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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Lecture 2

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welcome session two of our course from here we actually start the subject matter when

you learn a language or when you teach a language what it is that you learn or teach you learn

and teach basically three things letters words and sentences and that is precisely we will

do in this course starting with letters and this is one point i would like to put a lot

of stress because a people a quite often ah do not write the script in the correct way

in which it should be return

when you write english it is important that you write with the proper style of the letters

and you write the letters connected that is in this manner and when you write connected

then it is important that the letters do not in finch on each others in such a manner that

after you have written you your text it should be possible to run parallel lines in such

a manner that all the letters become separated by this pair lines the ah letters do not ah

in to each others so this is something is which very important to practice and ah to

instruct children do it thoroughly and whenever you write with your hand not at the key board

and it is important that you

follow this practice because otherwise you ah written ah when the early it will not be

ah possible to easily read them and you not able write fast enough if you write black

letters light in painting and it will be a good idea to practice these words and these

text once thoroughly as it is given here if you already do not have a proper habit ours

writing in cursive writing and through the course ah during all the create an activities

at you do in your refer which you do with hand you try to ensure that you follow through

this discipline of writing cursive so that by the end of the course you develop a have

it of writing in this manner of only and with this

we should proceed to ah our study of words and sentences but before that i would like

to ah introduce ah two techniques one in this session and one in the next session ah which

we will follow through the course regularly ah one is interpretation which we will cover

today and they other is expression with we will cover in the next session so in his interpretation

technique what we do is we try to develop a systematic methodology to read english text

and understand it interpreted and in principle interpretation should mean that you read the

text and you understand understand but how do you know how do who know that you have

understood it completely and for that use the ah

advantages of proficiency in the common local language and when we say that we interpret

a text we mean that you interpreted completely in other language in which you are quite profession

which is quite established and so interpretation exercise interpretation technique we will

covered the transaction of in this text in do common local language which we are taking

as in the in the so i will explain the process through this either station suppose this passage

we want to ah interpret we want to understand so we will take ah sentence by sentence so

this a first sentence and we take this first sentence so what we will do is that we make

the sentence into several parts these are the parts the full sentence is people were

dying in famine

in the city of shravasti so first part in this sentence is people second is were dying

then in famine then in the city of shravasti these are individual tangible parts of the

sentence which we can separately try to understand separately try to interpret or separately

try to converted to hindi and as you do that we get people [other language] were dying

[other language] in famine [other language] in the city of shravasti shravasthi [other

language] and now in order to construct the hindi text out if this we need to follow through

the syntax rule to hindi so then in order to do that we number this in the hindi alteration

and the by numbering it one two three four we will construct thus in

this as [other language] and that way we quickly can develop this sentence with out any for

it ok suppose next sentence is this here again as a break it in two parts we get these as

a three parts convert each of the part into hindi and then order that in hindi order and

then you get this ok next sentence in the passage is who will take the task of feeding

the hungry ok session ah how will you break it into two parts can you make the sentence

if you define part who will take the task of feeding the hungry first first word

who correct second will take correct then the third is task the fourth is task of feeding

the hungry right ah as on can you tell us a meaning of who [other language] will take

[other language] the task [other language] of feeding the hungry [other language] hungry

hungry [other language] now we connect them in the appropriate in the order ok we put

define numbers under this ok [other language] ok so i get this right next we take take the

next sentence

so what will the first part ratnakar seth ratnakar seth second part lowered lowered

and third word his head fine so then you transfer each of them to hindi one by one ratnakar

seth [other language]

step step by step into hindi you do not loss anything ok so in this entire exercise though

we are calling it interpretation but we are actually doing translation the idea is that

in order to interpret and show that we have interpreted correctly what you are trying

to do is that we are transferring it in to the language in which the test has got completely

converted and the understanding it understanding the hand it is that if we have converted the

text completely to hindi that means we have interpreted correctly ok so that proof of

the interpretation complete interpretation is that we have converted into hindi completely

with out using any information of the original text

ok and it will help you when you try to read something which is complicated if the sentence

is too long too large too complicated lot of things hanging from this idea and that

side and in one chat you cannot see the full meaning then if you try to break that define

parts and then try to assumable of meanings of difference parts into the sentence that

you constructing in hindi and when you succeed in doing that and account for all the bits

and pieces of the original sentence in your new sentence then you know that you have understood

the complete meaning of the original sentence so that is the idea in this interpretation

exercise but so much of grains i do not have ok so is into parts and then how do you convert

this different parts into hindi but [other language] so much of grains

[other language] i do not have [other language] that's it [other language] right so one two

three direct ok so this way you can systematically ensure that you have understood the complete

message of the text with out losing any information ok so this interpretation exercise perhaps

he was not very necessary to interpret such a simple text but we are taking a simple text

as illustration in order to ensure that we understand what is a method so that we take

this measured and continue applying them ahead on other text which are perhaps more complicated

and when you break into pieces you first of all try to

break in break the sentence into different pieces different parts according to the sentence

structures and try to identify individual parts individual pieces in such a manner which

are themselves ah you know ah things which you can think of separately ok and then each

of them individually you can translate into hindi you can understand that this is this

this is this and so on and then you try to assemble the resulting pieces in other language

and you assemble correctly that means you have completely interpreted the original sentence

in that it maybe so that some of the words are missing then you know that when we convert

this particular word into hindi then overall that thing you will go and sit something which

you have that is a action or a think if it is a think then whether it is a think to eat

or to play with or to see those are things which will come up in this

finding the meaning of each and every part ok so meaning of sentences is one thing which

we will read on the way but apart from the sometimes even with out knowing the meaning

of some words the way it comes in the sentence structure you can make this parts and then

you know what is the word for which you have to find out the meaning ok so any questions

on this yes how to break the sentence yes this is what i was just now trying to tell

when you try to break a sentence you need to identify individual parts which in themselves

mean something ok for example when i took this passage and say this ah sentence we broke

it

as people were dying in famine in the city in the city of shravasti it doesn't make sense

to break it i was famine the city as one part ok and then of shravasti another part because

that is something which makes a wrong connections with in two parts here we have taken will

take together other will alone ah will not much make a much sense only when the other

word taken then will take together makes a sense who will take will take together the

alone will make will not make a sense and then again you cannot have having definitely

make to sense to break a part and say who will consider take the as a part that make

sense so we will break it into part in such a manner that each

part and itself can be interpreted has a meaning it sort a full sentence which is the part

of the sentence but that has a part that has a meaning so who will take we will see [other

language] which we can directly understand individually similarly the task come so which

you can understand directly so individual pieces should be understandable in itself

and then individually translated that is how you need to break the them yes why why it

is important to write cur cursive oh and there are ah ah several reasons ah two important

reasons ah are that one if you write cursive then you can write fast because other wise

that are you will be writing separately

ok so when you write cursive you continues write so you write at a good and the second

thing is that english letters the letters of the roman script ah in printed form have

a lot of straight lines ok and when you try to make straight lines with your print then

most of the not really straight but we were when you write try to write fast they don't

remain state for is again again many of the lines are vertical ok so first of all line

will not remain state an second it will not in vertical so when you write first when you

write pelt pelt ok so l is vertical t again has another vertical line now if l was this

way and t goes this way if you look agile right and the other hand when you write cursive

you have a lot of freedom

you write in curves you not write in straight lines ok so in curves you can manage a lot

with out it looking agile for example show you this sent this word i am writing pelt

ok so if i write in maybe this in doesn't look so bad but if i am writing first ok so

then it will look agile on the other hand when i a writing cursive then all of them

are curve not are the yet all of them are slant a little bit and then it will not be

a problem even if this is in thirty degree and twenty eight degree it will not matter

much it was still look like if ok so therefore when you write cursive you writing curves

and therefore slide

adjustment of your hand will not show up as agile stocks on the other hand when you write

this way then this not being straight will call some agelessness this and this being

incline differently one incline left other incline right will look bright right at of

course the over writing reason is that if you write separately write this then it will

take a lot of time for you to write anything ok so when you write a large word ok then

say a word having a twelve words twelve letters ok so twelve times you have to put down your

hand you are take hand take away your hand write so that lot of loss of time on the other

hand in cursive you can continuously write it what we are doing here is a typical strategy

called divide and conquer ok so if you have a very strong enemy

having a seven people in that then the correct way or the more efficient way to win if to

ah divide them make them into different parts and then individually fine one person at a

time ok any other question yes sir how do we differentiate between capital j ah capital

j we in my slide i have shown two different forms of j ah first is that whichever one

of that they version you write is actually alright besides ah i ah ah do not put a lot

of emphasize on cursive writing so for as the capital letters or concurrent small letters

ah are very important to write in cursive otherwise you use a lot of efficiency over

the writing ok a capital letters are not that crucial because first of all

capital letters really and even when the appear you need to join them only for one side and

not from the other ok because capital letters will never come in the middle of a word so

capital letters even if you write the block letter this not a great issue ok yes why writing

cursive they where t yes it some times look like i ah many people like it like i many

people like block letters t then the write cursive the it is capital t you are talking

about yes yes yes then it is write to write write to write up by by yeah what you what

in is that when you want to say ah this is wrong then whether

you should start it like this or whether you should

start it like this which one is better i always do this ok but if you are my student and if

you do this ah then perhaps i will not the extreme take with you but it would look like

of you do this because this is the correct style on the other hand if you are my student

i my class and if you writing like this then i am not going to accepted ok yes if we have

develop such level of translation then why it is important to translate a sentence into

hindi ah yeah yes i think what straight in the long standing whether translation d is

not these not is that the question whether learning a language through the translation

is a good idea not

ah see there are two things to make note of here one is that we should not fall a victim

to the decease of translation ok it should not happen that whatever we try to read we

have o translate mentally that is not a good idea when you read english you should understand

directly and when you speak english you should construct you speech directly into a english

this is the major we to do it yet there is a lot of utility in the weapon translation

so at a stage in learning it helps to understand the text two translation at a stage in expression

it helps to first have the purity of your thought whatever you want to write f you think

once in your own language then you will know the thought completely and

then you try to translate to english or when you read something after mentally translating

in by hindi are whatever language you know that you have understand completely and when

you reach the maturity that you directly and continuously read through english text and

understand directly then there is no now we are using the medium of translation in order

to in a teach learn and understand thinks better because ah a ah understanding through

translation is a certainly better then not understanding at all that is one thing taken

through the translation it will be clear between you and me that whatever the take whatever

text i as you you read to you have actually understood it because it's meaning you have

told me ok and the last point ah in the discussion on interpretation to

translation is that we are focusing on those learners for whom there is already a good

proficiency in one language ok and we are taking about english as an acquire language

as an additional language a second language not them mother tongue mother tongue is something

which you learn directly ok in the learning of any other language to run it fast with

in the reasonable time it helps to interpret things in your own language in which your

thought process is already quite match have already started thinking and expressing much

more complex thought ok ah i think ah we have a little wrong of tutorial in which i will

call some of the students here in our audience who

will ah so a little exercise in this interpretation technique and this is also illustration to

the those participants in our program who are school teachers and who would like to

know how they can a conduct this ah exercise in there class so the story which we where

ah interpreting earlier who will continue that story and this first page will covered

and our go to the second page ok sasanth see with now take the simple sentences we start

from the sentence write on the board the famine

has

dried up my good form

ok so now break it into buts what will the first part only the the famine as and then

second part ah had dried up ah ok by so now convert the

first one first part into hindi the famine

and now the second part [other language] ok third part [other language]

[other language] ok now now in in this in the part how they put one two three really

in hindi sentence structure ah ah correct fine so you will make it [other language]

right ok and now we take the last sentence [other language]

you tell the class the different parts [other language] anathepindath [other language] got

up [other language] so [other language] take care [other language] so if other through

the steps here all the steps to

we have put together then slowly as i told you that this could have been two different

parts also are they could be put together [other language]in the correct order you get

it [other language] right ok thank you

The Description of Lecture 2