fun with them and play games

each step of the way we come clearer to

you and more enjoyable and easier to use

the second time around

okay so phase one phonics this is the

the phonics that we we teach when we

don't actually show our students the

written language we're looking at sounds

it's the percussion it's the beat it's

whether a sound is loud or soft long or

short and as a child one of the things

that we learn first in our own language

even before we understand actual words

is hounds are interpreted by our

language so here's some

teachers of sounds can you work out what

they are perhaps you'd like to write in

the chat box what you think we're

looking at onomatopoeic words to

represent these different pictures so

the first one what do you think it might

be how's that clap alright what about

the next one

crunch knock splash okay we have two

animals here

what do animals say in English it might

be the same as in your language or it

might be different a cow says Moo in

English and a mouse says squeak okay so

we can learn a lot about the language in

your own language these onomatopoeic

words will probably be different even

though the sounds are the same because

we interpret the sounds through the

phonemes of our own language there are a

lot of interesting things that we can

learn by looking at onomatopoeia

keywords and you will see for example

that the short vowel sounds here are

represented with one letter clap crunch

nach splash whereas the long vowel

sounds are represented by two letters

together another thing that we notice is

that we have friendly letters that like

each other like the LA and the ruh which

often join with other consonants to form

these consonant blends clap crunch and

here we've got a triple blend which you

may not have in your language and this

is the split okay as in splash and here

we have another one squirt as in squeak

okay another thing you'll notice is that

here we have got anak we have two

letters that represent one phoneme that


two letters again which represent one

phoneme so you can see how the symbols

and the sounds are related and well I

think we can move on I usually do this

in front of a crowd and everybody's

shouting out the answers so it seems a

bit strange to be doing it without

hearing anyone speaking but I'm sure you

get the idea so how does this apply to

our very very young learners I'm sure

you all know the famous story where's my

mummy when the little chick crack comes

out of the egg and pops out and she's

very hungry and she's looking all around

and suddenly she sees a dog and she says

sheep are you my mummy and of course the

dog will say woof woof

no I'm not your mommy so the chick goes

along and speaks to the next animal that

she sees which is a cat who of course

says meow no I'm not sure mommy when she

goes to see the mouse it's squeak squeak

and the duck quack-quack

usually at this stage my students think

that their little chick has found her

mommy so that's quite nice because of

course she hasn't and we have here what

does a pig say oink oink and a sheep baa

and a cow says Moo and of course none of

them are mummy but here can you hear

cluck cluck cluck cluck cluck here she


here's mummy and she's brought our

little chick some lovely yummy worms so

with a story like this when you're

working with very young children through

the sounds you're actually teaching them

the phonemes of the language so it's

very very important that we are

replicating here what young children

learn in their own language and in our

classes it's a very very important thing

that we actually use the onomatopoeic

words of English when we

using these kinds of stories and also

that we do use these kinds of stories

and we ask the children to repeat these

sounds so that they're internalizing the

phonemes a game you can play here at

circle time is to put up all the animals

and ask a child to come to the front and

look at the pictures and then you choose

somebody in the room to make one of the

sounds for example anna is going to has

decided to be the cat and she'll say

meow and the child who's facing the

pictures has to try and work out who it

is that's made the sound and if she's

right then the other child comes up and

is the next person to guess so one kind

of activity that you can use with very

young children to help them to hear the

phonemes of the English language well do

we model for our early language learners

before they even see the the actual

letters the symbols of the written

language we read we help them to

recognize that sounds can be long or

short they can be voiced or unvoiced we

blend sounds to make words and when we

read sounds are represented by symbols

so even if they actually don't know what

the symbols are yet they recognize the

relationship okay so this is phase one

phonics um does anyone have any

questions at this stage one question

Karen from Christine that might I don't

if you want to take it now it's about

whether you would teach phonics

differently to l2 learners than to

native l1 learners do we like to answer

that now we'll save that for later

yes certainly at this stage there would

be no difference as you can see it's the

same the same way that you would teach

any small child

the thing about phonics is that it is

not separate from the language okay it's

just it's the study of the line

which from the point of view that the

spoken and written language are very

very closely related so I would say that

there are some differences and I

actually did want to answer this

question at another stage but I'm going

to answer it here because I think it's

actually quite important to recognize

that there is really in AFL going to be

huge strides in the way that we teach

phonics in the future we are going to

make it our own it's going to be

probably different than the way it's

taught in schools to native Native

students at the moment we've taken all

the information and all the books and

we're following this but already there

are huge exciting developments in in EFL

in terms of teaching phonics

specifically to non-native children and

everyone in fact you don't have to be a

child to learn a lot about pronunciation

and literacy with phonics thanks I've

got a couple of people asking what when

do you start teaching and phase one how

old are the students when you're phase

one is the minute they come into your

classroom they might be two it doesn't

really matter its phase one phonics is

exactly what a mother or father does

when they're speaking to their child

they exaggerate the phonemes of the

language they the if the child is

playing with the car and is going Brum

Brum Brum Brum for example they're

actually choosing to use the phonemes to

make a sound you know all this all this

work with like when when you are doing a

story and someone's knocking at the door

for example if you say the word knock

knock knock you are doing it differently

than you were doing another language and

they're learning so much information

about the way the language works and

also about the phonemes of the language

okay thanks you've got time for one more

question or okay Christians that are

gently asked if you could define the

difference between voiced and unvoiced

yes question that will come up actually

a voiced consonant is one which well we

talked about consonants in terms of

pairs and if you look at your phonemic

chart you'll see for example that the

sound and the sound the the manner of

articulation the way your lips are

formed and the explosion of the air is

the same but the difference is that one

has the voice added to it

the as in fact compared as in pen does

that answer the question I think so

thanks very much yes okay phase two

phonics is when we start to talk about

letter sounds we ask our students to put

a sound a phoneme to a letter and this

is called a letter sound okay we use

these letter sounds to blend them so

that we can read words and for teachers

at this stage it's very important that

you know and understand the alphabetic

code at this stage we also need to teach

some tricky words especially so that

students recognize this concept of

tricky words so that when they're trying

to blend to read a word if they're not

pronouncing it correctly they realize

that it's not them it's the language

there's still things that they need to

learn so we can always say to a child

ah that's a tricky word when they try to

to read a word that they're unable to

the alphabetic code if you I'm going to

show it to you in a minute but if you go

to the blog article click on a link and

you'll be able to down it download your

own copies if you haven't got any there

are several different ones floating

around in the world

but I've put together one that I hope

you will find useful okay some common

questions okay what is a letter sound I

don't know if I've answered that but

we're going to look at that more

carefully okay which letter sounds do I

teach first and why how do I introduce

the letter sounds and what are tricky

words and how do I teach them so in this

next in the rest of the of the webinar I

hope that I answer these questions but

if you feel as if they haven't been

answered to oh you don't understand

anything please do ask at any time

during our question times so let's have

a look at the alphabetic courage here

these are the consonants with major

alternative Spelling's so I'll just get

my pointer here and you can see if we

look at birth do you remember I said

that here we have the voiced consonant

and the pair the unvoiced one is the pop

which means the manner of articulation

is the same for these two you can see

that also with and good that's another

pair we've got a do and a very

interesting one here which doesn't exist

in some languages is the Jew in jam

which is the voiced consonant for the

child as in chips okay why it's very

important to point these things out now

is that when you study the consonant

alphabetic code you will be able to

decide if in some cases you have one of

the voiced or unvoiced consonants but

not the other because it's a very good

way to teach your students for example

in Spain we have the CH sound but the

sound is missing but I know that they

have the right manner of articulation so

I can use this and I can tell them to

voice it to get this other sound

you'll have to study the alphabetic code

and work out which consonants are

missing and then you'll be able to use

this in some cases we have another one

for example the and the you will see in

perhaps in in your language one of these

is missing so the idea is that by

recognizing and using a letter to

represent a phoneme you can provide

students with words that then they are

able to pronounce using that recognition

of a particular letter that goes with

the phoneme you can see here of course

and very other some other things for

example the doubled consonants are

always exactly the same it's the same

thing you can see here our very first

alternative spelling alright we've got

the as in cat the as in kik so C and K

are alternative spellings for the same

phoneme and then we have what we call a

digraph you can see here the combination

of two letters which actually still

gives us the same phoneme the phoneme so

this is the kind of information that you

will find in the alphabetic code here we

have the phoneme and look at the digraph

here the pH which gives us the same

sound and it we use it an elephant but

also phone and phonics for example if

you look through you will see several of

these so that's what the alphabetic code

is it's the a chart showing the

alternative spellings for the same sound

so well let's move on how do we actually

you can see how many consonants there

are in the English language here

consonant phoneme

which I'm going to call letter sounds

from now on you can see how many letter

sounds we've got so how do we help our

students to remember them especially

when they're probably starting to learn

this information when they're 5 or 6 so

one way is we try and reference

there's the consonants or the letter

sound sorry we try and reference the

letter sound so that we can repeat them

again and again we if you follow any

methods you will know that they often

use gestures and songs and stories which

are all the kinds of things simply the

idea is to place this information in the

head where it can be referenced and and

pulled out regularly until the

information is automatic within the

child so here we've got Sammy's the

snake loves sleeping in the Sun for

example Gertie goats got a gorgeous gown

Harry the horse loves to do housework so

I think he's actually happy doing

housework isn't he so you can see that

by doing this we we have a reference

that our students can can relate to so

it's very very important to especially

when you're first teaching children to

realize that it's not easy for them to

remember the let the letter sound this

that is the the letter and the phoneme

that goes with it so we need to work

work on this for example here we've got

the first one that we usually do is

because this it's such a simple shape

for one we thought for one thing it's in

lots of words and as you can see this is

a phonics wolf in a children's classroom

and you can see some of the words that

students are learning stop son seeds in

fact they're sunflower seeds and there's

a skirt so the idea is in your room you

could have

whatever let us sound you're learning

you could put up some pictures to go

with it and that's one way of helping

the students to recognize the sound at

the beginning of words which is where we

start mmm what I found incredibly

interesting about this is how my

students through this actually remember

more vocabulary they remember words a

lot a lot easier by recognizing or

remembering the first sound and the

first letter in that word a game that I

play with my students that they really

like is to put a whole lot of objects in

a bag and one child comes to the front

and sticks their hands in the bag and

with their eyes closed they feel the

object and they hold it up so that the

other students can see it and the other

students can only say the first letter

or that the the the letter sound the

initial letter sound so for example if

their child pulls out one of these

objects the children might say doo doo

doo and of course then that helps the

child to realize that it's actually a

dog so I've had a lot of fun playing

that game with my students and again

here we're looking at initial little

letter sounds and you can hold up the

letter sound at the same time if you

want to give them extra extra practice

what comes next we spend a lot of time

working with the initial letter sounds

and of course consonants are great for

this there are a lot more words that

start with consonants but when we're

blending we need to stick in those vowel

sounds so this is where I'm going to

show you for the first time the

alphabetic code for the vowels with the

major alternative spellings you can see

they're far too many for a very young

child to learn all at once which is why

phonics is a process we tend to take

what we don't tend we teach the first

five vowel sounds to start with

and we're looking at the or and aa

letter sounds and so let's just look at

the process quickly through three slides

here we've got what I might first do

with my students where I give them

pictures or drawings and little cards

with with the initial letter sound so

here we've got the F in egg in hats son

the Fed Cup so if you've got no W be an

interactive whiteboard it's fantastic

because you can ask them to drag them

across and then we move on and we could

have little cards around the room or

whatever or on the tables and children's

now have to match the initial sound to

the simple word these are simple

decodable words so we've got birth as in

bed and then they can match they already

know the birth in bed and then they

match the initial letter sound the

decodable word with the picture so then

I would take away that initial letter

sound and now the children are reading

words which they find incredibly

exciting and again this is a very lovely

thing if you're able to do it on an

interactive whiteboard but also if you

don't mind having little pieces of paper

it's phonics works really well as a

warmer at the beginning of the class and

sometimes I'll just have a picture on

the table with a series of laminated

words like this and the children come in

and they they have to match the words to

the pictures and then show me and then

we can move on to do something else

so that's an initial activity another

one once they've mastered say 20 or so

of these d cut simple decodable words

you can play bingo which they absolutely

love so let's try and make phonics fun

and exciting you can see here are two


bingo boards they can play it in teams

or pairs or you might want to give them

individual ones you can make a set of

these and laminate them which is why

I've shown it to you like this because

here you can see these little pieces of

card the children each have their their

cards and then you have an envelope and

in the envelope are the words I often

put the words and the picture with the

picture next to it in the card so that

even children who are not reading it are

able to put their hands into the bag and

say the word and so you can see the

first word to be pulled out with Sun and

both teams have have got a point

and in the next one we've got aunt and

now team one is in front so that's a fun

way to make this process enjoyable and

it's also very interesting how much you

can see about which children are

blending in which ones are still having

trouble at this stage do games like this

okay another game that you can play is

well this is a really important I'd like

to to stop it this is how many words can

you make now some people ask why don't

we teach the letters of the alphabet in


perhaps if you know the answer you can

write it now in the chatbox because here

we have got the five vowel sounds Val

letter sounds which are very very

important for making these decodable

words but we've only got nine of the

consonant sounds and these are some very

very common ones and we've actually

chosen them and they are use because we

can make so many words with them just to

give you an example very quickly there

we've got cat bed and son and there's

other words there as well of course you

can immediately see part

a net bad Matt pet and so on so this is

why we don't teach the letters in

alphabetical order although with older

children I see nothing wrong with that

because they already have that

information so again we can play with

these if you have your children in

sitting at different tables you can give

them these little cards and you ask them

to make words you read out the words and

each team gets a point

for the words that they make correctly

and at the end the team who first

realizes that you've got you've gone

back to the original word and calls out

full circle gets an extra point so for

example the first word I call out is cat

and if they're very young and they're

still not blending properly you could

say Cat Cat for example and the children

look through their letter sounds and

they make the word and then you have the

next one but a dead son 10 hat wait for

it cat full circle so using just these

this number of letters you can make

loads and loads of words so as long as

you choose your letters carefully you

can play this game at the end of a class

for several weeks even choosing

different different words and it's just

fun but it's also giving them the sounds

of English in Spain we have a lot of

trouble with the an ox sound so they're

often writing cut-ins de cat and but

instead of bat and bus and bus and so

it's it's really useful to help that to

for the repetition for them to hear the

sounds that might be missing in their

language mmm


what next alright the next thing that we

need to realize is that initial blends

are very important so you can see that

there's some letters that are really

friendly and the RIP letter sound and

that left one are two of these very very

friendly letters they like to they like

to join up with other consonants to make

hmm these initial blends so if we say to

a child but yeah it's very hard for them

to hear the word bread so we need to

actually recognize that when we're

blending initial with initial blends we

need to say the two together so you

might want to practice this at home

right now it's breath drip-free gray

blue cliff LeFleur so once i've taught

these then i would move on to triple

blends which are much more difficult for

students and in some countries where

they don't exist they find it very

difficult to say them and you can see

here we've got squirt splurt spray and

strip so a game you can play with these

blends is for example just on your

whiteboard you can just write the first

four boxes their breath drew fragra and

as a warmer one day the students have to

try and think of as many words they can

with this with with these combinations

so I'm sure you can immediately think of

some for example we've got anyone want

to write anything in the chat box I

don't know we've got brown bring draw

drink frog green and so on and then if

you played as a team game you simply

count up all the different words and if

they're spelled correctly they

a point and then you can do the next one

another day and the next one another day

so here are some examples of answers

that you might get okay so now um we let

me see oh yes now you can ask questions

and we're doing very well for time by

the way we just want to push on a bit so

that we don't fall back but I would be

very happy to answer a few questions now

okay so we've got our question from

Christine who asks what do you suggest

when some children can't pronounce some

of the sounds that you teach

okay well that's actually the whole

point well they're two issues here why

can't the child pronounce it some

children may have problems because of

some sort of muscular thing or whatever

so this is obviously not the issue we're

dealing with here right now where these

children probably need extra help but

they will also have problems in their

own language I imagine you're speaking

about children who have trouble

pronouncing English phonemes because

they don't exist in their language in

that case this is the whole point of

phonics for EFL by isolating every

single phoneme and attaching it to a

letter sound we're giving them a

reference to a phoneme that they may not

have even heard before and it also also

means that they stop putting if they

have a if their language is also written

in a Roman language they often tend to

substitute their own pronunciation their

own phoneme for the English one so this

is the habit that we're breaking this is

what we're doing through creating this

referencing and repetition and by making

every phoneme concrete by giving it a

symbol that the children can practice

practice saying it with and they can

keep seeing the this

same letter sound in several different

words until they can actually recognize

and hear the sound and pronounce it okay

thanks I had a few questions about

phonetic symbols and whether you teach

primary children these and and if so of

what one age and how and would you would

you introduce them to phonetic symbols

with phonics phonetics is absolutely

fantastic of course but it's the

International reference and this is

something for later all right

phonics is something that allows

children to immediately understand the

phonemes the letter sounds of the

language put them together to read words

so no I wouldn't introduce the phonetic

script to primary children question

directly related to phase 2 phonics

there okay thanks yeah yes thank you so

phase 3 phonics we go into the digraphs

and trigraphs and the split digraph more

alternative spellings and more tricky

words and so as so we're going to use

this as an example here we have our

chickens in the kitchen the chickens are

cooking in the kitchen and you will see

here we've got a digraph digraph for

this phony which cannot be represented

with a single letter and we also have

what is called a tri graph you can see

here the TCH as in kitchen and match and

which all is exactly the same phoneme as

the the digraph here so children do need

to learn

sometimes a letter sir a phoneme can

only be pronounced by combining two

letters and that there are also three

letters that make one sound the most

important thing here is that this is

actually very very important when we're

working with the vowels and you see here

we have so many vowel sounds in English

we've got a short vowel sounds we have

two more short vowel sounds the sound

and the sound the famous schwa so

besides these we have got all these

lovely long vowel sounds a e i o u oi

ooh one of these is not strictly you'll

see here this is not strictly phoneme

it's the u sound but we teach it because

you'll notice something interesting here

eh I oh and you are the names of these

letters of the alphabet it's very very

useful that they're able to for when

they when they have to learn to spell

that they actually know how to pronounce

these phonemes not only that of course

the U has a particular spelling which

often as you can see here in ooh is

sometimes the same but we also have a

separate spelling here for the vu

phoneme without the year sound in front

of it but to get back to basics here

let's just have a look you can see here

rain this is the first the digraph that

we teach first for this sound a we can

make a lovely rain just your a as in

rain and then we've got at the end of

words a with the Y at the end and then

what we have here is called the split

digraph children need to learn that we

sometimes separate

these two two letters that make a long

vowel sound and we put a consonant

between them in order to but but but the

sound is still the same what else is

important here so much you'll really

need because we haven't got all that

much time to look at the look at this

and see what's really important for you

in your language which vowel sounds

don't exist and then of course let's

take a look at a few little other things

for example here we've got the trigraph

i gh as in light and right and bright

and once children learn about this to

trigraph of course you can stop them

thinking that it's Rickett and it makes

it a lot easier for them to recognize

the spelling pattern something else

which is very important to recognize is

that sometimes we have as you can see

here the O phoneme is sometimes written

Oh W as in yellow but sometimes what a

digraph or can be used for a different

phoneme so here we've got the owl as in

brown some people at this point think

well that's very difficult but in fact

it can't these to the this diagraph here

can't represent many other sounds so

it's actually once you've isolated it

and then you do some work with your

students then they recognize that it has

to be one of two sounds which is better

than having to wonder what on earth you

know how this how this word is is

pronounced okay as I said we've got here

AEIOU these are the ones that we tend to

teach first I actually tend to teach you

and do together because it gives us so

many more words to

to play with and another very very

important one is working with the sound

because the this long sound is so common

in English but not only that not only do

we use it when we when we're trying to

work out what to say next when we say oh

but we shorten it and we make this schwa

and so we can actually it's a wonderful

thing to be able to concretely show our

students how to make the schwa so in

words like sister brother mother father

it is simply this short sound this this

long sound shortened let's move on and

look at ways to actually make this

information clear to our students and to

practice it with them in games so you

can see one way is to ask our students

to recognize and to hear the phonemes in

the word so here's the three phonemes

and a mm and four phonemes and train hmm

train so we can ask our students to put

these put the phonemes put the words

into the boxes according to the number

of phonemes so you can see I'm sure

everyone can see that the first word cat

Act has three phonemes but it's very

important to recognize it so does the

second one or a mmm

so let's just have a look at this

information if we put it in here just

take a little look at that because it'll

help you to because you'll need to be

looking at the phonemes within words as


recognizing the spelling patterns that

go with them and if we look at if we

take song as an example you can see oh

mmm okay so here the

is a phoneme that can only be

represented with two letters there with

the diagraph okay so the trick is to

recognize where a digraph is actually

one sound and your students can get very

good at this if you give them practice

okay we're going to now look at some

examples of long vowel sounds and ways

that you can practice them with your

students and the e sound as in C tree B

week also the alternative spelling read

team C eat and the split digraph these

theme and sing just to give you examples

of course some of these words you may

not use with your students but we

working all the way through primary so

at the end of primary primary children

will have seen all of these words so a

game that I play which my students

really like is a running dictation with

a gap tick so the students are in teams

and the students have a paper here with

the e sound and you can see it's a

gapped text then on the wall I put here

the the words with the e sound in them

that need to fit into this gap tates so

you can see Peters there so that the

children have something to reference and

to recognize what they're going to do so

you can play it in pairs or you can play

in groups and one child runs up to the

front and they find the word that's

going to go into the the gap so let's

have a look at a finished example of

this game Pete likes the beach he can

swim in the sea he can eat ice cream and

read books read should be blue okay I

don't know what's happened there okay

and sleep under a tree Pete likes the


okay so you will notice here that the he

is the tricky word alright we need to

teach children that the pronunciation is

the same as in eat and cream and sleep

so you can play this game of course with

any alternative spellings any long vowel

sounds what we're going to look now at

is the a sound say de play may rain

train tale wait name game cake plane so

again you can see the alternative

spellings for this phoneme here and

sometimes you can just do this as a

dictation if you want but you can see

here there's a whole lot of simple

sentences and the students have to try

and guess what goes into the gaps or

like I say if you do it as a dictation

you can put them all in and then put it

up on the board and ask students to

check their answers and check their

spelling and then you can go through all

the alternative spellings

with older students when I want them to

compare phonemes I might play that

running gap-fill game that I showed you

earlier with Pete likes the beach here

but I might combine two phonemes as you

can see here on the same paper we have

two and the students take it in terms to

run and try and find the words that fit

okay into the gaps and it's very

interesting for them because if they're

not phonemes that exist in their

language they will find this very

difficult so it really helps them to

recognize the different phonemes at the

same time as they're learning the

alternative spellings of course that

we're going into higher primary now this

is probably for a primary five and six

another thing that you can do and again

because we're moving into higher primary

is you can ask them a load of questions

and I've chosen the early days on so you

can see the kind of info

students need I wouldn't ask five

questions but probably three or four

questions that I would put on the board

and for example what is your birthday on

the 1st 3rd 21st or 23rd day of the

month are you an early bird

would you prefer to work as a nurse or a


how many girls in the class are wearing

skirts write some new words you learned

this term ok so here we have we asked

the students if they can find the earth

sound in these words ok and you can see

that we have alternative spelling with

IR here we have our main spelling that

we teach and then we have got other

alternative Spelling's here and here ok

but we also have some tricky words work

journalist alright so when we combine

them like this and we put all the words

together we're helping our students to

recognize that tricky words and the

tricky words that have the same

pronunciation as the words that they're

learning then I would just ask them to

answer the questions and we'd have a

discussion in class it makes a really

nice warmer ok so here we've got another

game this is the same game that we

played at first but now I just want to

play this so you can see how students

learn to recognize split digraphs so

here you can see in their groups you you

would give them these little cards and

that you asked them to

the first word might be trained so they

look through all the cards and they they

make train ok and then look at this

plane they have to take away the a and

they have to substitute it here for the

split digraph so

then that's you know this is this is a

way to help them to recognize that and

then some children will need help with

this of course and we go on to name home

mine train and we've come full circle so

if you play this game and the team that

recognizes that they've come full circle

can get an extra point so that's just

another game and the reason I finished

on the a is because we're moving into

tricky words next because we've only got

10 minutes left can you if you have any

very important questions about this

please can you write it down on a piece

of paper and we'll come back to it

because I'd really like to go on to

tricky words to make sure that we answer

a very important question okay so you

your students all about AZ's I chose use

or hours and and A's and of course all

these tricky words are coming up let's

use a as an example here we've got they

gray hey eight straight weight and great

break and steak so students have to be

able to recognize that these are tricky

words with your help and then of course

you need to somehow find ways of helping

them to remember how they're pronounced

so the first thing you can say is how

should it sound look at this word what's

wrong with this word we'd say look

surely it should be pronounced on e but

it's not because it's a tricky word so

this is one way of getting them to

recognize it so then we've got drilling

and repetition most children because

they've learned

one two three four since they were very

children as soon as they say one they

say it correctly because of all of this

repetition of this particular tricky

word that they've had since they were

very young but if it's a new word you

may need to to say it for example

straight straight alright and then what

is this word straight as in

I've got straight hair what word does it

sound like well it sounds like today and

make and it actually rhymes with late

and gate so you can see that we we use

this kind of information and as you can

see here one rhymes with here we have a

decodable words so we can help our very

little ones straightaway when they see

that word one rhymes with Sun shoe

rhymes with zoo and keys rhyme with peas

so this is the kind of thing that we we

do but you may want to give them more

help and here's a quick warmer that you

could play each one of these games you

would only play one game at the

beginning of a class and you can see

here you would have to make some sort of

a little table or you could put it on

the board that when the student throws a

one they get to tick off the I if they

throw two they can tick off the me if

they throw a three they can tick off the

we they get a four they can tick off of

the and five is a you and six they can

tick off do so the first person to throw

all the letters sorry all the numbers of

the of the dice will be the ones who are

the winners just to show you how it

works for example this student has

thrown a three so they can tick off we

but if they're doing this of course they

have to keep repeating and repeating and

the children who haven't got this yet

will then have to repeat it and so

they'll be hearing the pronunciation of

these tricky words as they're reading

them again and again six do another

tricky word and now this student has got

to and they need to get four more to be

the winners of that round in the game so

that's one possibility and as you can

see then perhaps in the next class you

might play with these words and or the

week after and then you can see here are

some more tricky words for a bit later

on the

a bit more difficult for some students

okay now here's here's something that I

wanted to do with you just because we do

so much poetry when we're learning

English and it's one of the ways that we

recognize tricky words because we we

hear all these poems and words that

rhyme and we learn it quite naturally

and it needs it's something that we

probably need to do a bit more with our

students and you can see here this is

the sound as in London so when you come

to a tricky word which has the sound you

can say to them

ah this word has the earth sound like

London and here we have a poem my cousin

from London is young and funny

she loves the Sun and running and

jumping but she doesn't like studying or

spending money so we could say this

power several times as a class while

they're reading it so they can recognize

all these different spellings of the AH

sound as in London and then you could

ask them to try to put the poem back

together from the initial letter sounds

so you can see here that I've given help

with for example the Shh my cousin from

London is young and funny she loves the

Sun and running and jumping but she

doesn't like studying or spending money

so it's just another way of tricking

students into saying free keywords and

recognizing the the spelling as you can

see of some of those words which they're

probably not pronouncing correctly at

the moment and well that is the end of

the webinar and we just have a few

minutes for any questions that you'd

like to ask

very much Karen yes we've got time for a

few questions

so someone look I've got quite a few

come in during the course of the of the

talk that's that's Maria pavlo asks if

you can suggest a particular book for

phonics covers what you've been looking

at well there are several several

methods and it depends on the age so one

of the issues that we have at the moment

is that in EFL we don't really have many

straight up phonics books with the kind

of language for example in the native

language we have so many more words that

we can use which are less relevant for

our students but of course if you just

go online and you put in phonics you

you'll find hundreds of workbooks I also

like to use stories so so yes they're

there there's a lot of information at

the moment off the top of my head I'm

afraid I can't really recommend any book

in particular okay thanks Cambridge

course books of course all the primary

course books now have phonics in them

but a specific book I'll have to think

about that I think it's a question about

silent letters what what eight stage do

you recommend is teaching those silent

words with silent letters will come up

where they come up in the topic that

you're teaching and they if they have a

silent letter in them that makes them a

tricky word so I would try to find a way

of teaching them there to show you know

like for example when they have to start

reading the word listen and there's that

lovely silent T in there as in there's

listen and castle and whistle and you

know so I might make a point of

highlighting the

fact that in that there are these words

that have this silent letter and I would

say yes this is a tricky word well it

may be another question

I'm question from excellent Bajada

parathe who asks and how you'd explain

the the different sounds forth for th

rather ah th okay well first of all here

we go back to our voiced and unvoiced

consonant so we've got our everything is

the same except for that one's got a

voice and one hasn't so I would use this

concept and then if you if you dictate

some sentences I can't think of any off

the head let me talk my head the thirsty

the thirsty mother thinks sweaty at

whatever I would dictate a sentence like

this and then I would ask my students to

color the unvoiced consonant for example

in blue and the voiced consonant in red

that's one idea okay thank you very much

I'm afraid that's all we've got time for

today but thank you very much Karen for

the absolutely fascinating session with

lots of wonderful ideas and just remind

everybody that Karen's written a blog

post for us about phonics which also

contains a lot of really useful ideas

and information and also a link to the

alphabetic code so I've just pasted that

into the chat and also I should let you

know that we've got some new webinars

coming up but they're so new that

they're not actually listed on our

website yet but because you've attended

today we can let you know ahead of time

what they're going to be so I've just

pasted those into the chat we've got

craig thane on june 16th in that's in

just three weeks time that's going to be

six hours earlier so in the morning in

the UK and that's on second language

acquisition and managable learning then

the following week at the normal time we

have Teresa Clemmensen on effortless

fluency for your high level learners and

the day after that I just put the link

in slightly been correctly that

and day after that on June the 24th

you'll have another chance to hear

Adrienne Tov do his talk on more than

speaking I'm developing student speaking

skills because we had a problem when we

recorded that and so the recording if

that's not been available on the website

but and that's on June the 24th which is

a Wednesday at 3 o'clock the usual time

so there are links to those in the in

the chat will will pace I'm sure it's

very very helpfully pasting those into

the into the chat right now so thank you

everyone for attending certificates will

be sent out automatically later this

week probably on Friday this week and

thank you very much Karen for another

really interesting webinar thanks Karen

great thanks then hi everybody

The Description of Phonics Fun & Games for Infants and Primary