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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Error Recognition 4

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let's see if you can spot a couple of

errors in these two sentences on the

board here let's start with the one on

top a threat to citizens throughout the

state we are taking action to curb the

spread of Lyme disease take a look at

that now the problem here is this

beginning part the threat to citizens

throughout the state that would have to

be an A+ it's outside of the mag flaws

you see it's separated by a comma the

main Clause is we are taking action to

curb the spread of Lyme disease that's

the heart of the sentence but it has

this a positive sitting right in front

and that means that the thing that

follows the appositive has to be the

thing that is a threat to citizens

throughout the state namely it would

have to be lyme disease so if the

sentence began this way a threat to

citizen citizens throughout the state

you would have the next words we have to

be lyme disease so a threat to citizens

around the state Lyme disease is in our

crosshairs as we attempt to curb its

spread or something like that so the

problem is is that this sentence

actually says that we are the threat to

citizens throughout the state because

the appositive automatically renames

whatever noun it is right next to so

this thing here is the problem and this

sentence is not ambiguous it doesn't

it's not that we can't tell what it's

trying to say it's saying one wrong

thing namely that we are a threat to

citizens throughout the state not that

that is necessarily false maybe we are

but it isn't what they're trying to say

let's look at this next sentence here

having weighed all relevant factors

construction on

new dam will begin immediately let's

take a look at that now the problem here

is that we don't begin with an

appositive we begin with a participial

phrase that is standing outside the main

clause but if you begin this way if you

have a participle phrase outside the

main clause

it automatically modifies the subject of

the main clause it's a little different

from the apposite the appositive doesn't

necessarily always modify a subject but

it does modify the thing that it's right

next to participial phrases modify the

subject so the problem is here that the

what has to happen next if you begin

with having way the relevant factors is

you have to have an entity that is

capable of weighing relevant factors

namely a person but when you get is

construction that is the subject of the

main clause is construction on the new

dam while construction hasn't waived

relevant factors we have for the board

has or somebody has actually there's no

there's nobody mentioned in the in the

sentence at all who couldn't have

weighed relevant factors so the problem

here is this participle phrase once

again as is the case above this is not

an ambiguous sentence it simply says one

thing that cannot be namely that

construction on the dam has weighed all

the relevant factors

The Description of Error Recognition 4