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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: 25. Parsing a Sentence. English Grammar Lesson

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in this video we're going to give you a

chance to test yourself and see how well

you could analyze everything that's

going on in a sentence so let's take a

look at this sentence that I've devised

here by a stroke of good fortune

the man from Goldman Sachs knows a way

to turn oil slicks into ready cash okay

now the first thing we want to do when

we're getting to figure out our way

around a sentence is to see what the

subject verb combination or combinations

is or are and this sentence you might

look at and say okay are there any what

what are the verbs here and there's only

one verb and it's right here nose and

who does that knowing well the man from

Goldman Sachs

so the subject of the verb is the man

from Goldman Sachs so that means that

this part of the sentence here which

I'll put in brackets that is the main

clause we call that the main clause the

man from Goldman Sachs knows a way to

turn oil slicks into ready cash so

that's the vein tip of the sentence now

let's look and see if you can identify

all of the prepositional phrases in this

sense they might pause it and say okay

what are they so I'll step aside now

we'll start from the beginning the first

prepositional phrase is by a stroke of

good fortune by is the preposition it's

object is stroke and by a stroke of good

fortune what is it doing

the sentence it is modifying nose so

it's at verbal as prepositional phrases

standing outside the main clause tend to

be it's it's answering the question in

what way does he know it or how does he

know it and he knows it by a stroke of

good fortune that's how he came to know

it by a stroke of good fortune there's

another prepositional phrase inside this

prepositional phrase and it is of good

fortune this prepositional phrase is

answering the question what kind of

stroke and it's a stroke of good fortune

that's what kind so this prepositional

phrase of good fortune is adjective

title it's functioning as an adjective

modifying stroke the next prepositional

phrase is from Goldman Sachs and that

also is answering an adjective question

which man the one from Goldman Sachs

that's which man so that is from this of

course our preposition and Goldman Sachs

is our object and there's one more

prepositional phrase it's in two ready

cash into is our preposition cash is the

object of the preposition and what this

is doing is also something adverbial

it's not modifying this noun Slick's

it's not it's not saying which slicks

the ones into ready cash that's which

slick number it's modified the

infinitive here to turn to turn it in

what way how turn it Hal and those are

for questions and so enter any cash is

an adverbial prepositional phrase

modifying this infinitive here to turn

so what do we have we've got 1 2 3 4

prepositional phrases in this sentence

alright well now let's look for nominal

phrases in this sentence ok good fortune

so look and see what the nominal phrase

is in this sentence or ours

alright again we'll start at the

beginning the first nominal phrase is a

stroke of good fortune this nominal

phrase is functioning as the object of

the preposition bye bye what a stroke of

good fortune inside and and Stroke is we

call the head of this nominal phrase and

there's another nominal phrase inside

this nominal phrase and it is good

fortune and good fortune is the object

of the preposition of and the head of

this two-word nominal phrase is fortune

all right our next nominal phrase is the

subject of the main clause so we've

already looked at that so the man from

Goldman Sachs is the subject of nose and

it is a nominal phrase its head the main

line now is

is man and so man if this is the

complete subject of knows man is the

simple subject that is it is what it

really boils down to the man knows that

is the nub of the subject verb

combination okay

Goldman Sachs I guess we better name of

the I think it's the name of a

corporation in New York I'm not sure but

anyway that's two words long so that's

our that's a proper noun Goldman Sachs

that's a nominal phrase our next nominal

phrase is the object the direct object

of nose and it is a way to turn oil

slicks into ready cash knows what he

knows a way to turn oil slicks into

ready cash and the head of this noun

phrase is way that's that's what it all

boils down to everything else in this

noun phrase modifies way okay here is

our next noun phrase our next nominal

phrase oil slicks and this is

functioning as the direct object of this

infinitive phrase to turn to turn what

oil slicks that's a novel phrase and

there's one more nominal phrase and it

is ready cash and ready cash is

functioning as the object of the

preposition into and the head of ready

cash the head of that net nominal phrase

is cash I should say the head of this

nominal for its oil slicks is slicks an

oil slick is a kind of slick it isn't a

kind of oil oil slicks

interesting thing it's a compound now

oil is a noun and slicks is a noun but

they're not on equal terms the oil is in

a way modifying slicks okay so that we

have one two three four five six of

their seven nominal phrase phrases in

this scent there's only one other kind

of phrase that is in this sentence that

we haven't identified yet and it's if

you're testing yourself there's only one

other slip phrase we haven't talked

about it's a verbal phrase and you

probably got it now it's to turn oil

slicks into ready cash that is an

infinitive phrase and it is functioning

as an adjective it's an infinitive

phrase functioning as an adjective

modifying way what kind of way which way

a way to turn oil slicks into ready cash

that's which way so that that's it we've

just identified all of the phrases that

are in this sense and of course there

are a lot of them and sometimes the

phrases are inside one another and

sometimes they fall into patterns so

what we've just done is a sort of

modified version of parsing a sentence

and we'll try to do some more of these

so you can test your overall knowledge

of English grammar

The Description of 25. Parsing a Sentence. English Grammar Lesson