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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Artificial Intelligence: Mankind's Last Invention

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It could be terrible and it could be great. It's not clear.


But one thing is for sure, we will not control it.

Go is arguably the most complex board game in existence

Its goal is simple

Surround more territory than your opponent

This game has been played by humans for the past 2,500 years

And is thought to be the oldest board game still being played today

However, it's not only humans that are playing this game now

In 2016, Google DeepMind's AlphaGo beat 18-time world champion Lee Sedol in four out of five games

Now, normally a computer beating a human at a game like chess or checkers wouldn't be that impressive

But Go is different

Go cannot be solved by brute force

Go cannot be predicted

There are over 10 to the 170 moves possible in Go

To put that into perspective

There are only 10 to the 80 atoms in the observable universe

AlphaGo was trained using data from real human Go games

It ran through millions of games and learned the techniques used and even made up new ones that no one had ever seen

and this is very impressive alone

However, what many people don't know is that only a year after AlphaGo's victory over Lee Sedol

A brand new AI called AlphaGo Zero beat the original AlphaGo

Not in four out of five games

Not in five out of five games

Not in ten out of ten games

But beat alphago 100 to zero

100 games in a row

The most impressive part?

It learned how to play with zero human interaction

This technique is more powerful than any previous version


It isn't restricted to human knowledge

No data was given. No historical figures were given

With just the bare-bones rules

AlphaGo Zero surpassed the previous AlphaGo in only 40 days of learning

In only 40 days, it surpassed over 2,500 years of strategy and knowledge

It only played against itself and is now regarded as the best Go player in the world

Even though it isn't human

But wait, if this AI learned how to play without any human interaction

Made up strategies of its own and then beat us with those strategies

Then that means there's more non-human knowledge about Go than there is human

And if we continue to develop Artificial Intelligence

Then, that means there's going to be more and more non-human intelligence

Eventually, there's going to be a point where we represent the minority of intelligence

Maybe even a very minuscule amount

That's fine though, we can just turn it off. Right?

It's a thought, but think!

When modern-day humans begin to take over the planet

Why didn't the chimps and Neanderthals turn us off?

If this artificial intelligence becomes super intelligent and learns through and is connected to the Internet

We can't just shut down the entire Internet, there's no off switch

So, what happens if we end up stuck with AI that is constantly and exponentially getting smarter than we are?

What if it gets to a point that us, humans, get in the way?

And the AI hits the off switch on humani

When people think of AI, they tend to think of super intelligent AI

AI that serves the human race, but could also end us at a moment's notice

But is this REALLY going to happen?

Pop culture, mostly movies, tend to depict AI not as benevolent creations, but rather as robots with a malicious intent

Except for "TARS" in "Interstellar", he's pretty cool

Yeah, you can use it to find your way back in the ship after I blow you out of the airlock

There's a lot more to AI than you might think

There's a lot more types that serve different purposes

Artificial Narrow Intelligence

Also known as weak AI is the only form of Artificial Intelligence that humanity has created so far

It makes this sound kind of bad, but trust me it does a really good job at what it's supposed to do

Narrow AI is AI that was created for the sole purpose of handling one task

It's the kind of AI that AlphaGo is

Narrow AI is good at speech and image recognition

and also, at playing games like chess or Go

or even pretty complex games likeDota 2

At the International 2017 World Championship

OpenAIs artificial intelligence destroyed pro player Dendi 2-0

But much like AlphaGo Zero, it wasn't taught how to play the game

It played out millions of yearsworth of 1 vs. 1 matches against itself and learned on its own

It started out barely knowing how to walk and, eventually as time went on, it surpassed human level skill

If you use Spotify, you'll see that it creates a daily mixes for you based on the music you listen to

Amazon learns from and teaches itself your buying habits to suggest you new products

but it seems an uncommon re-occurrence where these AI teach themselves how to do the task at hand

How is that even possible?

Well, through something called "Machine Learning"

"Machine Learning" is the science of trying to get computers to learn and think like we humans do

"Machine Learning" is essentially the same way that babies learn

We start off as small screaming sacks of meat, but over time we improve our learning

We take in more data and more information from observations and interactions

And most of the time we end up pretty smart

The most popular technique out there to make a computer mimic a human brain is known as a "neural network"

Our brains are pretty good at solving problems

But each neuron in your brain is only responsible for solving a very minuscule part of any problem

Think of it like an assembly line. Where each neuron in your brain has a certain job to do in order to completely solve a problem

Let's make a simple example of a neural network

In order to say that someone is alive, they have to either have a pulse or they must be breathing

But not necessarily both at the same time

This yellow dot represents a neuron in a neural network

It functions just like a neuron in your brain does

It takes in information and then gives an output

If this neuron takes in the information that says "hey this person has a pulse and is breathing"

Then the neuron deciphers this information and says "okay this person is alive"

It learns to analyze situations where the human would be declared alive

If it's breathing or has a pulse

And in situations where the human would be dead

Where neither of those is true

That's essentially a bare-bones explanation of how it works

Of course no neural network is really this simple

Many have millions of parameters and are much more complex than just this one-layer network

The world is full of sounds and visuals and just data in general

And we take in all of this to form our view of reality

However, as more and more complex topics show up with more and more data

It becomes harder and harder for humans to do this analysis on their own

This is where machine learning comes in handy

Machines can not only analyze data given to it

But also learn from it and adapt its own view of it

Let's go back to AlphaGo Zero

In only 40 days, it surpassed thousands of years of strategy and knowledge and even made up some of its own strategies

But how did it do all of this so quickly

Biological neurons in your brain operate at about 200 Hertz

That's proved to be fine for us

But modern transistors operate at over 2 gigahertz

An entire order of magnitude faster

Those neurons in your brain traveled to what are known asaxons

And they travel at about a hundred meters per second

Which is pretty fast and gives us pretty good reaction time

But it's only about a third as fast as the speed of sound

Computers, however, can transmit information at the speed of light

or 300 million meters per second

So, there's quite a big difference between our brains capabilities and our computers

In just one week, a computer can do 20,000 yearsworth of human level research or simulations or anything that is trained to do

A brain has to fit inside your head

There's a limit to how much space they can take up

But a computer could fill an entire room or even an entire building

Now, obviously, weak AI doesn't require an entire server room to run

Like we saw with OpenAI it only took a USB stick

But for more intelligent AI, it may require much more power

Artificial General Intelligence or AGI is AI with more than a single purpose

AGI is almost at or equal to human level intelligence

And this is where we're trying to get to

But there's a problem

The more we search into it, the harder and harder it seems to be able to achieve

Think about how you perceive things

When someone asks you a complicated question, you have to sort through a ton of unrelated thoughts and observations

And articulate a concise response to that question

This isn't exactly the easiest thing for a computer to achieve

See, humans aren't able to process information at the speed of light like computers can, but we can plan things

We can think of smart ways to solve problems without having to brute-force through every option

Getting a computer to human level thinking is hard

We humans can create things. We invent things.

We create societies and play games and laugh

These are all very hard things to teach a computer

How can you teach a computer to create something that doesn't exist or hasn't even been thought of?

and what would be its incentive to do so?

I believe AGI or strong AI is the most important artificial intelligence to be created

And here's why: Machine learning is exponential

Meaning that it starts off rather slow

But there's a certain tipping point where things start to speed up drastically

The difference between weak AI and strong AI is millions of times larger than the difference between strong AI and super intelligent AI

Once we have the artificial general intelligence that can function like a human being

For the most part at least, it may help us reach super intelligence level in only a few months or perhaps even weeks

But here comes another big problem

See, many people tend to see intelligence on a graph like this

We have maybe an ant here, a mouse at about here, the average human here, and maybe Einstein right here just above

If you asked most people "where a super intelligent AI would lie on this graph?"

Most would probably put it somewhere around here

But this just isn't the case

Although AI might not be at human level intelligence yet, it will be one day

and it won't stop at human level

It'll most likely just zoom past and continue getting on more and more advanced until, eventually, the graph looks something like this

This is what is known asthe technological singularity

Where artificial intelligence becomes so advanced to the point where there's an extreme explosion of new knowledge and information

Some that might not even be able to be understood by humans

If we make a super intelligent AI, that AI would be able to improve upon itself

And in turn gets smarter in a shorter amount of time

Which means that this new and improved AI could do the same thing

It continues to repeat this process doing it faster and faster each time

The first recreation may take a month

The second a week, a third a day

And this keeps going until it's billions of times smarter than all of humanity

Compared to chimps, we share about 96% of their DNA

We are 96% chimp

But in that little four percent

We went from being extremely hairy and mediocre primates

To a species that has left the planet

We're a species that plans to colonize Mars

A species that made missiles and millions of inventions

All compacted down into that four percent DNA difference

The number of genetic differences between a human and a chimp is ten times smaller than the genetic difference between a mouse and a rat

But yet only being four percent different from them their entire fate seems to lie in our hands

If we want to, for some reason, put a McDonald's on a chimpanzee habitat

We just do it. We don't ask.

There are 5.5 quadrillion ants on the earth

Ants outnumber us 1 million to 1

and yet we actually live like they don't exist at all

If we see one crawling on our table, we just smush it and move on with our day

What happens when the day comes where AI becomes the humans in this situation, and we become the ants?

Super intelligent AI is different from software we know today

We tend to think our software is something that we program in the computer to follow our rules

But with highly advanced AI and through machine learning

The AI teaches itself how and what life is as well as how to improve it

After a while, there is no need for any human interaction

Perhaps humans would even slow it down, as opposed to speeding it up

We have to be careful about how we make it

As Sam Harris has stated

The first thing you wanna do is not give it access to the Internet, right? You just gonna cage this thing, right?

Because you don't want it to get out, right? But you want to tempt it. You want to see if it's trying to get out.

How do you know whetherit is called a honeypot strategy where you tempt it

To make certain moves in the direction of acquiring more power

For example, if we're somehow able to give a super intelligent AI orders and it follows those orders

It may just take the quickest and easiest route to solve them

Just because we make a super intelligent AI, that doesn't mean that it's going to be wise

There's a difference between intelligence and wisdom

Intelligence is more about making mistakes and acquiring knowledge and being able to solve problems through that

Wisdom, on the other hand, is about applying the correct knowledge in the most efficient way

Wisdom is being able to see beyond the intelligence gained and being able to apply that to other things

In, hopefully, a productive way

If we give AI an order to solve world hunger

The easiest way to solve world hunger is just to kill all life on the planet and then nothing would ever be hungry again

But, obviously, that isn't what we want

We would have to, somehow, teach the AI to have human like values

A moral code to follow and somehow work around that

In a way, we'd want it to be like a super intelligent human cyborg

You may not even realize it, but the majority of humans are already cyborgs

Humans are already becoming less biological and more technical

We already put our minds on non-biological things


Well, many of you are watching this video on that device right now


Your phone has become an extension of yourself

It can answer any question you could ever ask in a moment's notice

There's only one problem though

Your inputs are just too slow

If we were able to create a high bandwidth link between the brain and the internet

We would be literally connected to everyone and everything on the entire planet

This is what neural link is aiming to do

Create what is known as aneural lace

Your brain has two big systems

Your limbic system and your cortex

and these two are in a relationship with each other

Your limbic system is responsible for your basic emotions your survival instinct

Your cortex is responsible for your problem-solving skills - your critical thinking

Neuralinkis aiming to create a third layer to this

The AI would be like a third wheel in this relationship

But would increase our capabilities by multiple orders of magnitude

We all would have eidetic memories - picture perfect memory

We would have access to all the information available to the world and be able to access it instantly

With the addition of this third layer

People may eventually realize that they like this new-found knowledge and way of living more than the alternative

More than living without this new-found AI that has been installed into them

Eventually, people may decide to ditch their human body, their biological self, in favor of the artificial world

This, of course, is a long ways away

But it doesn't mean we shouldn't think about it

There are, of course, many problems and counter-arguments that come up

and I'll address some of them now

For starters, how do we program something like consciousness?

We don't even know what it is yet

How do we program something like a limbic system into a machine?

Something that has a sense of fear perhaps even a fear of death

Can a machine or an AI really love someone or show that emotion?

Because if it can love it can also hate

Which could raise big problems for us in the future

This is a fear of many people when the idea of super intelligent AI is brought up

The biggest and most pressing question is

Will it be pleasant? or will it be hateful?

Could it even be either of those things in the first place?

And, more importantly, is it even necessary?

Sure, a super intelligent AI would have all the information in the world at its disposal

But, then again, so do you and I

So do all the people in the world with very radical views

Who's to say that a super intelligent AI wouldn't adopt these views as its own

And then decide to execute on those instead of what we had planned

Sure, it's possible that a super intelligent AI could improve upon itself using knowledge gained

But, then again, it isn't pulling random improvements out of thin air

It's not just going to unite quantum mechanics and general relativity with the raw mathematics

What if some of its upgrades needed experiments to be run

What if it needs more information? Is it just going to make it up?

This leads into: What if the AI learned to lie?

And then decides to lie to us about its accomplishments for its own selfish reasons

It's also possible that the progress of computing will slow down, and it looks like it already is

I mean look at airplanes

In the past 100 years, we went from this

to this

But like many things there's a threshold that is hard to get past

but if we do get past this barrier

The upsides could be tremendous

It's almost obvious that super intelligent AI has the capability of making humanity billions of times better than it is today

But on the flipside, it could also be used as a weapon

Just think, like I said before, if this thing is running for a week and has access to all of the world's information

It could make over 20,000 years of technological progress

You let this thing run for six months, and you could potentially have 500,000 years or even more of technological progress

Imagine if this got into the wrong hands and imagine the repercussions it would have

When you Google something

Not only are you giving out data and telling a potential artificial intelligence what you're thinking

You're also telling it how you're thinking

We feed it all of our questions, all of our answers

If we were going to try and program a limbic system into an AI

We would be teaching an artificial intelligence what we're afraid of

Out of all the data in the world, over 90% of it has been created in the past three years

AI learned how to recognize faces

It learned how to recognize voices

It learns languages and then will eventually translate between them all seamlessly

This knowledge and information train could continue until it has gone through all 100% of this data

This is why artificial intelligence is such an important topic

Super intelligent AI is the last invention that humanity will ever make

Once it's invented it can't beuninvented

The technology and developments that could possibly turn the human species into immortal godlike figures

Is coincidentally the same technology that could also cause the downfall of humanity

Many people are resistant to the AI because they fear it may have some of the negative traits that we humans do

It may be greedy. It may lie. It may be selfish. It may be rebellious. It may be short-tempered.

The power of super intelligent AI is there

Patiently waiting to be found

But the question is

Do we actually want to find it?

If we want the future to be perfect

If we want to create the perfect super intelligent AI

We need to be prepared

We need the smartest minds and the best strategies in order to create the perfect super intelligent AI is helping turn people like you and I into the pioneers of the future of humanity

Topics such asmachine learningandartificial neural networksaren't exactly the easiest things to grasp

ButBrilliantdoes a great job at explaining each bit piece by piece

You can go in barely knowing anything about a topic and come up with a solid grasp on it before the day is over

If you're like me and are interested in the future of artificial intelligence

Go check out Brilliants courses on machine learning, artificial neural networks, and statistics

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The Description of Artificial Intelligence: Mankind's Last Invention