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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: 21. More on Restrictive Elements and Punctuation. Grammar

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we're looking at ways to tell whether

elements in a sentence are what are

called restrictive elements which

therefore must not be set off by commas

or whether they are non restrictive

elements and therefore must be set off

by commas now let's look at some more

examples that will help us get our get

our minds around this problem let's look

at this sentence rain which falls on

Tuesdays makes me sad are these commas

correct or are they incorrect well one

way that I've already suggested using

would be to sort of have a kind of

mental Venn diagram of this of this

situation if we take first of all the

set rank and if that represents all

things that that are included in the set

rank what about the set rain which falls

on Tuesdays what does that look like

well we know that rain in fact falls on

each of the seven days given enough time

so rank which falls on Tuesdays is going

to be a subset of rank so we have rain

and rain which falls on Tuesdays that

means that which falls on Tuesdays we

stress the meaning of rain and therefore

it is called restrictive and therefore

it must not be surrounded by Commons

because these commas here what do they

say they say that all rain is rain which

falls on Tuesdays that the set rain and

the set rain which falls on Tuesdays are

identical

but commas here and the same which falls

on Tuesday is non-restrictive that is

that it adds nothing new to our notion

of what rain is so this says that all

rain falls on Tuesday

now another test you can run in your

head if you're trying to figure out this

is you know do I put commas is this

restrictive course that's non

restrictive would be as follows try out

a couple of sentences one would be rain

which by the way falls on Tuesdays makes

me sad you know rain which that stuff

that you know by the way it falls on

Tuesdays that's just an any sensual

addition how about this sentence though

rain which falls on Tuesdays as opposed

to rain which falls on Wednesdays makes

me sad now which of those two sentences

are you happier with rain which by the

way is that stuff that falls on Tuesdays

makes me sad or rain which falls on

Tuesdays as opposed to rain which falls

on Wednesdays makes me sad well I hope

it's the latter that that it's rain

which falls on Tuesdays as opposed to

rain falling on other days is the thing

that makes you sad and if the as opposed

to sentence works that means the element

you're talking about is restrictive and

if it's restrictive that means there

must not be commas if the by the way

sentence works that means the element

you're testing is non restrictive

and it must be surrounded by commas

let's look at a couple more examples

Shakespeare's play Hamlet is a traffic

book that should be underlined

Shakespeare's play Hamlet is a tragedy

now for some reason a lot of people have

a notion that if you have a title that

you just always surround us with commas

that is not true you have to ask

yourself the same kinds of questions

about titles as about any other kind of

grammatical element so if we think about

the set of things Shakespeare's play is

that the same as Shakespeare's play

Hamlet

no because Shakespeare's play if I say

Shakespeare's like you know that I mean

Hamlet no because he wrote a lot of them

so in fact when you say Shakespeare's

play Hamlet is a tragedy

what you mean is Shakespeare's play

Hamlet as opposed to his play the

Midsummer Night's Dream is a tragedy so

Hamlet here is likewise restrictive

Shakespeare's play Hamlet is a tragedy

you can't say Shakespeare's play which

by the way you know it's Pamela that's

what Shakespeare's play is know he's got

a lot of plays but suppose that somebody

named Bruno I mean there is somebody

named

but let's a fictional Bruno and Bruno

has written one and only one novel

burlap that's the title of his novel

Bruno's novel burlap is a boar given the

title that's not surprising but Bruno's

novel burlap is this correct as you

remember we took the commas are away

from being around Hamlet but here once

you see what is the set room if this is

the set Bruno's novel the things that

could be Bruno's novel and and what

would happen if you said well what is

the set Bruno's novel burlap look like

it's exactly the same because brutal

only has one novel burlap so Bruno's

novel which by the way is burlap is a

board that is correct because he only

has one novel you can't say Bruno's

novel burlap as opposed to Bruno's novel

pukka back is a bore because Bruno never

wrote another novel called pocket back

or anything else so burlap is a

non-restrictive element because as soon

as you said

Bruno's novel you've said everything

there is to say for identifying that

thing and this thing

burlap the title of it doesn't restrict

the information anymore so you can't you

can't solve this problem by saying well

is it a title or is it as warning clause

or you know that you put commas around

subordinate clauses but not around an

ounce there's no such rules as that you

simply ask yourself for whatever kind of

element it is is it restrictive or is it

non restrictive

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