Welcome to Maptastic.
Now you might think that you know the US.
But we're going to look at some maps that show it
in a completely different light, looking at some new data that
shows us how the US has built up over the last two centuries
from East Coast to West Coast.
Now cartographers love nothing more than new data
to put on maps.
And today, I'm with my colleague, Steve Bernard,
who is our master cartographer at the FT,
to look at some exciting new data recently released
by some academics at the University of Colorado.
And the first thing that I did with this data
was load it up quickly into our computerised mapping
software, our GIS.
And I zoomed in to Phoenix, Arizona,
just to have a little look at what the data says
about how Phoenix has developed over time.
And as you can see, in the early 20th century
we start to see these little black dots, which
are these individual pixels showing that that land has been
built up, right?
And as you can see, as we go through the 20th century,
you get this amazing picture of sort of growth.
And this city structure, the city shape of Phoenix,
really starts to come out.
And massive expansion in recent years.
So this was a very crude first attempt
at just looking at this data and thinking: does it
offer us anything useful?
Now I showed it to you, Steve.
And you got similarly very excited about it.
Yeah, the first time I saw it, I was looking over your shoulder
And I just thought, this is going
to be great to do for the whole of the US.
And this is all of this data showing
how the US has been built up since 1810
running as an animation now.
It's almost impossible to see to start with because you have
these very small little yellow pixels starting
to light up on the East Coast.
What just happened there?
So this is the railways flashing up as they were developed.
I got the data from the Library of Congress,
which had these amazing old maps, which they had digitised.
And I took these into the mapping software
and essentially traced them, every single railroad
from 1830s to 1890s.
And I needed to do them in stages
so I could show the development of the railroad from the East
Coast all the way to the West Coast.
So the yellow dots are the populated...
The yellow dots are the populated areas.
And the railroads are what you've just
flashed up on there.
That's interesting by itself because now we're
looking at two different data sets.
That's one of the powerful things
about this GIS, this computerised mapping software,
is the way that you can layer information on top.
So this might be a story that people are familiar with.
But this is the first time that they've seen it.
See it actually growing, yeah.
Then there's this whole pivotal moment
in the late 1860s when the first railroad connected the West
Coast to the East Coast.
And then you'll see the explosion
of population along the West Coast from that point on.
San Francisco, Los Angeles, further north into Seattle,
they are growing exponentially from that point on.
And the amount of railroads which are developed
Sort of unrelenting for the 60 years
or so from the 1830s to the 1890s.
When people think about travelling around the US now,
invariably people think about internal flights.
But back in this period, the railroad,
not only was it essential for getting about,
just from looking at these maps, we
can see that the railroad actually
helped to define the geography of the US.
So all of the areas that are building up
are building up based on the connections
that the railroad is making.
I mean, one of the things I thought
was very, very interesting looking
at some of these old maps was just how important
it was for people to have maps of these connections.
I mean, some of these maps here are really, really beautiful
But they're all talking about the connections.
This map here, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,
is actually titled Shewing the Connection, this kind
of joining up of the cities.
It was an incredibly important part
of America's economic expansion.
This one here, the map of the Canal and Railroads of the US,
it's almost like a still from your animation.
It was painstaking tracing all of these
because obviously each map was slightly different at slightly
different projection, which means I had
to what's called georeferencing, which basically
turns this map into a rubber sheet
and allows me to stretch it inside the mapping software
to get it exactly into the projection
that we're using in the final animation.
After 1956, the US highways decided to build what is now
known as all the interstates in the US and which again just
enhanced the connections between the cities and made it easier
for people to mobilise and...
We're seeing highways on the animation where
although it's still allowing us to go east to west,
it's actually connecting up more of the country.
So the interstates are going to places
that not even the railroads necessarily were going.
So again, another layer of geography
telling us something a little bit
more about how the US was developing at that time.
The really interesting thing at this stage
as well, as you can already see, this
is so looking at 1970, just that difference
in density between the east and the west.
And then that kind of the open road
is really sort of the Midwest and out west.
You can see that.
And they look very, very sparse and isolated, the roads.
Whereas a lot denser connections over on the East Coast
- very, very stark.
A lot of that has to do with farmland areas in the Midwest,
which a lot of the area is given over to agriculture as opposed
to large cities.
So this is just showing exactly what areas of land
have been developed since 1810 through to 2015.
I added another layer showing when each parcel of land
was actually developed.
So before, the yellow just meant it's been built on.
It's been developed, yeah.
Now the colour is showing us when.
OK, so let's just interpret that colour ramp a little bit for us
So the very earliest settlements are coloured yellow.
So we can see that's over on the East Coast there.
Massachusetts lighting up, for example.
Then it becomes red, orange-red, and through to purple.
So the more purple you see on the map
that's recent development.
Yeah, so a lot of the southern states, you can see,
are a lot more purple than obviously
the East Coast, Massachusetts, Boston, New York.
But still some of the orange on the West
Coast where Los Angeles, San Francisco,
were connected by those early railroads.
Just it's worth pointing out there
is still a lot of this data set -
that uncertainty is still a part of any big data set.
But this one in particular, there's still big chunks
represented by this teal sort of colour there.
Lots of a bit...
I guess some ambiguity.
I don't think that stops us thinking
that this is a very interesting way of looking at the US.
But it's kind of important to know
that no data set is perfect even when you put it on a map.
The thing that's fascinating for me
about using these computerised mapping systems
is that you can zoom in and zoom out freely.
And so we're going to go live into the GIS
now to have a look at some of this data.
So this is the application I used to create the animation
and the maps is called QGIS, which
is an open source software, which anyone can use for free.
One thing I looked at initially was 40 metro areas,
which had populations over a million,
and seeing how they had changed individually over the 205 years
that we have in the data set.
Chicago just grabbed my attention immediately.
A, because it's sort of a famous city
that everyone's fairly familiar with.
But the way that the city has grown in those early years,
you can really see very clearly, if I just
turn on the railways over the top,
how the early developments and settlements were
following along the railroads.
So this is using the same colour scheme that we were looking
So the yellow areas are the older areas,
the purple being more recent.
So that is fascinating.
You get this kind of...
Sort of spidery.
A spider's web sort of structure building out of the centre
That's instantly recognisable.
Where else was interesting?
So what we're going to see here is
going to be the population growth from 1810
to 2015 in the downtown area.
It's the whole metro area of Phoenix-Mesa
because the census data doesn't cover that whole area
because obviously it's expanding all the time.
The map might show us when it was built.
But it doesn't actually show us an awful lot
about what's going on there.
The population data is going to show us actually
when did the people arrive.
Well, you'll get a sense obviously in the beginning.
As in your map, there's not a lot going on...
Dormant period for Phoenix.
The odd thing pops up in the late 1800s.
But after that, it's just an...
Now we start to see it go, yeah.
Carefully at the population map at the bottom chart,
that's at the bottom.
It really does grow exponentially in the past 40
years or so.
So the really interesting thing looking at animation
is actually there was a lot of growth in the built area
before you started to notice a real increase
in the population.
And in fact, most of the area had
been built on before the population density
presumably really ramps up.
So that's fascinating, being able to see
the sort of geographical spread of the city
relative to the sort of density of population
living in that area.
The population has pretty much tripled since the 1970s,
which is quite an explosion.
There are other cities as well...
There are indeed.
...worth looking at.
And in fact, the population charts
that you've created there are really, really interesting
because one of the things we see when we look at all
of the US, those major metro areas,
is that there's an interesting pattern repeated
across several cities.
A lot of the new cities like Phoenix, San Antonio, San
Diego, San Jose, they're the success stories
of this urbanisation.
But there are also some of the larger cities
that are being left behind.
If you look at this set of charts here,
we're basically showing cities in red
that have seen a decline in recent years.
And there is none more dramatic than Detroit,
which was at one point the fourth most populous city
in the US as recent as the 1940s.
And is now seeing their population drop from 1.8m down
to just over 700,000 at the last census.
That's a huge proportionate drop and in
absolute terms a big drop.
The interesting thing looking at the chart
there is that decline has been going on for a long time.
So the peak was back in the middle of the 20th century.
And there's been a long-term decline since then.
How can we map that back onto the city maps?
Looking at Detroit...
well, I've got a map on now is the bottom 20 per cent
So the poorest families and also the highest vacancy
rates, where they coexist at the same time.
And you'll see a big hole appearing in the downtown area
of the city.
So these are areas with vacancy rates that are quite high.
So a large proportion of sort of empty buildings and deprived
So what's really interesting about doing that and showing it
like this is that it is almost perforates that map
that we have just built up.
So you have this period of growth and expansion.
And then in places like Detroit, it's actually possible
to visualise on the map how you...
this has not gone back to obviously kind
of pristine or virgin land.
But it's just...
People have just vacated it.
And they haven't come back.
This data is 2010 census data.
There is a regeneration in Detroit underway.
And people are now developing the downtown area, which
should attract more people.
But it is fascinating to see that a lot of these highly
vacant areas and poor areas in the cities across the Rust Belt
are predominately in the older part of town.
If you look at the orangey, this whole area
is basically where most of the deprived and poor areas are.
The newer, more recent urbanised areas
are not so badly affected.
And that's the story which is true across a lot the Rust Belt
So here we have Pittsburgh and Cleveland, Columbus,
So if you look at Cleveland, it's a very similar story.
In the older part of town, the poorest and most vacant areas
are in the older parts of the city.
It could be due to it being too expensive to develop
these old buildings.
So the pattern that you just mentioned
that is really consistent is that those yellow areas, which
are the older areas, are the ones that
are more likely to be zapped by our perforated data.
They're the ones that are the oldest.
But they are also, in some senses,
the most challenging for policymakers today
to deal with.
And in fact, that leads me back to the value
of these maps in general because just as these old maps were
so incredibly valuable during that massive expansion
period in the 19th century as the US built out westwards,
these maps are equally valuable to people
who are making decisions today about what to do.
So you can imagine if you were a city planner in Cleveland
or Detroit, this view of how the cities developed
and the way that it is now is not something
we've been able to do before.
But this is not exactly what you'd
want to see if you were looking to make interventions
to turn things around.
That's the good thing about sort of seeing,
taking in, say, this old data in terms of the historical value
to it but also being out to map new data sets on top of it
to sort of get a lot more value from it.
And I guess the other thing with 200 years' worth of data here
more or less, you can slice through that as well to really
understand more recent things.
So if we ignore the two centuries of change,
we can do things like use this data to say, right,
show me the only... only show me the areas that have been
developed in the 21st century.
So where is America growing right now?
This is since 2000.
So now the yellow pixels that we're seeing are parcels
of land in the US that have been developed...
...for the first time since 2000.
That is really fascinating.
Can we see any patterns at a city level in here?
I mean, how are some of our old friends like Phoenix
faring on this data?
So for Phoenix, this looks like a story of continuing growth,
just looking at the extent of land that's showing up here.
Look at that.
That's really fascinating.
So this general pattern that we've seen as cities grow
is still happening in Phoenix.
There's still big expansion outwards.
Now there's data linked behind this map.
That's what this software is doing
it's using the data that we've got to draw the maps for us.
Can we actually see what the data is telling us there?
So our magic inspector tool.
OK, so this is the tool that when you click anywhere
on the map, it's going to tell you
what data is behind that point.
To go to the exact layer.
There we go.
So this will tell us where we click on the map, what year it
was first developed.
And so this data set works in five-year age bands,
if I recall correctly.
So it's not something that's...
It's not day to day, month to month.
It's every five years.
Steve, people might be looking at this video
and seeing you having so much fun clicking
and enjoying and exploring this data.
How do people get started if they want
to play with this themselves?
Well, the data set is freely available from the Harvard
So you can download it.
And you'll be able to have the same starting point that I did.
The first thing you just need to get hold of
is QGIS, which is an open source software, which
allows you to take this data in and map it immediately.
If you want to learn QGIS, I've actually
done this series of 31 videos, which
allow you to sort of slowly get to grips with how
to use the software.
It's quite a vast piece of software.
But you normally only need to use probably about 10
per cent of it to get to the stage
where you can map something like this.
You don't need to know everything about it.
The Library of Congress maps are free to download.
Yeah, the highways... the Census Bureau has so much data on it.
It's a vast resource population data,
deprivation data, vacancy data.
All of this is freely available on the Census Bureau website.