Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Harvard Doctor Predicts COVID-19 Vaccine By Early 2021 | Hallie Jackson | MSNBC

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>> KEIR SIMMONS LIVE IN LONDON

I WANT TO BRING IN ASHISH JHA

INTO THIS CONVERSATION, THE

DIRECTOR OF THE HARVARD GLOBAL

HEALTH INSTITUTE

DR. JHA, ALWAYS A PLEASURE TO

HAVE YOU ON.

ON DAYS LIKE THIS, WHEN WERE

TRYING TO MAKE SENSE OF WHAT IS

THE SCIENCE BEHIND THIS, THE

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PHASE ONE

TRIAL SEEMINGLY SIGNIFICANT, ARE

YOU AS OPTIMISTIC AS RESEARCHERS

THERE ARE AND DOES THIS MEAN

THAT WE COULD POSSIBLY SEE A

VACCINE READY TO GO THIS YEAR?

>> CERTAINLY, AYMAN, THANK YOU

FOR HAVING ME ON

THIS IS GOOD NEWS, UNEQUIVOCALLY

THIS IS GOOD NEWS FOR TWO

REASONS.

ONE IS AS THE RESEARCHERS

POINTED OUT PRETTY MUCH

EVERYBODY GOT AN IMMUNE RESPONSE

FROM THIS VACCINE.

AND THEN THERE ARE TWO ARMS OF

YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM, WE THINK OF

HUMORAL ANTIBODIES AND T CELLS

IM PLEASANTLY SURPRISED BY THIS

VACCINE DOES SEEM TO STIMULATE

BOTH AND THAT GIVES US THAT MUCH

MORE HOPE THAT WERE GOING TO

HAVE A VACCINE THAT WILL BE

REALLY EFFECTIVE AGAINST THIS

VIRUS.

THE TIMELINE, IM NOT AS

OPTIMISTIC WELL HAVE IT

SOMETIME THIS FALL AS I KNOW

SOME OF THE FOLKS BROUGHT UP

IM LOOKING AT EARLY 2021.

I WOULD LOVE TO BE WRONG ABOUT

THAT.

>> HOW DOES SOMETHING LIKE THIS

GET SCALED INTO PRODUCTION WHEN

YOURE LOOKING AT A WORLD MAP

THAT HAS INFECTIONS IN EVERY

CORNER ON THIS EARTH AND YOU

HAVE THIS COMPANY THAT IS --

THIS UNIVERSITY, EXCUSE ME, AND

WE HAVE OTHER COMPANIES LIKE

MODERNA AND OTHER ARES ARE WORKI

ON THEIR OWN TRIALS.

HOW DOES SOMETHING LIKE THIS GO

FROM A UNIVERSITY TO BEING

SCALED TO MEET THE DEMANDS

AROUND THE WORLD

>> RIGHT, SO THATS PART OF THE

CHALLENGE FOR WHY PEOPLE WHO

SORT OF HOPED THAT WE COULD HAVE

A VACCINE THIS FALL, I THINK ARE

MAYBE BEING UNREALISTIC.

WE HAVE GOT TO PRODUCE HUNDREDS

OF MILLIONS, PROBABLY BILLIONS

OF DOSES OF THESE VACCINES

AND, YOU KNOW, THIS IS AN

ADENOVIRUS, YOU HAVE TO TAKE A

VIRUS AND MODIFY IT TO GET THE

RIGHT PROTEIN EXPRESSED.

ALL DOABLE, WE HAVE THE

TECHNOLOGY, BUT TO MAKE BILLIONS

OF DOSES IN A WAY THAT IS SAFE

AND CONSISTENT, IT IS A LOT OF

WORK

AND THERE ARE A LOT OF PLACES

THAT COULD FALL APART.

SO I THINK, AGAIN, GREAT NEWS,

BUT I DONT THINK WE WANT TO

JUMP THE GUN HERE.

PLUS, IT HASNT YET REALLY SHOWN

THAT IT PREVENTS INFECTION, WHAT

IT HAS DONE IS SHOWN US IT HAS

GENERATED AN IMMUNE RESPONSE

THATS WHAT THE NEXT PHASE OF

THE CLINICAL TRIAL HAS TO DO FOR

US IS SHOW US THAT.

>> I MAY BE THINKING A FEW STEPS

DOWN THE ROAD HERE, BUT WATCHING

HOW THE MASK DEBATE HAS BEEN

POLITICIZED IN THIS COUNTRY.

I CAN ONLY IMAGINE WHAT WILL

HAPPEN WHEN VACCINES ARE BEING

ROLLED OUT AND YOU HAVE PEOPLE

SAY TAKE THE VACCINES, DONT

TAKE THE VACCINES.

HOW DO YOU ASSURE THE PUBLIC IN

THIS CURRENT CLIMATE THAT A

VACCINE THAT HAS SOME SHORT-TERM

POSITIVITY IN FIGHTING THE

CORONAVIRUS MAY NOT HAVE

LONG-TERM SIDE EFFECTS

HOW DO YOU EVEN MEASURE WHETHER

OR NOT SOMETHING LIKE THIS COULD

HAVE A SIDE EFFECT FIVE, TEN, 15

YEARS DOWN THE LINE?

>> YES, SO WE PROBABLY WONT BE

ABLE TO OBVIOUSLY DO THE STUDY

FOR FIVE, TEN YEARS, BUT FROM

OTHER VACCINES, YOU DONT NEED

STUDIES THAT LONG.

MOST OF THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS

WILL BECOME APPARENT MUCH SOONER

THAN THAT.

BUT THIS IS WHY WE NEED A LARGE

SCALE PHASE THREE AND I LIKE THE

30,000 PEOPLE THAT THEY HAVE SET

UP IN THEIR -- THEYRE GOING TO

STUDY IN PHASE THREE AND WE HAVE

TO FOLLOW ALL THOSE PEOPLE

THIS IS WHY, AGAIN, EARLY FALL

IS UNREALISTIC, WE NEED THE TIME

TO FOLLOW PEOPLE TO MAKE SURE

THEYRE NOT HAVING ADVERSE

REACTIONS TO THIS VACCINE.

I THINK IT IS DOABLE

EARLY 2021, IM PRETTY

OPTIMISTIC WERE GOING TO HAVE

OR ONE OF THE OTHER VACCINES,

BUT IT IS GOING TO BE HARD TO

GET IT DONE BEFORE THEN.

>> LET ME SWITCH GEARS FOR A

MOMENT AND TALK ABOUT HOW WERE

HANDLING THE WAVE WERE IN

YESTERDAY NIH DIRECTOR FRANCIS

COLLINS APPEARED ON "MEET THE

PRESS" TO TALK ABOUT THE COUNTRY

COUNTRYS STRUGGLE TO GET AHEAD

OF THE VIRUS

HE POINTED TO PLACES THAT DID A

GOOD JOB

THAT IS QUESTIONABLE EARLY ON,

BUT HE ADMITS THAT ELSEWHERE THE

SITUATION SEEMS TO HAVE BROKEN

DOWN

LISTEN TO WHAT HE SAID

>> STEPS WERE PUT IN PLACE AND

IF YOU LOOK TO SEE WHAT IS

HAPPENING NOW IN THOSE AREAS,

THEY CAME DOWN VERY CLOSE TO

ZERO

BUT MEANWHILE, THE REST OF THE

COUNTRY PERHAPS IMAGINING THIS

WAS JUST A NEW YORK PROBLEM KIND

OF WENT ABOUT THEIR BUSINESS,

DIDNT REALLY PAY THAT MUCH

ATTENTION TO CDCS

RECOMMENDATIONS ABOUT THE PHASES

NECESSARY TO OPEN UP SAFELY, AND

JUMPED OVER SOME OF THOSE HOOPS.

>> SHOULD STATES LIKE FLORIDA

AND CALIFORNIA, TWO RED ZONE HOT

SPOTS, BE REVERTING BACK TO A

TOTAL SHUTDOWN LIKE WE SAW HERE

IN NEW YORK EARLY ON

>> WELL, AGAIN, IM GOING TO GO

OFF OF THE WHITE HOUSES OWN

GUIDELINES THAT WERE LEAKED OUT

LAST WEEK, THEYRE RECOMMENDING

THEY GO BACK TO PHASE ONE.

PHASE ONE IS NO GATHERINGS

GREATER THAN TEN PEOPLE, NO

BARS, NO INDOOR DINING, WE

REALLY DO NEED TO PULL WAY BACK

IN THESE STATES.

AND IF WE DONT DO THAT NOW, BY

THE WAY, UNIVERSAL MASKING,

EVERYBODY NEEDS TO BE WEARING

MASKS OUTSIDE.

IF WE DONT DO THOSE THINGS,

WERE A STEP AWAY FROM TOTAL

SHUTDOWN WHICH WE WANT TO AVOID.

I DONT THINK WE CAN AVOID IN

THESE HOT SPOTS RIGHT NOW MANY

OF THE THINGS THAT PEOPLE ARE

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