The World Bank Group IMF meetings are virtual once more.
And while our buildings are relatively empty when compared to past years,
You, connecting wherever you are, have more opportunity than ever to take part.
For weeks we've been convening and recording in-depth conversations
with some of the world's leading experts
on the most urgent development issues of our time.
Now for these Spring Meetings
we're proud to bring you 4 events
that will play out over 4 days
and cover 4 important themes,
economic recovery, debts, climate and vaccines.
And while the main events are recorded
our subject matter experts are standing
by live online right now
to answer your questions and share your comments.
- Hi, I'm Nejma Cheikh.
As it is in place, my colleagues and I will be answering your questions
in English, French, Spanish and Arabic.
In the live chat at live.worldbank.org.
And while you're here, please vote in our poll.
There will be a new question every day.
And after each event, we'll be back here live
from our headquarters in Washington DC.
And on this socially distant set, we'll be putting some
of the most popular questions that have come in online
to senior World Bank Group leaders and experts.
So what are you waiting for?
Find out the details and share your perspective, live.worldbank.org.
And to have your say in today's event
use hashtag #Vaccines4All.
Now, be sure to stick around after today's headline session
we've received a special message from Pope Francis
which we'll be sharing,
we'll also have a live discussion
with the International Finance Corporation (IFC)
Stephanie von Friedeburg and the World Bank's [MOMENTS AWAY: COVID-19: VACCINES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES]
Mamta Murthi answering your questions.
And we'll be sharing the results of today's poll and much more,
I do hope you'll join us.
But now let's get started with today's session,
COVID-19 Vaccines for Developing Countries
hosted by journalist Anne-Marie Dias Borges.
[SPRING MEETINGS 2021 | VIRTUAL]
[WORLD BANK GROUP INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND]
[ACCESS AND DISTRIBUTION]
[COVID-19: VACCINES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES]
[ANNE-MARIE DIAS BORGES PRESENTER/BBC] Good morning, good afternoon and good evening
to our viewers from around the world
and welcome to our final public event
at the World Bank Group IMF Spring Meetings
I'm Anne-Marie Dias Borges, BBC Business anchor
and I am delighted to be your host for this flagship event,
COVID-19 Vaccines for Developing Countries.
A topic that is very much top of mind
as most of us have been affected in one way or another
by this global pandemic.
Firstly, I felt the wrath of this pandemic as sadly
my father passed away early this year.
Who would have thought little over a year
after the World Health Organization declared the pandemic
that safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines would already be in use.
Still great challenges remain.
While the rollout of these vaccines
in developing countries is critical to protecting lives,
building human capital and stimulating economic recovery,
the current crisis is exacerbating inequalities
throughout the world and without access to vaccines,
the gap will widen further.
Ensuring developing countries can access
as well as safely distribute vaccines,
call for strong partnership and cooperation.
Over the next hour we'll be asking
how are developing countries preparing
for large-scale rollouts of vaccines
and what gaps in access and distribution remain?
How are the private and public sector
helping to address the challenge
and how can efforts to address this crisis
help us prepare for future pandemics.
There are plenty of ways to watch,
we're streaming this event in English,
Spanish, French and Arabic on World Bank Live
and across our social channels too,
World Bank Live is also where our experts
are taking your questions right now.
You can share your comments at any point,
using the hashtag #Vaccines4All.
We have an amazing lineup of guests.
Take a look at what's coming up.
[COUNTRY READINESS & ROLLOUT]
[DR. TEDROS ADHANOM GHEBREYESUS, DIRECTOR-GENERAL/WHO]
[HENRIETTA FORE, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR/UNICEF]
[AXEL VAN TROTSENBURG, MANAGING DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS/WORLD BANK]
[FROM THE FRONTLINE]
[GWEN HINES, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF GLOBAL PROGRAMS/SAVE THE CHILDREN UK]
[ESPERANZA MARTINEZ, HEAD OF COVID-19 CRISIS MNG/INT. COMMITTEE RED CROSS]
[THE COVAX RESPONSE]
[DR. SETH BERKLEY CEO/GAVI, THE VACCINES ALLIANCE]
[PRIVATE SECTOR PARTNERSHIP]
[JRME THILL, DEPUTY CEO/CERBA HEALTHCARE]
[MAKHTAR DIOP, MANAGING DIRECTOR/IFC]
[NGOZI OKONJO-IWEALA, DIRECTOR-GENERAL/WTO]
[DR. RICHARD HATCHETT, CEO/CEPI]
[DR. GRO BRUNDTLAND, CO-CHAIR/GLOBAL PREPAREDNESS MONITORING BOARD]
[MARI PANGESTU, MANAGING DIR. OF DEV. POLICY & PARTNERSHIPS/WORLDBANK]
[PETIT TONTON/ACTOR, DIRECTOR AND AUTHOR]
So some really big names and big conversations to come
but first we wanted to hear from young people who
have been particularly affected by this pandemic.
They've missed out on school and university,
faced unemployment and are often supporting family members
coping with mental health issues and, in some cases,
encountering gender-based violence.
But they also have hope for a better tomorrow.
[SHIRIN RAJESH/STUDENT] Nobody was prepared for the challenges
that the COVID pandemic threw at us.
[ARUSHI MENON/STUDENT] Virtual classes meant frequent power outages
and all sorts of hurdles that posed as a difficulty to my learning.
[PINIEL VIRERI/STUDENT] With all the facts, obviously I'm a student
so meaning that my education is going to be very affected.
[DISHANT MAN SHERCHAN/STUDENT] Because of Corona one year has already gone by,
if we truly want to change this notion of Nepal
being a developing country to a developed country finally,
I believe education is what will take us there.
[MARTINO SAN MARTIN/STUDENT] Scientists' amazing achievement with vaccines
will make me able to return to university and get
that complete and thorough education I'm craving for.
[ISHITA GUPTA/STUDENT] I think in a developing country like mine,
the biggest challenge would be,
how do we first get vaccines to the places where COVID
has worsened pre-existing problems.
[ELIANE MBENDE/DENTAL STUDENT] Our biggest challenge is to put in place
a secure supply chain at national level.
[FAISA SYAHLA SABILA/STUDENT] Living in an archipelago consisting of over
17,000 islands is very challenging, especially
at times like this, where we have
to mobilize vaccine distribution.
Navigating logistics to remote areas in the country
is one big problem that we still need to resolve.
[NANA ABA BUABIMA BENTSI-ENCHILL/STUDENT] Our biggest challenge facing vaccine distribution
is fear driven by misconceptions - but I am not afraid.
The vaccines are safe and effective
and puts us one step closer to restoring our world.
[MARCIA GRANADOS/STUDENT] We will all be able to go back to how things were
before this pandemic started.
We will have social interaction
without the risk of getting sick.
[TAVISH PRADHAN/STUDENT] I will be able to travel to my favorite places
and spend quality time with my family.
I can finally visit my grandparents and celebrate
my grandmother's birthday safely.
[MICHAEL AKPAKLI/STUDENT & DANCER] Ah ah, ah ah ah
It's good, it's good
It's good, it's good
With vaccines I can move about freely to class
and dance in public.
[NUZABAH AZIM/STUDENT] With vaccines things will change
because it will help restore our lives back to normal
and bring peace to our restless minds.
Hearing from those young people
you really understand how important, how urgent it is
that global vaccines deployment is successful.
It is now my pleasure to introduce World Bank Group
president David Malpass
to share his perspective on this vital work.
David, over to you.
[DAVID MALPASS, PRESIDENT/WORLD BANK GROUP] Thank you, Anne-Marie.
The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a heavy toll
on the health and welfare of billions of people.
And its impact threatens to reverse a decade
of gains in human capital.
Access to COVID-19 vaccines will be critical
for saving lives.
We've made up to US$12 billion available
for vaccination programs, together with partners
we've supported over a hundred countries
to undertake rapid readiness assessments,
identifying gaps whether with cold chain
infrastructure or health workers,
where there are gaps, we must move quickly to fill them,
our projects aim to do this.
To have enough vaccines for developing countries,
we must address two things.
First, we need more production.
IFC, our private sector development arm, has US$4 billion
available through its global health platform
to help manufacturers produce vaccines,
support production of essential medical equipment
and strengthen health services.
And second, we need greater transparency
around contracting arrangements
between pharmaceutical companies that develop the vaccines
and their contract manufacturers to create opportunities
for increased and direct flow of approved vaccines.
Further strengthening of private public cooperation
is important to rebuilding and strengthening health systems.
Throughout our COVID-19 response,
we're paying close attention to the need
to protect and invest in people.
Investing in health, education, gender
and social protection helps build resilience
when countries face crises, whether from economic downturns,
pandemics or climate change.
As countries return to sustainable growth,
they will continue to face intense fiscal pressures,
they will need to prioritize smart investments
in people that deliver dividends for the future,
it's critical to get economies growing faster
and to keep more families from falling into poverty.
These steps and our partnerships together
within countries, across regions
and globally are the essential building blocks
to a sustainable and inclusive recovery.
Anne-Marie, over to you.
Thank you, David.
We're going to be hearing lots
of great ideas on distributing vaccines
but we want to know what you think.
We're running a special poll throughout this event
and we're asking:
"What do you think is the most important factor
in ensuring the fair distribution of vaccines?"
Is it "A. increasing vaccine production to meet demand"
or "B. overcoming logistical challenges
in storing and transporting vaccines".
Or is it "C. building trust through education
and awareness campaigns"?
Cast your votes at live.worldbank.org
and while you're there there's also an opportunity
to upvote your favorite question.
We'll be putting some of those directly to two
of the bank groups top experts at the end of this event
when we'll also be revealing the result of the poll.
Let's now take a closer look
at the work underway in developing countries
to prepare for large scale vaccine rollouts.
I am honored to be joined by a truly top-level panel of experts.
Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus is Director General
of the World Health Organization,
Henrietta Fore is the Executive Director of UNICEF
and Axel van Trotsenburg is Managing Director
of Operations at the World Bank.
Thank you all for joining us today.
Dr. Tedros to you first, as the head of the organization
at the forefront of the pandemic,
you have stressed the global solidarity
that is needed to fight it.
Could you share with us what you mean by that?
As you may remember when I called for global solidarity,
I used to also say and I still say national unity.
So national unity and global solidarity are important.
And I will start with national unity.
As you know, if this pandemic is politicized and
if there are especially politicization at the country level
then the crack between the different political positions
could be exploited by the virus
and we have seen that in many countries.
So the first thing countries should avoid
is politicization of this pandemic at the country level,
because if it's politicized then it will exploit,
the virus will exploit.
And at the same time, if there is national unity
that's the basis for global solidarity
because there is already a consensus
at the country level
that can also bring global solidarity
at the global level.
So coming to the global solidarity,
global solidarity means maybe
in simple terms, it could start
from sharing information
about the outbreak so others can understand.
It could be sharing the pathogen
so others can use the pathogen to produce technology,
then when technology is produced,
it could be sharing technology, like vaccines
for instance, sharing vaccines is solidarity.
And not only that, solidarity means working together also,
collaborating, coordinating the response together.
But to be honest,
since the pandemic started, the solidarity
and national unity had been really not as good
as one would desire.
So even going forward, I think we need
to still advocate for global solidarity
because the virus will not be defeated in a divided world
we need to share everything that we have
in order to defeat this virus.
And the sharing or supporting each other
is not charity for me.
It is actually in the best interest
of each and every nation.
As you know, the virus is changing quickly.
We have mutation going on
and we have several variants actually coming
from different countries.
If the change in the mutation
of the virus is significant enough,
if that behavioral change
of the virus is significant enough
even the vaccines we have now may not work.
So if you take one aspect of solidarity, sharing technology
or vaccines, unless we increase the coverage
of vaccines quickly, and defeat the pandemic, the virus,
the virus will get a space
to continue to spread, circulate and then mutate.
Then you have more variants.
And even those countries which have high coverage
of vaccines will not be secure
because the new variant that may not be stopped
by the vaccines we have, will invade the countries
which may have even 100%
in few months with the existing vaccines.
So it's in the best interest of all of us, thank you.
Thank you, thank you very much.
Now let's turn to Executive Director Henrietta Fore.
Henrietta, there are certainly many issues
and challenges in terms of vaccines, please tell us
what is UNICEF's position on those challenges at the moment?
Anne-Marie, one of our challenges is financing
and the World Bank has come forward with IDA financing.
It makes a big difference in country readiness
in the procurement and the delivery
of these vaccines and a replenishment is coming.
This will be critical for us to be sure
that we are able to reach the poorest countries
and the poorest areas.
So World Bank financing makes a difference,
it is part of this global solidarity approach
that Tedros was just speaking about.
So for UNICEF, that is on the ground
in many, many countries, this is important.
So UNICEF usually is distributing
and procuring vaccines that are routine immunizations
for children, things like measles and polio
and other vaccines necessary for a child's health.
This is usually about 2 billion vaccines a year,
now we are procuring 2 billion additional vaccines for COVID,
it is a massive procurement and supply operation
and with the World Bank and WHO,
we do country readiness assessments
so that there are national development plans
and they can prioritize where these vaccines should go.
But this enormous undertaking means
that you need lots of pieces in the supply chain.
So, after we are able to procure the vaccines
and deliver them to the countries,
it's very important that countries are ready for them.
We have been working for years on cold chains
but this COVID time period has really tested the cold chains
and how cold our chains are.
We also need to work with the Ministries of Health,
preparing and training the healthcare workers.
Every vaccine is different and you need to be sure
that the workers, the healthcare workers
the front lines, have personal protective equipment
but they also have the knowledge to know how
to do the vaccination campaigns.
Then we also have a great need
which is communication to populations.
So every population needs to know that vaccines work,
that they are safe, so that people do get vaccinated
and this is an important part of building trust
in societies and it is important for every country.
So there's many pieces to the puzzle
but country readiness is very much on our mind
and it is what we're working toward.
A big undertaking, lots of partners,
we do it with the World Bank, with WHO
but we're out there to help children and their families.
Thank you, allow me to turn now
to Mr. Axel van Trotsenburg,
Axel, getting vaccines
to developing countries is the first hurdle.
Then, as vaccines arrive, there are many more hurdles
getting the vaccines where they need to go
before ending up reaching the people.
How is the Bank supporting countries on those two fronts?
Well, let me go through the first hurdle
as Tedros correctly said, we need international solidarity
but I would add - actually, we need
to add fairness and urgency.
Fairness is that all the developing countries
particularly low-income countries have access
to the vaccines.
This is currently not the case and this is a huge concern
to all of us who are sitting,
Tedros has been calling for it,
Henrietta has been calling
for fair distribution of vaccines.
We need to reserve a certain amount
of the installed capacity for low-income countries.
Otherwise there is a huge risk that they will be left out
and only getting the bulk of the vaccines next year.
There's urgency to act, we cannot wait,
we have to keep on that urgency.
And I think this is certainly,
from the UN system to the World Bank,
I think we are pretty much unified
that this urgency is netted
then we need, of course the money.
I think we have made available US$12 billion
for vaccine and the deployment of the vaccines
for middle-income and low-income countries
and I think by the end of April,
we should have committed about US$2 billion.
We are working with 40+ countries on this
but as I said before, the money is great
but if you don't have the vaccines, then we have no results.
So again, go back to urgently fairness
and deployment that it needs to be.
On the deployment, I think there has been
a very effective and good cooperation
with all the agencies helping developing countries.
There is the WHO, there is UNICEF,
there is Gavi, there is the Global Fund,
there is a regional organization
like Power in Latin America.
What we need to look at is the readiness assessment,
I think we have done thus far together
about 140 and you see various degrees of readiness
and therefore, what we are doing in our operations
in coordination with WHO or UNICEF
to see how we can support countries
in the effect of implementation.
This will be a continued effort on this
as well as that we need to monitor,
that it is correctly implemented.
WHO has established a very useful priority list
who deserves first the vaccines.
We strongly urge countries to follow that advice,
so that indeed the most vulnerable get first,
the shots and then you work your way down.
What clearly is needed and is that we don't see
is readiness assessment preparedness in isolation,
but there has to be also medium-term healthcare
or health system strengthening.
And this is the longer term agenda
on which we all will have to work.
Now, coming back to you Dr. Tedros,
what are the main bottlenecks when it comes
to vaccine deployment and manufacturing?
How do we address this
at global, regional, and country levels?
Yes, so first, thank you.
There are many bottlenecks,
but the first bottleneck is that many countries
have this narrow nationalism rather
than enlightened nationalism.
That's why they're moving into vaccine nationalism.
And meaning the bottleneck here is lack of political will.
I think it is better to say it openly.
If the major countries agree to solve this problem
to address vaccine equity, they can do it.
They have everything to do it
so the political will is missing.
Then of course, if you move into other issues
with regard to manufacturing, one is,
there is excess capacity to fill and finish,
we are not using that.
So we have to identify companies
who have excess capacity to fill and finish.
The other is voluntary licensing.
There are companies hopefully who would be willing
to license their patents
or to transfer their patents voluntarily
to a specific company that they want.
Of course, there is some compensation to whatever they can ask,
but that's the second one or immediate.
The third is, as you know, we have what we call C-TAP
in WHO - it is a coordinating mechanism to pull patents
and use it as a means for technology transfer.
So that's one bottleneck that they're not using
although we have the mechanism, but it's not being used.
The fourth is lack of use of the waiver
in the intellectual property
in the TRIPS for Intellectual Property.
That's actually the elephant in the room,
that's one major bottleneck.
As you know the provisions in the TRIPS Agreement
was made to wave IP, intellectual property,
We haven't seen any emergency like this in our lifetime.
If we cannot use it now, then when are we going to use it?
And so these are the major bottlenecks, but the mother
of all these bottlenecks is lack of political will
and even to the first question, weak solidarity,
weak global solidarity. Thank you.
Thank you very much.
Now, Henrietta, we hear that women and children
are bearing the greatest brunt of the pandemic.
How differently are women and children being impacted?
Anne-Marie, you are right.
Women are often the primary caregivers
both as healthcare workers, but also at home
and as a result, they are really torn in every direction.
And what happens is that women, their participation in work
and paid work is reducing around the world, it's in decline.
So we are concerned about women and their employment
and we are very concerned
about all of these services that women
and children usually access in their normal lives,
they're either not able to get to them
or the services are not available.
So as Axel and the World Bank
have been talking about world poverty,
we have another 140 million children that are likely
to fall below the poverty line with their families.
168 million children have been out of school
for more than nine months,
one out of three children do not have access
to any form of remote learning.
And you know, now Anne-Marie,
many children are getting their lessons online
either through a cell phone
or a tablet or through a radio or television
and it's very important for children
to keep getting these services
but it's not always available.
And so often it is, the woman in the household
who becomes not just a parent but a teacher.
And then it is very difficult for her
to then be out of the home and holding down a job.
We're also very worried that many children will not
come back to school, particularly girls.
So once girls are out of school, parents often think
that they could help their elders in their family
and look after them, that maybe child marriage
would be safer for them.
But it means that for every two boys returning
to a classroom, maybe only one girl will return.
So we're concerned about all of these services,
it's having an enormous impact on women and children
and we cannot trade one crisis, the pandemic
for another crisis in which we lose the women,
and the girls, and the children in our world.
And Axel, beyond addressing the ongoing health emergency,
what advice are you giving to the countries
in which you operate today
in terms of being better prepared
and increasing resilience for future crisis?
So, Henrietta powerfully summarized
the effects this crisis has had on women and girls
but, actually, one can say on whole societies
we are seeing an enormous reversal
on the progress that we have seen
over the last couple of years.
So what is clearly is that we need
to focus more on crisis preparedness.
I think this will be a prominent topic
also during the upcoming negotiation
for the IDA 20 replenishment,
we have been actually working on that,
particularly as it pertains to natural disasters
but we started also with pandemic
as a result of the Ebola pandemic.
Nevertheless, what we are seeing is that very often
these preparedness plans were on paper tigers, if you wish
they were nicely drafted on paper,
but we have to say is we clearly need to embed it
into the health system.
And ultimately we need systematic health system
This is hard work, the cameras won't be there,
but I think it is the absolute necessary part
that we have to do.
We also should not only take a narrow view on that
it is only health, it is the whole agenda best summarized
with the SDGs that we are not making progress on this,
education is a point but in many, many other areas.
So our concern is
that we have to build back better, stronger learning
and we need to keep the solidarity,
not only in the health area,
but across the development spectrum
and that this crisis has shown only together we will survive,
only together we will strive and
only together we will prosper.
Thank you very much.
Only together we will prosper.
On that, I'd like to thank all of our guests
for this enriching discussion.
[ISTANBUL, TURKEY] I am [...] in Istanbul and you're watching
World Bank Group IMF Spring Meetings
Successful global deployment
of the vaccine will have an enormous impact
on so many aspects of our lives,
let's remind ourselves of the difference it could make.
[A COVID-19 VACCINE WILL SAVE LIVES]
[FAST AND FAIR ACCESS TO VACCINES IS ALSO VITAL]
[FOR A STRONG GLOBAL ECONOMIC RECOVERY]
[GLOBAL GDP GROWTH]
[SOURCE: GEP 2021, WORLD BANK GROUP]
[THAT WILL REDUCE POVERTY]
[UP TO 150 MILLION PUSHED INTO EXTREME POVERTY BY COVID-19 BY 2021]
[SOURCE: WORLD BANK GROUP]
[PROVIDE JOBS AND INCOMES]
[62% OF HOUSEHOLDS HAD REDUCED INCOMES (APRIL-JULY 2020)]
[HELP CLOSE GENDER GAPS]
[WOMEN HAVE LOST THEIR JOBS AT A FASTER RATE THAN MEN]
[SUPPORT EDUCATION FOR THE MOST VULNERABLE]
[1.6 BILLION STUDENTS OUT OF SCHOOL (IN MARCH 2020)]
[THE WORLD BANK GROUP IS SUPPORTING]
[FAIR AND EQUITABLE ACCESS TO VACCINES FOR THE POOREST COUNTRIES]
[LEARN MORE WORLDBANK.ORG/COVID19-VACCINE #VACCINES4ALL]
[SPRING MEETINGS 2021 VIRTUAL]
Now let's hear from two organizations working
on the front lines of the vaccine rollout.
Executive Director of Global programs
at Save the Children UK, Gwen Hines
and Head of COVID-19 Crisis Management
for the International Committee of the Red Cross, Esperanza Martinez.
Vaccination for all is entirely possible,
if we work together.
We've made enormous progress
over the past year on vaccine development
but none of us are truly protected
until all countries have COVID under control.
And the costs of not doing this are going up every day.
For the first time in 30 years
progress on child poverty and hunger is going backwards.
An entire generation have had their learning
disrupted, and millions of children
especially girls will never go back,
so we need to act now.
And for those who say, it's too hard
to reach the last mile, I can tell you it's not.
We do it already with measles vaccinations, with meningitis,
we work on Ebola with local communities,
so please get behind the COVAX initiative with money,
donating surplus vaccines, share technology
and know-how, invest in scaling up production
in low and middle-income countries
and most of all, commit to the principle
that we should be vaccinating all vulnerable people
without discrimination, wherever they live, thank you.
I am sure that vaccination for all can happen
if we put aside borders and politics
and focus on our shared humanity.
We need to make sure that everyone
disregarding of who they are and where they leave,
have access to vaccines, not only for COVID-19
but also for other preventable diseases that every year
cause so many deaths and so much disability.
We also need to make sure
that healthcare workers and vaccinators
can carry out their jobs without being attacked.
And we need to remember finally that there are millions
of people facing humanitarian crises today
and their needs also need to be met.
My hope, my wish for 2021 is
that we collectively demonstrate that we can deliver
both in the humanitarian space and in the vaccines space.
If you've just joined us, welcome.
I'm Anne-Marie Dias Borges and we're discussing the rollout
of COVID-19 vaccines for developing countries.
And a reminder that you can share your comments
at any time using the #Vaccines4All.
Now, Gavi is a global vaccines alliance
any a key partner in COVAX which is
at the heart of the response to COVID-19.
I am delighted to be joined now by the Gavi CEO,
Dr. Seth Berkley.
Dr. Berkley, welcome and thank you so much
for joining us today.
Could you explain how COVAX helps low
and middle-income countries get access to COVID-19 vaccines?
Thanks so much for the question.
COVAX was set up to try to accelerate the development
and then the access of vaccines
for every country in the world.
But of course, the main thing we're focusing on here
is the work we did to try to reach lower middle-income countries,
we created the Gavi Advance Market Commitment
to serve the 92 lowest income countries
and to bring a very large portfolio of vaccines to them,
that was necessary because we knew
that there was going to be intense competition for vaccines
and therefore, we had to make sure
that those vaccines would be available.
We've now delivered more
than 30 million doses to 60 countries.
And although it took us 43 days
for the first vaccine to be used, that is much better
than in the previous pandemic of swine flu
which occurred now about a decade ago.
As you know your country Cabo Verde received its first doses
of the vaccine on the 12th of March
and although we obviously have many more countries to go
each country does really celebrate when this happens.
It's a great moment for global health for the countries
that have worked to build up their systems,
and, of course, for the people who receive this vital protection.
Thank you so much for mentioning my country there.
My dear country Cape Verde.
That first dose of vaccine was such a source of celebration
for the whole country so thank you for mentioning.
Dr. Berkley, how confident are you that low
and middle-income countries will be able to vaccinate
at least 20% of their populations by the end of this year?
So the first step, of course in doing this is having adequate finance
Donors have been very generous, we've raised US$6.3 billion so far
and we're hoping to get another US$2 billion by June.
We've been really working hard to overcome all
of the problems in supply that you've heard about
in the media and, through our diversified portfolio,
we're on track to deliver a third of a billion doses
by mid-year, and then 1.3 billion doses
by the end of the year,
so that countries can protect their most
vulnerable populations, including healthcare workers.
Of course, we believe that countries
and they want to go to a higher amount
of the population than that.
So we think that if we get adequate finance
we can actually get to 1.8 billion doses
by the end of the year.
Of course, there are still questions
on whether we just want to linearly increase
the amount of vaccine or will we need boosters
or different vaccines for the new variants
and, of course, these questions will have to be resolved.
And what are the main challenges
and opportunities that COVAX is facing
in delivering vaccines to low and middle-income countries?
Of course, during this moment is an unprecedented time,
we have to get to large amounts of the population.
To be able to do that,
we had to create new systems to deal with things
like indemnification and liability
to create a new no-fault compensation scheme
since there wasn't adequate time to deal
with the normal ways of dealing with those types of problems.
We've also had to work with countries
to be able to develop their delivery systems
to make sure they were able to move these forward.
These types of interventions are really important
but what we're hoping is that we can build them sustainably.
So they will be there in the future
to be able to deal with these systems.
At a time when there is an unprecedented demand
for vaccines, we also have to work to make sure
that manufacturers will keep to the deals they make
and make sure that these vaccines are available.
Dr. Berkley, this has been a pleasure.
Thank you so much.
Thank you, nice to talk to you.
[BUJUMBURA, BURUNDI] I am [...] in Bujumbura, Burundi.
And you are watching the World Bank Group IMF Spring Meetings.
Now frontline workers and community leaders
have been celebrated as the true heroes of these times,
risking their lives to protect ours
and helping educate, distribute and deploy vaccines.
Let's hear from some of them now
about the challenges that they face.
[ELLEN PEPRAH, DOCTOR] One of the biggest problems
we are facing is equitable access.
I believe that every healthcare professional in every part
of the country deserves access to their vaccines.
[HUMBERTO GOMEZ, DOCTOR] No country can do it alone.
So collaboration, especially in the case of vaccines
availability and distribution is key.
[KYEREMEH JOHNSON, DOCTOR] And one of the major issues with distribution
in my country will be people rejecting the vaccine.
The fear that people are harboring
due to the theories they've heard,
due to fears of complications
associated with the vaccine.
[YVETTE YEBOAH KODIEH, DOCTOR] Misconception, miscommunication and misinformation
among the general population.
So probably more education may have to go
into the vaccine distribution.
[ZHYLDYZ TOKTORBAEVA, OFFICIAL] In my opinion, in social media today,
there is so much information
- which is mostly false - about vaccination.
[NAMRATA PRADHAN, DOCTOR] By vaccinating against COVID-19,
we will be making an effort together to fight
the fear we have been living with in the past year.
[FEDIR LAPIY, IMMUNOLOGIST] We are stronger, more experienced and united.
[KHONGORZUL TOGOO, IMMUNOLOGIST] Vaccination will expedite a transition
towards our normal everyday life.
[CHRISTABEL NGWASHI, DOCTOR] Vaccines are going to change my life
because my patients will get to see my smile again
because I don't have to put on a mask.
[LUCIANA UGARRIZA, LAWYER] It means a new start, it means a second chance,
it means that we'll face the pandemic.
We must be grateful to be alive,
that means value life more because, as we know,
it can change in a blink of an eye.
So humbling and helpful to hear those perspectives.
And a timely reminder of the challenges
that we must overcome together
in order to successfully deploy COVID-19 vaccines
and get this pandemic under control.
It's clear that this challenge cannot be resolved
by any one player alone,
it will take partnerships across sectors and fields.
So how can the private sector best contribute?
That's what our next guests will help us explore.
Jrme Thill is deputy CEO of Cerba Healthcare,
which manages an international network
of clinical diagnostics laboratories
and is active across Sub-Saharan Africa
where its labs are proving a key resource
for much needed large-scale testing for COVID-19.
And Makhtar Diop managing director of the bank groups
private sector arm, the IFC.
First to you Jrme.
I understand that in 2019 Cerba significantly
expanded his presence in Africa.
Can you talk to us about what Cerba is doing
to help expand testing in developing countries
for COVID-19 and other pandemic fighting steps?
Thanks Anne-Marie, indeed Cerba has a long history
of providing specialty testing for African private
and public labs from its historic lab in Paris
based on our long parallel partnership
with Lancet Laboratories from South Africa
where we deal with clinical trials
and central lab in this country.
We decided together, in 2018,
to create a joint venture Cerba Lancet Africa
to operate and expand a network of proximity labs
to provide African population
with high standard quality testing at affordable cost.
As a result, we are now present in 13 countries
with more than 70 labs, 1500 employees
and serving more than 1.5 million individuals.
When the COVID crisis arrived in Europe last year,
we were immediately and very intensively asked to fight
against the response to this crisis
with developing a lot of PCR testing.
Simultaneously, we anticipated the outbreak
and the spread of the outbreak in Africa
and liaise immediately with our teams
on the ground to develop a war plan
in order to be able to propose PCR testing solution
to populations and authorities.
Thanks to the dedication of our colleagues
on the ground and the support from the group
for technical aspects, scientific
and also procurement issues,
we have been able to install some PCR platforms
in most of the countries where we operate
and since then we have done more than 300,000 PCR tests.
We invested, on our own, more than 2 million
during this moment.
I think that our value added
into this project is clearly to have a local presence
and to access rapidly to the population.
We also serve the medical communities
with efficient diagnostic in this field
with the appropriate turnaround time
also with an efficient pricing
and full transparency for authorities.
In the COVID pandemic we can also help,
through our local facilities and trained staff,
to boost vaccination.
And obviously this model can easily be replicated
for unfortunate other pandemic that may occur.
So one of your aims there
is to really strengthen your local presence
Jrme can you now tell us what other opportunities
you see for the private sector
in helping countries meet the healthcare needs
of their population more broadly?
So you're perfectly right, because we think
that the private sector and specifically
the long-standing players have a lot of experience
and capabilities to help improve the sanitary sector
and system in Africa.
First of all, we are convinced and we have proven
in more developed country that diagnostic
and prevention is absolutely crucial to rapidly
and with moderate financial costs improve
the access to health care for the population
and also control the pathologies development.
Second, as I already mentioned, the private sector
has a presence on the ground with easy access to patient
which are key into any sanitary policies.
We have a dense network of collection centers
and we also develop a lot of new solutions
such as point of care or mobile units
in order to expand this presence.
Third, we also have access to robust and innovative,
scientific and technical solution to provide
a high quality diagnostic to the population.
We also have very well-experience and trained teams
to find also the appropriate solution for our patients.
As private companies, we are used to invest
and to develop adapted solution
at affordable cost obviously,
provided we have a stable
and quite transparent regulation environment.
As an example, Cerba runs more than 200 labs worldwide
for hospitals, either public or private institutions.
Finally, and I think it is important,
we invest a lot in training, which is key
to increase the sanitary awareness of the populations.
At Cerba with our in-house Cerba University,
we have a pluriannual plan
to train most of our colleagues in Africa.
And also perhaps I think it's something
we will expand later on,
the private sector could also work
with the local public authorities
in the development of vaccination for the COVID outbreak.
And now to you Makhtar,
we have heard about the challenges
of getting the vaccines to people in developing countries
from your vantage point, leading IFC,
what's the role of the private sector?
And Jrme, I think, will be very interested in knowing.
So what's the role of the private sector
in helping countries meet their goals?
Thank you very much, Anne-Marie.
The role of the private sector is multiform,
first on innovation, production research, R&D
where vaccine is done from the private sector
with the support of the public sector
but a lot of the development is done by private companies,
so as I see, it is an important part.
The second one is logistics.
One thing is to produce the vaccine, to have the research,
to have those in place, another thing
is to have them in the arm of the citizens.
So all the logistics part we have seen recently
in advanced countries is a big challenge
and the private sector can play a big role
in helping and using an innovative mechanism
to be able to deliver those vaccine to the population.
The third element is to help building a resilient system.
We know that we had an outbreak like this, I was the vice-president
for Africa when we had the Ebola crisis
and I've seen firsthand how this crisis also
the epidemic had a huge impact
on the economic development in Africa
We have a crisis of a larger magnitude now,
but what is sold is that, for lots of developing countries,
the health system is not resilient enough.
So what we are doing as we are working
in addressing the short-term needs,
we are also working towards helping
building a much more resilient system.
It means that we need to think not only
about the private sector as an agent
of building the infrastructure for health services
but also to be a service provider
and change totally the model whereby
the public sector doesn't necessarily have to invest heavily
in infrastructure and equipment but to buy services
from the private sector to be able to do testing,
to do x-ray, to do a certain number of things.
Lastly, how to strengthen the value chain?
The value chain, the production chain is important to strengthen.
We realize in some countries
not only they don't have vaccine,
but they don't produce syringes, they don't have swabs,
they don't have equipment who are partnering
with support of our donor countries
to put in place a system where we can be using
the textile industry more efficiently
to be able to produce garment
and equipment to protect workers.
So there are many dimensions to what we can do
to support the health system and making much more resilient
and responding also to the short-term crisis.
And Makhtar, it is clear
that solving critical health needs such as around COVID-19
requires partnerships and innovation.
What is IFC strategy here?
We have strategies to build
on the effort of government.
For instance, recently our public sector branch,
the World Bank, provided a loan
to Cabo Verde to face the COVID crisis,
but also we would like to build on this, to build a resilient system.
So what are we doing and what can we do to accelerate it?
We need to ensure that the regulatory framework is strong enough.
When we see it is a very sensitive sector,
I am aware these investment decisions are not easy to take
and have a long-term payback period,
and this is a financial decision
which have long-term implication.
So we need to have much more certainty on the environment
for investors to be able to come, and Jrme alluded to it.
So our public sector, part of the World Bank,
is working to help governments strengthening the regulatory framework,
so we can crowd in private sector.
Secondly, we want also to bring the local private sector
to look at also the pharmaceutical industry
to be able to invest in it.
So it will be not only FDI, it'll be FDI,
but also local investors will be more
and more looking at this sector as being a sector
in which we can invest and have a high return.
So, third element is investing in skills.
This is in those labs that you mentioned,
you require very well-trained and very specialized people.
So, we could use the private sector,
as Jrme mentioned in his company to train academics
to train researchers, to train health workers,
to be able to use that equipment, to do the research
but also to combine those services
with what the government is doing to be able to pull.
So it's clear that here we are talking really
about a joint effort between government
and private sector and the space is huge.
So there's space for both private sector
and public sector to do more because medical needs
in least developed countries are huge and very important.
So it will truly require a joint effort there
and with that, I'd like to thank you both
for such an important and enlightening discussion.
Merci beaucoup, Anne-Marie.
[PORT VILA, VANUATU] Hello everyone.
I am [...] in Port Vila, Vanuatu
and you're watching the World Bank Group
IMF Spring Meetings.
If you have just joined us, I'm Anne-Marie Dias Borges
and we are discussing the rollout
of COVID-19 vaccines for developing countries.
I hope you've already learned something new
and for those interested in diving even deeper,
we've pulled together some key fact sheets and blogs,
just scroll down to the resources section
of our World Bank Live page
and while you're there cast your votes in our poll.
A reminder, we are asking you:
"What do you think is the most important factor
in ensuring the fair distribution of vaccines?"
Is it "A. Increasing vaccine production to meet demand"?
Or "B. "Overcoming logistical challenges
in storing and transporting vaccines?"
Or is it "C. Building trust
through education and awareness campaigns"?
We'll be sharing the results live
at the end of this event, so keep watching.
As this poll highlights, effective delivery
and health systems are an important part
of vaccine deployment.
Let's take a closer look at this challenge
and at how the World Bank Group has been responding.
[SPRING MEETINGS 2021 | VIRTUAL]
[Announcer] Many vaccines need to be kept cool,
some need to be kept cold, very very cold.
From factory to patient, they need to be refrigerated
in warehouses, trucks, planes, cars, even motorbikes.
And that's just one small part
of a vast interconnected health system.
That's why the World Bank is providing 12 billion
to equitably distribute COVID-19 vaccines
with priority for those that need it most urgently
and strengthen the health systems that deliver it.
Train and equip frontline health workers
in cities, suburbs and rural communities.
Support health centers that care for patients
but also collect and share information to identify hotspots
or have insight into where infections could flare up
and make sure there is equipment training, financing
and more to be prepared,
so the next disease outbreak isn't so devastating.
Just focusing on COVID doesn't make
an effective health system.
Preventative care for people must continue
especially for women and children,
life-saving treatments for chronic conditions must continue,
other health and medical needs don't just go away.
And outreach is especially important.
From past vaccinations, we've learned that we need to inform people
and battle stigmas, misinformation and distrust.
Vaccines, testing, and treatment are vital
to turning the tide against the pandemic.
But improving health systems
will rebuild livelihoods and economies,
and hopefully make healthcare better than before.
Let's turn into our final discussion and look at
what can be done now to learn from this crises
to help developing countries respond to the next pandemic.
Are there lessons that could strengthen resilience
and help countries better prepare for future shocks?
I'm joined now by a truly esteemed panel.
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala is the Director General
of the World Trade Organization,
Dr. Richard Hatchet is CEO of CEPI, which stands
for the Center for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.
Dr. Gro H. Brundtland is the Co-chair
of the Global Preparedness Monitoring Board,
former Prime Minister of Norway, as well
as former Director General of the World Health Organization.
And Mari Pangestu is Managing Director
of Development Policy and Partnerships at the World Bank.
Welcome to you all.
Ngozi first to you and congratulations on your new position
as head of the World Trade Organization.
You were selected to head the WTO in February of this year
almost one year after the pandemic began.
What do you see as the greatest economic impacts
that developing countries are bearing
during this global crisis?
Well, thank you so much
and thank you for congratulating me.
Let me just say that before we talk of economic impact,
we have to look at the health impact
because the biggest thing for economic recovery
for developing countries is getting the vaccines
that they need in order to deal with the pandemic.
I often say the biggest economic stimulus for developing countries
would be access to these vaccines, so that's the first.
But developing countries have been hit in so many ways.
Commodity exporters have faced plummeting prices,
travel and tourism for those countries that depend
on this has collapsed in many countries.
And even those well-integrated
into global value chains, they've suffered from some
of the closures of factories and borders and so on.
So there's been a lot of impact on developing countries
and as you can see, for 36 years
poverty has been declining from a figure
of about three decades now poverty has been declining.
And in 1990, 36% of people were living
in extreme poverty.
And, now in 2018 this fell quite substantially
to about 10%, and now, for the first time,
it's climbing back up and the World Bank projects
that 150 million people could fall back into poverty.
So you can see how the impact
of this has really been very dramatic.
Thank you very much.
Thank you very much also for reminding us
of the issue of poverty which you know
definitely needs to be mentioned here as well
and linked to the pandemic
especially when we're talking about Africa.
Now, Dr. Hatchett, CEPI is an organization
that helps finance research
in global public goods such as vaccines.
Can you explain the role that CEPI has been playing
during this pandemic?
We have played an evolving role actually in the first stages
of the pandemic last January, February, March.
We've played an important role
in initiating vaccine development programs.
We actually established our first partnerships
on January 23rd, there were fewer than 700 cases
of COVID globally at that point.
And we've ultimately established one
of the world's largest portfolios of COVID-19 vaccines.
Since last spring, we've also been focused intensively
on ensuring access to those vaccine products.
We used our investments in innovation
and R&D to create access commitments
for our partners who would then provide that vaccine
into what became the COVAX facility, which of course
I think everyone is aware is a facility
for procuring vaccine and delivering it
to all participating countries, but particularly
to those countries, the impoverished countries
that would not otherwise have access to vaccines.
Finally, in the last few months, we began to focus on
continuing our R&D investment, but thinking about
making sure that the world has access to the vaccines
that it will need to manage COVID in the long term
and to address the emerging variants
that have given so much concern recently
Thank you very much.
Allow me to turn now to you, Dr. Brundtland.
You are now Co-chair of the global
preparedness monitoring board,
which in 2019 warned that we were a world at risk.
Last year in the midst of the pandemic,
you came out with a world in disorder,
where do you see us now?
Well, we have a world of contrast.
Vaccine production has provided hope
but trust in global leadership has been eroded.
Our weak global structures and systems
for preparedness have been exposed.
In our reports we recognize that equitable access
to COVID-19 vaccines should be a crucial issue.
It's a moral imperative,
it's a public health imperative
and an economic imperative.
The rapid development of vaccines
for COVID-19 has been remarkable,
but it is all the more devastating
that while science has advanced
the world has stalled in terms of equity.
The poorest countries are seeing virtually none
of the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines.
We are stuck where we have been for 30 years,
reliving the inequitable responses
to previous emergencies.
The board called for the initial production
of COVID-19 vaccines to be allocated equitably
to all countries,
to ensure each country had enough vaccines
to cover 2% of its population,
for health workers and the most vulnerable.
This means around 300 million doses,
475 million doses have already been allocated,
yet the large majority or lower income countries
have vaccinated less than 1% of their population.
And many of the poorest countries
have yet to receive a single dose.
The lack of global mechanisms for vaccine development
and access are at the heart of the problem.
We have well-established systems
for research and development, which rely
on the incentive of IP and competition.
Securing access to countermeasures has been based
on advanced purchase agreements.
Access to countermeasures
by lower income countries have depended
on donations and development assistance,
relegating them to the bottom of the list.
Vaccine delivery continues to be determined
by economic power, production capacity,
and competition, rather than public health
unacceptable failure of global preparedness.
And I say that despite what has been done by CEPI,
which is very helpful, but not enough.
Thank you very much.
I saw a world of contrast,
very strong words there in So befitting
absolutely to what we are witnessing at the moment.
And now to Mari Pangestu.
Mari, the World Bank plays an important role
convening global institutions and countries.
How are partners coming together at the global, regional,
and country level to address the pandemic
and prepare for the future?
I'm glad you asked that question.
The World Bank is working with many partners,
and I think this has been an incredible example
of partnership starting
from preparing all the way to delivery.
We are working with WHO, UNICEF, Gavi,
Global Fund and the Gates Foundation.
So starting from the technical and conceptual level
of how do you design the readiness back
in the middle of last year
and then in November, there was an agreement of
how would you design a vaccine
readiness assessment framework
which will then be applied at the country level.
This was agreed in November,
and we also agreed that we would roll out
readiness assessments in a hundred countries
in a hundred days and we actually did it,
and that was partnership.
So, a partnership in the design
and then partnership in the assessment at the country level
with all those partners on the ground.
Of course, working with the countries
and assessing their coordination
and their planning, their targeting,
their cold chain, infrastructure readiness
their workers, the communication, the regulatory aspects
and that readiness allowed us to assess the gaps
that existed in countries
and therefore, the financing that was needed.
And then the partnership came in again on the co-financing
whether it is bilateral donors, regional development banks
multilateral development banks, grants
and how much the country also had resources.
Then, on the access for vaccines,
fair and equitable access.
Of course, we work with COVAX
to provide the first 20% of delivery
and also work with countries on other access
for above the 20%.
And then finally working with countries
to develop their national deployment
and vaccination plan on the ground and supporting them
and at the same time, looking out as
to how they would also build out
and strengthen their health systems at the same time.
And the World Bank works very closely
on the ground with UNICEF, with WHO and other partners
and also of course, with the countries themselves.
Thank you very much Mari.
Going back to you Ngozi.
Following up on what we've heard and going forward,
how can we strengthen
the global economic architecture
to better prepare against future shocks?
Well, thank you so much.
I'd like to make four points on this.
I think that the first is that,
we should have a better preparedness
and response system in place.
And when I talk about preparedness,
I'm talking about surveillance and early warning systems
whether we are talking of pandemics
or diseases or whether we are talking even
of a climate change related kind of disasters
the world needs to invest in surveillance
so that we can get early warning.
So that's the first, I think the second point is
that we should put together financing framework
that would help us deal with finance
both the preparedness part, but also finance the response
in case we somehow we don't get the one in on time.
And what is very difficult now in the world
is the fact that preparedness is probably a tiny percentage,
maybe 1% of the monies we spend on response.
If you look at the trillions
of dollars we spent in this pandemic
just responding to the health and economic issues.
If we had spent maybe a hundred or 200 billion
on preparedness before that we would have been better off.
So we need to put together a sensible financing framework.
And I think that the third point I'd like to make is
that we need to keep supply chains open, of course
coming from the trade side, I would say that
but we've seen that trade has helped us manage
this pandemic and has made the economic impact
perhaps a better able for governments to handle
than it would have been even the health impact
because we've been able to move
through trade medicines, vaccines, PPEs
from one country to the other.
So keeping supply chains open
is a very important part of the response.
So those three points, I think are vital
for us to be better prepared next time
and safeguard our economic systems better.
Thank you very much.
And when it comes to supply chains
we have seen how much Africa has suffered in many of times.
So thank you very much.
Now, back over to you, Dr. Hatchett.
What do you see as the most pressing priorities
for CEPI, as you continue to support the development
of vaccines for this particular pandemic,
but also for the accelerated development
of vaccines for future pandemic outbreaks.
First, I think we need to build on the accomplishments
and the improvable models
really both technical, institutional and operational
that have emerged from the pandemic.
We have compressed a decades' worth of technology
into perhaps a year.
We will emerge from the pandemic with new tools
that will allow us to prepare for the future.
We have laid out the model with COVAX
and the ACT accelerator that are improvable,
they're not perfect, but they lay the foundations
for future institutional responses.
CEPI as an organization has now laid out its own plans
for the next five years, for what we're calling CEPI 2.0
that would entail investments of about US$3.5 billion.
It would focus on strengthening our defenses
against COVID certainly, trying to take Coronavirus
as a threat class off the table,
developing vaccines, as we were prior to COVID
for known threats, like LASSA, Mers, Nipah, Ebola,
working to compress vaccine development timelines.
We delivered licensed vaccines this time in 326 days,
we'd like to shorten that to a hundred days.
Building a library of prototype vaccines
that would enable us to respond rapidly
to any future threat, establishing global networks
for clinical labs, assay's, clinical trials,
and finally supporting the efforts
of low and middle-income countries
to provide for their own national health security.
Thank you very much.
It's true that this pandemic has truly been a period
of very rapid innovation and development
of so many different new technologies
like you've just mentioned.
Going back to you Dr. Brundtland,
what do you see as the most crucial gaps
that the global community needs to address
to help ensure we are better prepared
for future health crisis?
Well, the start of the current pandemic
revealed shortcomings at all levels.
We need an international agreement in place
to support and strengthen our international institutions,
the WHO, the international financial institutions
in order to deliver on such an agreement.
Ultimately, the success of an international agreement
on pandemic preparedness and response will rely on money.
We now need to address the historic underinvestment
Investments have represented a fraction
of what is required, funding in millions
what should have been in billions.
The board estimates that an additional annual investment
of US$5 per person will be needed,
with the trillion spent on the COVID-19 response
as we just heard from WTO, we are paying the price
for past sticking plaster funding.
Now we need to fund future preparedness
at the scale required.
We must develop appropriate funding and financing mechanisms
which do not rely on ODA
and are predictable and sustainable.
The board quickly realized that there was a lack of mechanisms
to finance global public goods,
this must be addressed urgently.
In particular, I want to challenge the World Bank
to develop a mechanism to remedy the present inequity,
in vaccine distribution.
This future mechanism should be based on agreements
with vaccine producers and on pre-commitments
from lower and middle-income countries.
It should provide upfront financing of vaccines
to IDA eligible countries.
So that vaccines arrive at the same time as they do
in higher-income countries.
The ugly truth is that at this stage
of the COVID 19 response, we are seeing how money talks.
In the absence of appropriate global financing structures,
resources are flowing to the rich.
We will all pay the price in terms of economic damage,
global instability and a prolonged pandemic.
The world was unprepared for this catastrophe,
unless we changed our systems for financing
and allocation of global public goods
we will face the same problem in the next pandemic.
So I call on you to ensure that this does not happen.
So money is the heart of the issue here,
like it is often the case, you've mentioned preparedness
just like Ngozi had as well so we need to pay attention.
Thank you very much.
Now, going back quickly to Mari.
Mari you've talked about the important role
of global partnerships to address health emergencies.
How is the World Bank supporting countries
as they prepare themselves for future emergencies?
I like to make three points to answer your question.
I think first, we're learning a lot
as we are responding to this pandemic
and rolling out our program.
As I mentioned earlier
we already have vaccine readiness assessments
in 144 countries and we're already
deploying almost US$4 billion
in around 11 countries
and then another 40 countries in preparation.
So we're learning a lot as we are doing.
The three things I would mention
on what we've learned, first that
as we are rolling out the response to the pandemic,
we must not forget some of the priority health issues
such as making sure that health services for women,
maternal health care and so on,
and children immunization are not put
by the side as you are responding to the pandemic,
so that's one area of key importance.
Second, as we are rolling out our program
we're learning a lot on the ground
as to how you can actually
as you do your preparedness also build
out for a medium term, strengthening of the health systems
whether it's the infrastructure whether it's the training
of the health workers and a very important role
of technology the possibility to have information
on those getting vaccinated, monitoring it and so on.
I think this can really be important for the future
to prepare yourself for a future pandemic.
And many things that we learned on the ground
can be helped to use,
to be used to help develop stronger systems.
And thirdly, I think to Dr. Brundtland's point
about manufacturing capacity and supply chain
I think we're also learning a lot about that.
You know, supply chain was mentioned by Ngozi.
So I think here is where it's a combination of cooperation,
global cooperation, how do you use
a concessional funding to have certainty
and to work together with the private sector.
So the IFC arm, the private sector arm
of the World Bank has a health platform
and they are actually investing
in manufacturing capacity dedicated
for least developed countries.
So I think this is actually an area
where we all need to come together to make sure
that we can have fair and equitable access
to vaccines now, as well as obviously
in the near future for future pandemics.
Thank you very much, Mari.
And I would like to thank you all
for such an insightful discussion.
Namaste, I'm Shelupa in New Delhi
and you're watching the world Bank Group IMF Spring Meetings.
Now we are nearly at the end
of the final public event of the 2021 Spring Meetings.
We hope you've enjoyed all the sessions this week
and a reminder that you can watch them all again
You can also continue to share your feedback
on anything you've seen or heard
using the #ResilientRecovery.
And there's much more to come, in just a minute
we'll be joined by Paul Blake,
who is live in the World Bank Group's
headquarters in Washington DC.
He'll have the results of our poll
and he's also joined by the World Bank's
Vice President for Human Development
Mamta Mussi, and Stephanie Von Friedeburg,
the IFC's Senior Vice President of Operations.
They will be taking your questions and sharing their thoughts
on a fair and broad vaccine rollout in developing countries.
But first, we're going to end this session
with a very special performance.
Petit Tonton is an actor, director,
storyteller and writer from Guinea in West Africa
and he has composed a tale just for this occasion.
Now over to you Petit Tonton.
Glory to God and glory to our ancestors.
There is an ancient saying
that hope is the pillar that holds up the world.
Distinguished guests, let me tell you one of my stories:
The story of a hyena who ate nothing but meat
One day, she tasted chicken
and made a firm decision to eat only poultry.
So the hyena killed many birds
and ended up driving nearly the entire species to extinction.
One day, she was walking in the bush and saw not a single bird.
She then settled down in the shade of a large tree to rest.
Suddenly, what did she hear in the foliage above?
A goats cry...
The hyena said to herself: God Almighty!
Who can make a goat climb such a big tree?
But then, remembering her promise to eat only poultry.
she dismissed the thought and fell asleep.
A few moments later, the cries of the goat started up again.
This puzzled the hyena, who asked herself
I know that goats can climb trees, but trees of this size?
Where can this mysterious goat have come from?
She fell asleep again.
A third goat cry woke the hyena from her nap.
She got up and, being curious, raised her head.
But what did she see? A big rooster sitting on a branch.
And the hyena said to the rooster:
Hey you, bird, come down so I can eat you!
And the rooster replied:
Im not coming down today, Im not coming down tomorrow.
You, bird, I ate your father, and I ate your mother.
Come down here, so I can eat you too.
Im not coming down today, Im not coming down tomorrow.
I ate all your cousins.
Im not coming down today, Im not coming down tomorrow.
I ate your brothers and sisters.
I'm not coming down today, I'm not coming down tomorrow.
I ate your neighbors, your fellow creatures.
Im not coming down today, Im not coming down tomorrow.
Ah, but you, bird, I dont understand you.
I have just told you that I have finished off everyone in your house.
I have devoured all your hope. Oops!
As soon as the hyena said this,
the rooster jumped down from the branch
and landed in front of the hyena.
Well, there you go, youve won,
now all you can do is eat me too.
Hmmm, this attitude disturbed the hyena, who forgot about her hunger.
She asked the rooster:
"Why this sudden decision?"
And the rooster replied:
there are people who dont have a father;
they still live, dont they?
There are people who dont have a mother;
they also live.
There are people who have no parents or friends
yet they go on living.
But when you have no hope, there is no way out.
Since you have finished destroying all my hope,
there is nothing left for you to do but to eat me too."
The hyena pondered this.
She said to herself that she, who roamed the bush all year round...
had never thought of basing her hope on someone or something.
The hyena decided to adopt the rooster as her hope,
and from that day on, when dawn breaks, the rooster alerts the hyena.
And ever since then, the hyena no longer eats roosters.
All this to say, distinguished guests, that since the appearance of Covid-19,
which has caused enormous loss of life and unprecedented crises in all areas
the whole world has been experiencing a common emotion: uncertainty.
In this situation, hope becomes the only thing
that humanity can cling to in order to resist, to survive.
Hope is what keeps us going, allowing us to get up every morning
and say that everything will be okay.
Hope that one day the vaccine will be available to everyone.
And I dare to hope that this will be the beginning of the end of this pandemic.
May the blessing of our ancestors be upon us.
[LIVE: WASHINGTON, DC]
And a warm welcome back to the World Bank Group headquarters in Washington, DC.
[PAUL BLAKE, WORLD BANK GROUP] Over the next half hour,
we'll be answering your questions, submitted online
revealing the results of today's poll and much more.
But first we received a special message
from his holiness Pope Francis
and we'd like to share a few extracts from his letter.
"It is my hope that our discussion
that your discussions will contribute to a model
of recovery, capable of generating new, more inclusive
and sustainable solutions to support the real economy
and communities to achieve their deepest aspirations
and the universal common good.
We especially need a justly financed vaccine solidarity for
we cannot allow the law of the marketplace to
take precedence over the law of love and health of all.
Here, I reiterate my call to government leaders, businesses
and international organizations to work together
in providing vaccines for all, especially for the
most vulnerable and needy.
Relieving the burden of debt
of so many countries and communities today is
a profoundly human gesture that can help people to develop
to have access to vaccines, health, education, and jobs."
This is just a sample of what the Pope had to say.
You can read the full letter
on our website at worldbank.org/pope-Francis-message.
I am Luis Osorio Florez in Washington, DC.
and you're watching the World Bank Group
IMF Spring Meetings.
And joining us now for a live discussion
is the International Finance Corporation,
Senior Vice President of Operations, Stephanie Von Friedeburg
and the World Bank's Vice President for Human Development, Mamta Murthi.
Ladies, welcome to you both.
Thank you, Paul, good to be here.
I have a bunch of questions
people have sent in a bunch of questions about vaccines,
but first can you just get a few thoughts from you guys,
what stood out from you from the Pope's message?
Stephanie, why don't you kick us off?
Wow, Paul, I have to say it's such an honor
to have one of the world's most well-recognized
spiritual leaders way into our conversations.
It really tells me that we need
to think differently about partnerships,
they need to be conventional and unconventional to get us
out of this crisis and have a more equitable greener world.
You know, Pope Francis said we need wise solutions
and with limited fiscal space
the only way we get those wise solutions is
with the private sector.
And I really believe that IFC
and the World Bank Group are super well-placed
to help spearhead that.
Thank you, and Mamta.
Pope Francis said love and health for all,
that is such a powerful and profound message,
he also said something about ecological debt.
He said, we owe a debt to the planet
and that made me think about the fact
that the infectious disease that we face today
actually sprung from animals to humans.
And it's driven by things
like urbanization, by agriculture, by mining.
So his message is really telling us
we need to think about how we go about development,
if we want to protect ourselves and protect our planet.
So really, really meaningful message.
Thank you both.
Let's jump into some of the questions
we've received from folks online.
I am up to the first question comes from Flora Fonseca, in Brazil.
She sent this video.
Hi everyone, my name is Flora Fonseca.
I'm from Brazil and here's my question.
Could you please let me know the objectives
of the global vaccine campaign?
Thanks to Flora for sending that.
Mamta, what would you respond to Flora there?
So this is a very simple answer to Flora.
The purpose of the global vaccine campaign is to save lives
and to help everybody get back to work,
get back to school and get back to the life that they had.
Seeing friends and seeing family.
Exactly and it's not straightforward
because you need vaccines
and you need to get those vaccines into people's arms.
Now at the World Bank Group
what we're doing is we're making financing available
for the manufacturing of vaccines
and that falls under Stephanie
and for the purchase and deployment of vaccines
and that falls under me. [LIVE: WORLD BANK GROUP LEADERS ON COVID-19 VACCINES]
It's not a straightforward business,
you've got to manufacture the vaccine
you've got to transport it.
You typically have to keep it cool.
And then you've got to get it
to a good clean clinic that people want to go to.
And then you need to record the information
that they've received the vaccine.
So that's, that's the whole process.
And what our resources are doing is
they're helping countries purchase the vaccines
and distribute the vaccines.
We have a big facility, it's US$12 billion.
It's a lot of money, so
that countries can actually get the vaccines
and put them into people's arms.
and we've actually committed a fair amount
of those resources already, including in countries
in Latin America in Flora's neighborhood.
It's a really complicated process
to get those vaccines in people's arms.
And Stephanie, the next question comes from Sammy
and they're writing on World Bank Live, and they say:
"How are we going to ensure that those without proper access to health care,
either due to physical constraints
or financial constraints will get vaccinated?"
And how can institutions like the IFC help ensure access
to vaccines for everyone, everywhere?
It's a good question, Paul.
And it's a really hard question.
-It's a big question.
First of all, I would say globally,
it's a race against time.
The faster that we inoculate humankind
the less likely it is
that some dangerous variant of the COVID virus emerges.
So we are in a race against time and it gives me pause
that of the 400 million or so vaccines
that are in circulation,
90% of those have gone
to the high income and middle-income countries.
There are 36 countries today
in the world that haven't received one dose of vaccine.
So what can IFC do about it?
I think we learned very early
in the crisis that the private sector was needed
and really needed to step up.
And we saw it first in medical supplies
so there was a shortage of equipment,
there was a shortage of PPE,
there was a shortage of pharmaceuticals like therapeutics.
We saw, for example, in the Central African Republic
there were 3 ventilators.
I mean, to put that in comparison
there are 275,000 ventilators in the United States.
So what did we do?
We created a global health platform,
we work together with our Board to come up with a unique
one of a kind platform, US$4 billion
for us to invest in equipment PPE, things like that.
And at the very tail end of those conversations
we tacked on vaccines just in case.
And then we started to see the need
for increased production of vaccines globally
and especially for our countries of operations.
And interestingly as Mamta said it's complex.
So it's not just the vaccine itself
it's the cap and fill facilities,
it's the raw materials that go into making a vaccine.
I mean, remember we have never tried
to inoculate the entire planet as fast as we are right now.
So what we're seeing is breakages across the supply chain
everywhere, there are shortages of vials
there is shortages of needles,
there is shortages of sterile saline,
there is shortages of storage bags.
So we're using our global health platform
to invest in all of those things.
As an example, very recently
we invested in a company called Biological E.
So BioE is a pharmaceutical company
in India that makes vaccines and through our facility
they were able to increase their production
and will now make Johnson and Johnson vaccines for the world,
which is a great vaccine because it requires one dose
and it doesn't require as much cold storage,
so very cool.
They're also working on their own vaccine
which is going to be really low cost
and will help us get more vaccines into people's arms.
And then the third piece that we're working on
is distribution because just like we were sort of hit
with the shortage of equipment
and then hit with the shortage of vaccines.
As these vaccines come into production,
we got to find the most effective and
efficient way to get them distributed.
So we've released an RFP
and it's really a competition of sorts to say-
- When you ask people to send their ideas.
Send your ideas, give us the most innovative idea
to get distribution out as fast as possible.
And I'm really excited to see what we come up with.
Then we're supporting companies like Imperial Logistics,
which is a South African company
that's building a network
of clinics and nurses across Africa.
So there's just so much we need to do but you know me,
if there's a silver lining in all of this,
one of the things that I think is most important
is we've really shown a light on the need
for technology transfer into our countries of operation.
We need to ensure that going forward
emerging market countries can produce their own vaccines
and create better health systems for the next pandemic.
And thanks to Sammy for sending that question.
The next one comes from Basadi Tamplin
and they're writing from Botswana and they ask how
can the international community ensure vaccine governance
so that there is an equitable and ethical distribution of COVID-19 vaccines.
Mamta what would you tell Basadi?
I would say that there's two aspects
of equitable distribution.
There is distribution of vaccines across countries
and there is distribution of vaccines within countries.
Let's start with the within countries.
Within countries, there needs to be a plan which prioritizes
who is going to get the vaccine first and at the World Bank,
along with WHO, we say it should be healthcare workers
and people who are the most vulnerable
and likely to get infected,
and there can be a death after that.
It's very important that this plan be transparent
that it be known and it's this plan
that needs to be monitored.
And this is where civil society,
the media and so on come in because they,
can then follow whether things
are going according to plan.
Exactly and the private sector
is very important for distribution.
Many countries have discovered that they can't just
they aren't set up for the public sector
to do this on its own.
Now, what we have said is that under our projects
it's very important that governments announce these plans,
these are transparent and that these are monitored.
So let me give you an example in the case of Lebanon
which we are supporting, we have the international Red Cross
and Red Crescent society that is actually,
monitoring the government's vaccine distribution plan.
And in fact, they did step in when they discovered
that vaccine distribution wasn't going according to plan
and so the system actually worked.
That's just within countries,
Now let's come to across countries.
And that's the issue that Stephanie was referring to.
Unfortunately, we are in a situation where the majority
of vaccines that are being distributed
at the moment are being distributed in rich countries
and we're not safe until everyone is safe.
And that's why the World Bank Group have been advocating
for fair distribution of vaccines across the world.
And we've been raising this at the highest level,
we raised it with Pope Francis
and we got this excellent reply from him.
So in addition to advocating along with other agencies
for equitable distribution of vaccines
we have also been supporting manufacture
because distributed regionally distributed manufacture
is another aspect of having vaccines for all.
And finally, if I can just say
while are we talking about this pandemic,
we mustn't forget that we could
have another pandemic coming around the corner.
And this is where I wanted to tie it back to
this point about ecological debt.
I think the best vaccine for future pandemics
is that we manage the resources of this planet well
and we think about how we're urbanizing
how we're doing agriculture, how we're doing mining
because essentially, we are living cheek by jowl,
if I can say that, with animals
from whom we're getting all these infections.
So if we manage the planet's resources
and we manage development well
we will have a vaccine against future pandemics.
You're talking about the future,
and Stephanie, just as we wrap up, looking ahead,
when we soak it in the past,
I always think of you as someone who is a big proponent
of technology for development.
Looking ahead, what role will technology play
in not just the climate part and the ecological part
but strengthening health care systems in countries?
Paul, you know me too well [laughs].
If there's a second silver lining it's technology
and I start with the virus itself and the vaccine
and I need to look no further than programs like "Warp Speed",
where we were capable of creating a vaccine in nine months.
And what makes me most excited
about it is the new technologies that we're using.
The mRNA technology, in my view, gives us the opportunity
to look at the vaccine landscape and ask ourselves:
"Can we actually tackle the 20 or 30 viruses
that have plagued us?" Think about a virus for Zika.
So vaccines is the first place,
the second place is telemedicine.
I mean, telemedicine has exploded as a result of the virus.
And we see, for example, in the United States
there's one doctor for every 385 people.
In Africa, there is one doctor for every 4,220 people.
So we can use telemedicine to help solve that problem.
We estimate that it'll grow at a rate
of about 19% a year coming out of the crisis
and even faster in emerging markets.
We have a clinic that we've invested
in Mexico that actually has diabetes clinics
all done now via telemedicine.
One of my favorite companies
in the world is this little company called Tricog
which uses AI and telemedicine to take care
of cardiovascular diseases in India.
And actually since they started
they have saved 170,000 lives.
- That's incredible. - It's incredible, huh.
Then finally, there's drones Paul.
And again, we have talked a bit about distribution
of vaccines, companies like Zipline can help us with that.
And we estimate that you can save as much as 50%
of the cost of distribution by using drones.
So "tech by tech",
I really believe we can make the health systems
of the world better.
Fantastic, this has been a great conversation.
I'm really grateful to both of you for taking the time today.
Stephanie von Friedeburg and Mamta Murthi.
[SUVA, FIJI] - Hi, I am Vika in Fiji, and you're watching
the World Bank Group IMF Spring Meetings.
Well, let's get the youth perspective on vaccines.
For the past few weeks we've been receiving videos
from youth leaders, thinkers and activists
from around the world
and today we hear from Eremutha in Nigeria
Rima in Jordan and Deepasri in India.
[HOW CAN YOUTH IN YOUR COUNTRY PARTICIPATE]
[IN A RESILIENT RECOVERY FROM THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC?]
[DEEPASRI BHARATHAN] Educate, the youth must create awareness responsibly
and accurately about the effect of the pandemic
on physical and mental health, and the rules to be followed.
[RIMA AL HASAN] Young people have the ability and the creativity
to come up with new solutions that could be targeted
for solving social problems or serving the community.
Governments require both support and criticism
on their policies for recovery
and the youth can offer both using all the platforms
at their disposal, especially social media.
[EREMUTHA STEPHANIE TOBORE] There are lots of myths and misconceptions about COVID-19 vaccine.
So in my own opinion, if these youths are actively involved
in the COVID-19 vaccine distribution administration process,
they will provide and they will act as influencers,
providing relevant information that will debunk
these myths and misconceptions,
thereby promoting youth compliance
and the acceptance of this COVID-19 vaccine.
The youth has the time and the energy
to come up with ideas and mechanisms
to help us recover and rise stronger.
Well, joining me back on set is my colleague
Srimathi Sridhar, fourth and final day
we've been asking polls all week,
what is today's poll?
Alright, Paul, so today's poll asks:
"What do you think is the most important factor
in ensuring the fair distribution of vaccines?"
And there were four choices.
First, is it increasing vaccine production to meet demand?
Is it overcoming logistical challenges
and storing and transporting vaccines?
Is it building trust through education awareness campaigns
or is it expanding vaccine access to low
and middle-income countries?
- Tell us how people voted?
All right, well, with 43.5% of votes the top answer was
"expanding vaccine access to low and middle-income countries",
followed by "increasing vaccine production
to meet demand" at 28.2%,
"building trust through education awareness campaigns"
at 16.6%, and "overcoming logistical challenges
in storing and transporting vaccines" at 11.7%.
- To let you know
I don't know how I would vote because all
of these seems so important. - They are really good options.
- And I mean, I remember back talking to a Muhammad Patay
one of our health leaders here
and talking about the logistical challenges
back in the fall.
So there's so many other challenges, it is very complicated.
- It is very hard to pick.
So it is a tough one.
Well, let's do this,
let's have another country profile all this week
[COUNTRY SPOTLIGHT ON PHILIPPINES] we've been profiling the individual challenges
and triumphs of individual countries
when it comes to climate challenges and action,
and today we are going to hear from the Philippines.
It's a country comprised of 7,000 islands
each of which is home to these incredible ecosystems.
Yes, and it's from the capital city of Manila
that I caught up with Country Director Ndiame Diop
start off by asking him what some
of the nation's climate challenges are,
and how they are responding to it.
The location in the ring of fire means
that the country is very highly exposed
to climate change and natural disaster.
So every year we have about 20 cyclones operating
in the area of the Philippines
and about seven to nine of them would land,
[NDIAME DIOP, COUNTRY DIRECTOR/BRUNEI, MALAYSIA, PHILIPPINES AND THAILAND] and when they do, they create a lot of disruptions
in the economy, creating congestion,
creating flooding, so on, and really impacting
welfare of the population.
- Well, let's talk about, COVID-19 a little bit more
what is the World Bank doing
to help Philippines recover from the pandemic?
- The Bank has stepped up very quickly
when the pandemic started to support the Philippines
respond to the COVID-19 shock