Hey, my phone's ringing.
I wonder who it could be.
Hey, there's E and Mini E. Let's listen in on the conversation.
But before we do, I want to explain today's lesson is on the short forms of some auxiliary
verbs, such as the verb: "have", "would", and "will", and how we use...
how you can tell when you should use a contraction or what the contraction means when you see it.
If you don't know what I mean, don't worry; we'll go to the board and we'll figure it out.
First off, let's listen to this conversation.
"I would call James again but he is not home."
Well, I have my phone on me.
"Well, I'd call him again if I were you."
Now, this video is brought to you for... this is for Vanessa from Peru.
She's Mini E because she's short; she's short.
It's kind of... don't get angry, Vanessa.
Anyway, so this is a contraction.
Now, is this: "I would" or "I had"?
If you don't know, it's okay; our lesson today will teach you how.
So, let's do a quick overview of what we're talking about.
We're going to talk about the verb "to have", the verb "to be", and a couple of modal verbs,
and what the contractions are.
I've put the contractions up here, and as you can see: "had" becomes "'d", "has" becomes
"'s", the contraction for "have" is "'ve".
The apostrophe tells us that the beginning part of the verb is missing, so this is what
is left over.
When we look over at the verb "to be", the same thing is here.
We have the verb... you know, we have "are" becomes "'re", "is" becomes "'s", and "am"
If you were paying close attention, I have "'s" and "'s", and you might say: "Well, if
you have both, how do I know the difference?"
We're going to get there.
The last one for the modal verbs are: "would" and "will".
And once again, "'d" and you'll say: "Hey, you've done it again.
There are two of these."
I go: Yeah, I know, and so will you shortly, and how to tell the difference and use it.
And the "'ll".
I'm not talking LL Cool J. Sorry.
[Laughs] Anyway, so how do we identify or use these in the correct form?
So, let's go... start off with the verb "have" to start off with.
We've got the "'d", "'s", "'ve".
Well, what you want to find after you have this added to any pronoun, like: "I've", "you've",
or what have you, is look for a past participle.
A past participle is a word that indicates a past... that the past is attached to it.
Some are easy.
With regular verbs they're exactly the same; irregular verbs, they can be changed.
So: "see" becomes not "saw", but "seen".
"Be" becomes "been"; or "gone" instead of "went".
So, sometimes they're different than the past... the past verbs, and other times they're exactly
So let's look an example in this case for the "have".
"I'd seen the movie before."
Well, we know this... how do we know this is: "I had seen"?
This is a past participle.
So: "I'd seen", this is a past participle, and we look this, we know this is: "I had
seen the movie before."
Let's look at the next one.
Is it: "He is gone home" or "He has gone home"?
Well, "is" this is a past participle: "gone", so then we know this is "has", so: "He has
And then what about this one?
It's almost easy because it's "'ve", so we know it's going to be "have", but: "I've always
loved"... remember I said this is a regular past tense?
So, this past participle is a regular verb, so it's easy to see here.
"I have always loved these flowers; they are beautiful".
"I've loved", past participle.
So now that we've looked at that example, let's look at the other one that might be
a bit confusing with the verb "to be" because we have the "'s" and the "'s".
What can we do to identify it so we know the correct form to use?
Well, we have: "'re", "'s", and "'m".
And the first thing it says here is: If you see any of this and it's followed by a verb
with an "ing", then it's probably the verb "to be".
Or if it's followed by an adjective, it's the verb "to be"; not the verb "to have".
What are the examples?
Well, we're going to take the same sentences we have here, and redo them in a fashion that
we can see the difference.
So, here, it says: "I'm seeing that movie later".
"I am" is followed by a verb "to be", "ing", "that movie".
Now, let's look at the second sentence: "He's going home."
Now, before we didn't know if it was: "He has going home" or "He is going home", but
we notice there is a verb-"ing" here, which makes this the verb "to be".
"He is going home."
And if we compare over here: "He has gone", we can see the past participle versus the
verb with "ing" to make it clear.
And now let's look at the last one.
I played a little trick here to make it a little bit more interesting.
"I love these flowers; they're beautiful."
We see the "'re" is here, and you're going to say: "I don't see an 'ing'.
Well, what is that?"
Do you remember what I said?
It also can be followed by an adjective, because: "I am happy", "happy" is an adjective.
In this case, it is: "The flowers are beautiful", so the flowers, they are beautiful.
So it's showing an adjective following this contraction to explain it's the verb "to be".
You're doing a good job.
Now let's go to the third and final one before we go to our, you know... the stage where
I like to check to make sure you understand and sort of, like, a little test, but really
it's to finalize your learning.
Let's look at the modal verbs: "would" and "will".
As I said before, the "'d" might be confusing for you because we have it on the verb to...
verb to... verb "to have".
So, how do we identify it so that we know that they're not the same?
Well, let's take a look.
"I'd see that movie if it were free."
Now, when we said it was the verb "to have", you need a past participle.
A rule for modals are: When you... is when you have a modal it's followed by the base
form of the verb.
So, an example: "I can do it", "You could go", "We will"...
I'll say: "We will do something", "We will... we will buy it".
So, the verb that follows a modal has to be in the base form, versus the verb that follows
the verb "have", which is a past participle.
So, let's look here: "I'd seen the movie", "I'd see the movie".
This is the base form.
So, because we had the base form, we know it cannot be a past participle, therefore
it's not the verb "have".
So, it means: "I would see", and that's what it is.
"I would see that movie".
And I'll give you another little thing that I didn't mention.
We're talking about conditional here because "I'd", here, this is imaginary.
"I would see if..."
So: "I would if..."
That'll be helpful sometimes, if you look for this "if" that follows, and that would
give you: "I would do this if..."
But just sticking to the basic rule, anyway: "I" followed by a verb in the base, it's easy
enough to remember.
This is just a little extra hint for you.
Now let's look over here.
The next one: "He'll go home."
The verb is in the base, so we know this, the "'ll" is: "He will go home."
Future tense, right?
"He will go home in five minutes", or what have you.
And let's look at the final one: "I'll always love these flowers; they are beautiful".
"I'll", apostrophe, we know this... we're using a contraction.
And "love" is in the base form; not: "loved" or...
I don't know.
I'm trying to think of something funny, like... to put in the past participle, but "loved"
would be it.
So: "I'll", "love" base form, this way we know that this is a modal verb and we're using
Got it so far?
I want to do something, but we're going to take a small break before we go to the quiz
at the end where we can actually compare and just make sure you really solidified that
So, I'm going to give you a double-click, and we'll go there, and then we'll come back
at the end for our little quiz.
Are you ready?
So, I'm just a little casual because we're going to do a quick, little review; and then,
you know, when my sweater's back on, it'll be the regular lesson.
Are you ready?
Let's go to the board.
So, the other James doesn't know we're practicing before we do the actual lesson.
So, here's our quick practice.
Now, you'll notice that I have up here: "'m", "'s", and "'d"; "'m", "'s", and "'d"; "'m",
"'s", and "'d".
So you're going to want to figure out what this actually stands for and why we're going
to put it here.
So, let's look at the first sentence.
"Happy" is an adjective, right?
"Happy" is an adjective.
And what did we say goes with adjectives?
The verb "to be", correct?
So, we're going to put this one.
This one's an easy, no-brainer.
"I'm happy", because this goes here and it's for: "I am".
What about the next one?
"She'___ been gone for an hour."
Remember we said "been" on words like these, past participles, will follow what kind of
Well, it's the verb "has", right?
So: "She has", because it's past participle, goes there.
So, it's: "She has been gone", it's the past participle.
Now, what about this one?
"They'___ have been late if Mr. E didn't drive."
This one, it seemed tricky because you've got a past tense verb, here, but really we
have to look at the verb that follows right after.
And then now you might even be thinking: "But that's 'have'."
So, it would be: "They'd", that means: "They would have been late", okay?
So this is the modal: "would", right?
Because this verb is in the present form, so we can see how the adjective, the past
participle, and the present form can change the meaning of each one of these.
You guys did a good job.
Now, let's get back to the lesson before James notices we're missing.
Are you ready?
Okay, there you are.
I was wondering where you went to.
You were supposed to come here to the board, and nobody showed up for a couple of minutes.
Were you practicing?
If you were, that's a good thing.
So let's see if we can put that practice to good work.
Now, we're going to look at the board, read the sentence, and it probably reads pretty
well before we put the contractions, but let's just... let's go through it.
"Mr. E is happy because he knew Raquel would come if he let her cook dinner."
"'I will buy the best food', he thought to himself.
He had brought some... he had bought some red wine two days earlier, while he was buying
chocolate for her.
'I am the luckiest worm in the world', he said out loud."
Now, let's... the first thing I want to do is identify what we should change, because
we've been talking about contractions, and what would be possible we can change.
So, I'm going to look over here, and this, this looks like an adjective to me when I
see a verb "to be" here.
So, if that's an adjective, we might be able to look over here for a possible change.
Okay, so: "Raquel would come"... hmm.
I think we could change this, because here's "would" and here's "come" in the verb base;
maybe we could do something here.
And I'm going to say this seems the same here, because this is the verb in the base and "he
Now, verb in the base again.
So, we've got this here, so I'm going to look over here.
I think I can do something with that.
Anything else you guys can see we can fix?
Is that it, do you think?
Put it this way: "He had"... oh, okay, well: "He had bought", this is like a past participle,
And we said this is the verb in the base here, this is the past participle, this is the verb
in the base.
Just make sure we outline it so we know what we're looking at, right?
This is a verb in the base.
Wow, a lot of verb in base.
And this is a past participle, so that means we could probably do something here.
"...while he was buying chocolate for her".
Hmm, I'm confused about this one right here.
I'm confused because I see: "he was", and I remember, like, there that "s" and "buying",
but for some reason this one doesn't quite seem right.
I'm going to have to come back to that in a second and explain.
"I am the luckiest worm in the world".
Well, "lucky", "luckiest", it's really superlative, though, we're still talking about... that's
an adjective; that's describing.
What kind of worm?
The luckiest worm, because we're talking about: "I am the luckiest worm", so I'm going to
say we can probably do something with this one.
And I think we're done.
Now, let's take a look at this because this is... okay.
So, we have an adjective: "The luckiest", so we've got an adjective form here.
With a superlative.
Now let's see how I'm going to change this down here and why I marked this in red in
case you're a little confused.
So, the first thing is: "Mr. E... mr.
E's happy... mr.
E's happy because he knew..."
We're going to get rid of this part.
We say... oops.
Big cloth, here.
"...Raquel'd come if he'd"... we can get rid of this for the "would", right?
Then we can put: "...he'd.
Because Raquel would come if he'd... raquel would come if he'd let her cook dinner."
We're going to get rid of the "will" because we talked about we can change that one, right?
So: "'I'll buy the best food', he thought to himself."
And we can change this one to: "He'd", right?
"He'd bought some red wine two days earlier, while he was buying chocolate for her."
And then we said: "I'm the luckiest worm in the world."
But why didn't I change this one?
Why didn't I change this one?
Because we have a verb "to be"-right?-and we have an "ing", but the problem with this:
This is in the past.
Remember we talked about earlier about using the "'s", it has to be in the present; not
the past form.
Because when it's in the past form, we're not allowed to change it because it changes
the meaning of the sentence.
So, if you see an "s" with an "ing", it has to be present form.
This isn't present, and that's why we can't change it.
And that's why if you were going: "Oh, wait.
I see this.
I can see: There's this."
I'm like: "No, you can't do it because this is past form."
So keep that in mind; it's an exception.
Otherwise it changes the meaning of what we're saying.
If I say: "She's working yesterday.
She's working yesterday", it doesn't mean: "She is working yesterday", because yesterday
is in the past.
You could say: "She's working today."
It makes no sense to say: "She's working yesterday"; it doesn't mean: "She was working", so we
keep the past has to be non-contractioned.
Only for the present tense: "is".
For pronouns, anyway.
Now, we look at the sentence now: "Mr. E's happy because he knew Raquel'd come if he'd
let her cook dinner."
Now, a few of you might go: "Unh."
And I say: This is such a natural sentence for us to say.
We contract because we know what it is; it's just easier to get the information and faster
than reading it like this.
"'I'll buy the best food', he thought to himself.
He'd... he'd bought some red wine".
He had, right?
"He had bought some red wine two days earlier, while he was buying"-this is why it tells
us it's in the past tense-"chocolate for her.
'I'm the luckiest worm in the world', he said out loud."
So that's what it looks like with the contracted form.
You'll see spaces, there, because it reduces the amount of words we have to say so we can
actually speak faster, and you'll be able to speak faster and more like a native student.
Now, what I would like to do now is quickly give you a quick bonus.
Now, you look here.
Now, these are all the ones we'd worked on; the "'s", "'m", "'re", "'ll", and "'d", and
I need you to understand one thing that I didn't bring up, but I wanted to make sure
we had time to do it properly by itself.
At the end of the sentence, you cannot use a contraction, as the whole verb is stressed.
You might be saying: "What does that mean?"
Well, when you're at the end of a sentence, for example, this: "I am", you can't use a
contraction to say: "I'm".
And if you don't understand why, listen to what I'm going to say.
-"Are you going to the party?"
-"Yes, I am."
I need to say: "I am" as it's stressing that verb.
Now, if you say: "Are you going to the party?" and they go: "Yes, I'm..."
This almost makes us think something else is going to happen, like: "Yes, I'm going
to be coming early.
Yes, I'm bringing a friend."
So, this contraction makes us think there's something else, when really this is the end
of the sentence.
So you're not allowed to put this contraction at the end of a sentence if you're just saying:
"Yes, I am."
-"Are you doing your work?"
-"Yes, I am."
-"Are you doing your work?"
Do you see what I mean?
We stress the "I am" to say: This is what's happening right now.
Another example, in case you're a little confused, would be this: "Do you know where it is?"
So, if somebody said to me... let's say Daniel said: "The Elephant Bar - do you know where
If I respond to him... if he said: "Daniel, do you know where it's...?"
He'll look at me going: "It's what?
What are you talking about?" because "It's" something, "it is" something, as opposed to
just a question of: "Do you know where it is?"
So, I should have put a question mark there.
"Do you know where it is?"
Question mark, question mark.
This leads to: "It's", like I'm adding on to the sentence.
So, at the end of a sentence, you have to actually use the verb in itself; you cannot
It confuses the person listening.
If it's anywhere else, it's okay.
Now, that's our bonus.
For homework, and you know you have some...
[Laughs] I want you to write one sentence using a contraction in each one.
So, write one sentence for each contraction.
We have one, two, three, four, five, six.
I don't think it's too much to ask you to write out six sentences.
After all, you've watched a 30-minute video.
Following the rules I've given you, try to make sure you stay away from the examp-...
the exceptions, like a past tense "ing", you can't do that.
You cannot contract it, otherwise we're confused whether it's past or present tense.
And also making sure you don't put it at the end of a sentence; that you put a contracted
form of the verb.
I think you've done a good job; I think you've earned a little bit of a break.
Go do your homework.
Once again, I invite you to do your homework and post it up on either engVid, which is
www.eng as in English, vid as in video.com (www.engvid.com) where I know when you do
the quiz, there is a whole lot of people who talk to each other, show each other examples,
and compare, and ask for help.
Great place for you to do it.
Or here in our YouTube space, you can comment below, make your sentence, and there's someone
who will probably jump in.
I've seen many times people jumping in, helping out people, and actually engaging each other
to chat after they get off the net.
Or, sorry, on other places.
Don't forget to subscribe.
This is... there is a "Subscribe" button, press it.
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As soon as I'm finished it, straight to you.
Anyway, once again, thank you very much, and we'll see you soon.
I'm going now.
Paloma's cooking for me, and she's really good.
Was it Paloma?