Practice English Speaking&Listening with: I Waterproofed Myself With Aerogel!

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I feel confident

You're confident that I am NOT gonna be damaged?

not permanently

okay

let me back up for a moment. I want to talk about the properties of aerogel

the world's lightest solid.

What I'm gonna do is I'm gonna lean in so it's

coming in through this mic and then can you do that again yeah

this is what it sounds like

that is weird

it has a metallic ring first recognized

by aerogel's inventor Samuel Kistler all the way back in 1931.

now aerogel is an

excellent thermal insulator but it's not the easiest material to work with can I

try it sure oh I didn't I don't quite have the touch oh I can't I make it ring

oh no look it didn't take a whole lot to break it right it breaks pretty easily

so is there a way to take the extraordinary thermal insulation of

aerogel but make it more usable what I put together here is just a combination

of aerogel particles silica aerogel particles and a non-flammable binder and

you should be able to put it on your your skin and hit yourself with the

torch should right I'll give it a shot okay so you just take a little bit and

squeeze it around your finger just around yeah just squeeze it around here

one finger a two fingers you want matter how's that am I am i doing it oh yeah

that's that's yeah I'll be good just wanna make sure the fire when it goes

around your finger doesn't hit the Bearskin seems like it's pretty thin

around this finger tip here like how thick should it be you're making me

nervous holding a blowtorch can I do the

blowtorching or you can do the blowtorching absolutely because I mean

if this is if this goes wrong so how hot is a blowtorch flame well it's really

hard to tell but from our experience it's usually you know at least 1500

degrees C and can get as hot as 2000 so yeah this is very hot all right let's

try it this is so wrong that little jittery pot there I you know it looks

like I'm toasting a marshmallow whoa why is it flaming like that and

what is burning binder right now correct should people just hold the rate on

there it doesn't feel hot at all my finger does not feel hot at all

that is insane right there propriety I cannot believe how a little

warmth I feel passing through that the FLIR 10 2013 10 per ature ranges and

here the aerogel is clearly hotter than the 160 degrees Celsius upper limit I

mean it's glowing orange hot so it's clearly incredibly hot I mean if you can

see the blackbody radiation you know that it's very hot so we went

to the highest temperature range so this goes up to 2,000 Celsius 881 907 907 907

degrees Celsius that is absurd pretty good right in front of my finger

what so this was was about almost a thousand Celsius but behind this thin

layer of aerogel my fingers are just just warm Wow I mean it is clear this

stuff insulates this video is about taking air gels extraordinary properties

and improving on them for example I'm about to step into this pool without

getting wet there's a layer of air there right next to my skin that thin layer of

air is what makes my skin looks silvery light from certain angles reflects off

the water air interface in what's called total internal reflection that is very

strange this is a really cool effect I mean just besides the fact that I'm

basically waterproof I feel like this extra air on me is making me more

buoyant than usual let me try coming out by the water and

see if I'm still dry

that is true I don't I don't really feel wet at all

that was weird really weird so how did I make myself waterproof I did it with

aerogel particles by taking a bucket of them and coating myself with the tiny

best but this is a kind of strange way to become waterproof because normal

silica aerogel is hydrophilic there we go now this is a hydrophilic aerogel so

all those OAH groups inside the aerogel are absorbing the liquid and causing the

aerogel structure to collapse aerogel is really good at absorbing water for two

reasons first it contains a lot of surface area due to its nano scales

sponge-like structure an ice cube sized piece of aerogel contains half a

football field of surface area that makes it good at absorbing lots of

molecules something scientists have sought to exploit my favorite

application which I still think today is a good idea is what's the idea is a a

physical insecticide so most insecticides work by being neurotoxins

they're called cholinesterase inhibitors it's the same mechanism as nerve gas and

we spray this on crops and things but a physical insecticide works by basically

getting stuck to the outer skin of the insect and and basically sucking all the

moisture the or the oils out of them to the point where they just sort of dry

out to death it's kind of like putting salt on a Sluggers yeah that's a very

good analogy exactly the other reason it's good at absorbing water

specifically is because it's structure is covered with OAH groups which attract

water molecules and that makes it ideal for use in museums in the past I've been

working with a company in Italy called opium which makes Museum cases I mean

they made the case for Mona Lisa they are interested in putting aerogels in

the cases because it's a passive moisture a regulator essentially once

you have it inside if the moisture increases the original

a lot of it if it decreases it releases some of it air gels ability to absorb is

even being used right now to help detect Mars quakes these were the ones that

were made for the NASA insight mission this aerogel looks like chalk because

so-called zeolite particles are dispersed throughout it they can absorb

moisture even at very low pressures there's a seismometer that contains

three small seismometers and requires since they're so small they require

exceptional vacuum inside otherwise the motion get stamped so that's what we

developed this for the zoo lights were helping absorb the moisture

predominantly that was coming off of the hypotheses and gave me some gassing

different things so that is it's sort of maintaining the vacuum by keeping -

pulling things it's actually a vacuum ball if you think of it that way and

what's interesting about it is it does not require any power any consumptions

very light so essentially this is what enabled the inside mission to work

aerogel can absorb up to 25 times its weight in water but for some

applications this is less than ideal so once we've done this is that piece of

aerogel ruined now pretty much yeah that's that's entropy irreversible

damage there to counteract this issue we take a hydrophobe it's a reactive

chemical that when it touches a no H group spontaneously rearranges with that

o age group and creates this big non-polar group and that repels water so

by replacing just 30% of the Oh H groups that line the inside of the aerogel with

these hydrophobic groups you can make an aerogel that perfectly repels water so

here water bounces off it's totally impervious it does not penetrate in and

it can sit on water for months and it will be just the same as if it was never

wetted at all you ready I guess let's go shot there it goes

it feels funny cuz it like it hardly feels like the water is touching me

because in a way the water isn't touching it's not touching you

that's what's amazing at the molecular level it is being repelled look how

crazy that it's like a weird laminar flow this is so trippy

so aerogel can be made impervious to water or more adsorbent it is naturally

brittle but it can be worked into a sticky paste and so far I've really only

focused on silica aerogel but air gels can be made out of all sorts of

different materials so all of these materials are nano structured that's

right and they have nano sized pores around 20 nanometers in size that's

right and they are over 50% err correct which is why they're also light

lightweight yeah some of them are made of polymers and there is a trade-off

between thermal and mechanical properties a traditional silica aerogel

is typically around 15 milliwatts per meter Kelvin thermal conductivity so

that means about 3 times 2 to 3 times better insulating than styrofoam these

materials would be between one and a half to two times more insulating than

styrofoam somewhere around 20 to 26 milliwatts per meter Kelvin this is a

poly a madero gel this chemistry came from NASA so it's a great insulating

material but it's not flammable knock on it it feels like wood internally we call

it Martian tape another way to make aerogel more workable is to incorporate

it into composite materials like blankets something that's in between

silicon and silica that feels nice it feels very nice doesn't this feels like

almost like a stuffed animal yeah exactly

so this is a new type of aerogel blanket that in the future we may find in

something like an astronaut suit or maybe even apparel what this material is

actually it's fiberglass it does feel like it's a fiberglass that's been

infused with aerogel and so that fiberglass aerogel composite

so because aerogels are traditionally very fragile bike um

positing it with the fiberglass allows you to make something that can be flexed

and cut and sewn and wrapped it's not the most cuddly it it sheds dust when

you tap on it but go ahead and dust is that that's silica aerogel to morphus

silica and it's it's very safe it's not for example like quartz fiber or

asbestos which are you know long aspect-ratio fibers that the body has no

chemical means or physical means of breaking down this stuff is readily

captured and and expelled by the body and it's it's not dangerous and this is

what they use to insulate subsea oil pipelines and refineries and all sorts

of applications so just that thickness will insulate a pipeline yeah so that

thickness that that one this is one centimeter thick in one centimeter you

get the same effective insulation value as three centimeters over an inch of

mineral wool or fiberglass by itself so it's a tremendously better insulator

this blanket is actually what I'm gonna put to the test in the final episode of

the aerogel trilogy so subscribe if you don't want to miss it

The Description of I Waterproofed Myself With Aerogel!