In this tutorial, I'll be talking about the muscles of the gluteal region and the muscles
on the hip joint. So the hip joint is this joint between the head of the femur and the
acetabulum of the pelvic bone. So it's this joint here.
This joint is quite a stable joint and it has several movements. So at the hip joint,
you get flexion and extension. So flexion is bringing the thigh up like this. Extension
is bringing the thigh bone, the femur back like this. You get abduction and adduction.
So abduction, bringing the femur away from the midline; adduction, bringing the femur
towards the midline. And then you've got medial and lateral rotation. So medial rotation would
be rotating the femur inwards and lateral rotation or external rotation is rotating
the femur outwards.
So you get these movements at the hip joint. So the gluteal region is this region between
the crest, the iliac crest and the gluteal fold. So the gluteal fold defines the lower
limit of the buttock. So we'll just switch over to -- so the gluteal fold is down here
and you've got the iliac crest here. So it's this posterolateral region, the gluteal region.
So we'll be talking about these muscles, the muscles in this muscle group.
So what these muscles do is they extend, abduct and laterally rotate the femur. It's helpful
to think of these muscles in terms of deep and a superficial group. I'll first talk about
the superficial group and then I'll move on to the deep group.
So the superficial group is the larger muscle group. You've got these three large muscles
-- the gluteus maximus, medius and minimus and these muscles abduct and extend the hip.
And then you've got the deep muscles, which are much smaller and they're lateral rotators
of the hip.
And you've also got these muscle, which lies more laterally, the tensor fasciae latae,
which is also part of the superficial group.
So just starting with the superficial muscle group, we'll take a look at the four muscles.
So first, we've got the tensor fasciae latae. This muscle originates on the iliac crest
just behind the anterior superior iliac spine. So just to see that, this is the pelvic bone.
You've got the anterior superior iliac spine and you've got the anterior inferior iliac
spine just there. The tensor fasciae latae originates just behind [00:03:05] and just
anterior to the tubercle of the iliac crest (this little bit here). It originates just
on this bit here.
So the tensor fasciae latae inserts onto this band of fascia which runs down the lateral
aspect of the leg. This band is called the iliotibial tract because it runs from the
crest of the ilium, so from the tubercle of the crest of the ileum right down to the tibia,
so 'iliotibial tract'. And the tensor fasciae latae inserts onto the anterior aspect of
this band of fascia.
So what this muscle does, the tensor fasciae latae, it stabilizes the knee in extension
and it also stabilizes the hip joint. So it acts together with the gluteus maximus, which
I'll just come onto. So it stabilizes the femur and the acetabulum and it also stabilizes
the knee joint in extension. So that's the tensor fasciae latae and it's innervated by
the superior gluteal nerve. So the gluteus medius, minimus and tensor fasciae latae are
innervated by the superior gluteal nerve, but the gluteus maximus is innervated by the
inferior gluteal nerve.
So this is the next muscle I'll come onto. This is the largest muscle of the gluteal
region. This muscle has this triangular shape, this quadrangular shape. It has this broad
attachment on the ileum and also the posterior, lower parts of the sacrum and also the coccyx.
So it has this broad attachment.
And it has two points of insertion. So it inserts onto the back of the iliotibial tract
and also onto the gluteal tuberosity on the femur. So let's just move some of these muscles
here. So you can see it inserting on the back of the femur and it inserts on the gluteal
tuberosity and it also has this insertion on the posterior aspect of this iliotibial
tract (this band of fascia).
So what this muscle does is it extends the flexed thigh. So it draws the thigh back like
this. It also stabilizes the hip and knee joints because of this attachment it has to
the iliotibial tract. So this muscle is the gluteus maximus and it's innervated by the
inferior gluteal nerve.
So next we've got the gluteus medius and the gluteus minimus. So the gluteus minimus lies
between the minimus and the maximus. This is a fan-shaped muscle. You can see its origin
on the ileum here. This muscle overlies the gluteus minimus. It has its attachment on
the ileum, this broad attachment and it inserts laterally on the greater trochanter. So what
this muscle does is it abducts the femur. So when it contracts, it brings the -- yet
it abducts at the hip joint.
So just under the gluteus medius, you've got the gluteus minimus. So as the name suggests,
this is the smallest muscle of the gluteal region. This muscle also originates on the
external surface of the ileum and it inserts anterolaterally on the greater trochanter.
It also abducts the femur at the hip joint.
So both the gluteus medius and the gluteus minimus are innervated by the superior gluteal
nerve along with the tensor fasciae latae muscle. So these are the four muscles of the
And then next, we've got the smaller deep muscles, which are lateral rotators of the
femur. So I'll just talk about...