Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Introduction to Principles of Management, Chapter 1 - Section 1.6

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Welcome to the Introduction of the Principles of Management. This is Chapter 1. Section

1.6. Performance of Individuals and Groups

In this video presentation, we need to stay focus on our learning objectives. And our

learning objectives are. (1). Recognize the essential dimensions of individual-level achievement.

(2). Recognize the essential dimensions of group performance. (3). Understand why individual

and group performance objectives must be aligned. Principles of management are concerned with

organization-level outcomes such as economic, social, environmental performance, innovation,

or ability to change and adapt. However, for something to happen at the level of an organization,

something must typically also be happening within the organization at the individual

or team level. For example, if you are an entrepreneur and the only person employed

by your company, the organization will accomplish what you do and reap the benefits of what

you create. Usually, though, organizations have more than one person, so we introduce

individual and group performance concepts to you.

Individual-Level Performance. The individual-level performance draws upon those things you have

to do in your job or in-role performance, and those that add value aren't part of your

formal job description. These "extras" are called the extra-role performance of organizational

citizenship behaviours (OCBs). At this point, it is probably simplest to consider an in-role

performance as having productivity and quality dimensions associated with specific standards

that you must meet to do your job. In contrast, OCBs can be understood as beneficial individual

behaviours to the organization and are discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the

formal reward system.

Compared to in-role performance, the spectrum of what constitutes extra-role performance,

or OCBs, seems to be significant and growing. In a recent review, for example, management

researchers identified 30 potentially different forms of OCB, which they conveniently collapsed

into seven common themes: (1) Helping Behavior, (2) Sportsmanship, (3) Organizational Loyalty,

(4) Organizational Compliance, (5) Individual Initiative, (6) Civic Virtue, and (7) Self-Development.

Definitions and examples for these seven themes are summarized in one complete survey, "A

current survey of organizational citizenship behaviours". These definitions and examples

are adapted from D. W. Organ, "The Motivational Basis of Organizational Citizenship Behavior,"

in Research in Organizational Behavior 12 (1990): 4372.

Helping Behavior (Taking on the forms of altruism, interpersonal helping, courtesy, peacemaking,

and cheerleading.) Altruism. It is a voluntary action that helps another person with a work

problem. Instructing a new hire on how to use equipment, helping a coworker catch up

with a backlog of work, fetching materials that a colleague needs and cannot procure

on their own. Focuses on helping coworkers in their jobs when such help was needed. Courtesy.

Subsumes all of those foresightful gestures that help someone else prevent a problem.

It is touching base with people before committing to actions that will affect them, providing

advance notice to someone who needs to know to schedule work. Peacemaking. It is actions

that help to prevent, resolve, or mitigate unconstructive interpersonal conflict. Cheerleading.

It is the words and gestures of encouragement and reinforcement of coworkers. It is an accomplishment

and professional development.

Sportsmanship. A citizen like a posture of tolerating the inevitable inconveniences and

impositions of work without whining and grievances. Organizational Loyalty. Identification with

and allegiance to organizational leaders and the organization as a whole, transcending

the parochial interests of individuals, workgroups, and departments. Representative behaviours

include defending the organization against threats, contributing to its good reputation,

and cooperating with others to serve the interests of the whole.

Organizational Compliance. (or Obedience). An orientation toward organizational structure,

job descriptions, and personnel policies recognizes and accepts the necessity and desirability

of a rational form of rules and regulations. Respect may demonstrate obedience to rules

and instructions, punctuality in attendance and task completion, and stewardship of organizational

resources. Individual Initiative (or Conscientiousness). A pattern of going well beyond minimally required

levels of attendance, punctuality, housekeeping, conserving resources, and related matters

of internal maintenance.

Civic Virtue. Responsible, constructive involvement in the political process of the organization,

including not just expressing opinions but reading one's mail, attending meetings, and

keeping abreast of more significant issues involving the organization. Self-Development.

Includes all the steps that workers take to voluntarily improve their knowledge, skills,

and abilities to be better able to contribute to their organizations. For example, they

seek and take advantage of advanced training courses, keep abreast of the latest developments

in one's field and area, or even learn a new set of skills to expand the range of one's

contributions to an organization.

As you can imagine, management principles are likely to be very concerned with individuals'

in-role performance. But, at the same time, just a glance through the survey of, "A current

survey of organizational citizenship behaviours" should suggest that those principles should

help you better manage OCBs as well.

Group-Level Performance. A group is a collection of people. The outcomes and processes of clusters

of individuals or groups are the focus of the group-level performance. Individuals can

work on individual objectives in a group setting. Project-related groups, such as a product

group, or a complete store or branch of a firm, are examples. The group's performance

is comprised of the group's inputs less any process loss that results in the final output,

such as product quality and ramp-up time to production or sales for a given month. Any

component of group interaction that impedes good problem-solving is referred to as process


Why do we say group rather than the team? A group of people is not a team, even if they

can learn to function as one. A team is a cohesive coalition of people who work together

to meet the team's goals (i.e., teamwork). Being on a team does not imply an absolute

surrender of personal plans, but it does necessitate a commitment to the vision and includes each

individual directly in achieving the team's goal. Members of units differ from other groups

in that they are focused on a common purpose or product, such as delivering a presentation,

completing in-class activities, discussing a topic, writing a report, or developing a

new design or prototype. Furthermore, teams are often distinguished by their tiny size.

A team, for example, is defined as "a small group of people with complementary abilities

who are committed to a single purpose, performance goals, and methodology for which they are

mutually accountable."

The goal of forming a team is to achieve larger goals that would be impossible to achieve

by an individual working alone or by the simple sum of several people' solo work. Teamwork

is also required when different abilities are needed or buy-in from key stakeholders.

Teams can increase performance, although they do not always do so. Working together to advance

the team agenda appears to enhance cooperation among what are frequently conflicting factions.

The goal and purpose are to perform, accomplish outcomes, and win in the workplace and marketplace.

The finest managers can assemble a collection of individuals and shape them into an effective


Compatibility of Individual and Group Performance As a manager, you must comprehend the interdependence

between individual and collective performance, particularly goals and rewards. What exactly

does this mean? First, individual and group objectives should be compatible. For example,

do individuals' aims assist the achievement of the group goal, or are they contradictory?

Individual and collective incentives must also be harmonized. A gap between these is

most probable when individuals are too isolated from their external environment or are rewarded

for actions contrary to the aim. Individuals, for example, may attempt to perfect a specific

technology and, as a result, delay its release to consumers when customers would have been

content with the current solution and placed a high premium on its prompt delivery. Finally,

organizations must ensure that their goals are aligned with their reward structures.

For example, suppose the organization's purpose is to improve group performance but the firm's

performance review process rewards individual employee productivity. In that case, the corporation

is unlikely to develop a strong team culture.

Congratulations! You are now at the end of the presentation. Let's take a look at the

key take away. This part aided you in comprehending individual and group performance and suggested

how they might relate to organizational performance. Management concepts consider two essential

aspects of individual performance: in-role performance and OCB (or extra-role) performance.

Personal achievement of a combination of individual and group goals was proven to function group

performance. A team is a small group of people who are willing and able to submit their personal

goals and objectives to the bigger group.

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The Description of Introduction to Principles of Management, Chapter 1 - Section 1.6