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the expulsion of the Acadians

the history of the Americas from their

discovery by Columbus till the founding

of modern nation-states has been the

struggle among European powers for the

largest and richest sections of the

continents in particular England and

France have struggled for control of

most of North America many tragedies and

disasters have marked this conflict but

few have been as heart-rendering as the

expulsion of the Acadians in 1755 Acadia

refers to what are now the maritime

provinces of Canada New Brunswick Prince

Edward Island and Nova Scotia in 1605 a

French expedition under demo and

Champlain established an agriculture

sediment at Port Royal in present-day

Nova Scotia

although Port Royal and other colonies

and very mixed success there was a

gradual increase of French settlement

through the 17th century by 1710 the

French or Acadian population had reached

2100 in 1710 Port Royal fell to the

English and the Treaty of Utrecht in

1713 confirmed British ownership of Nova

Scotia and New Brunswick by this treaty

the Acadians that is the french-speaking

inhabitants were allowed to stay or

leave the country as they pleased

the majority of inhabitants of Acadia

were French and were still being

influenced by agents from France and

Quebec this made their loyalty to

Britain very doubtful in time of warm

Governor Philips attempted to get the

Acadians to swear an oath of allegiance

to King George of England and Philips

was able in 1729 to get the French

settlers to agree to a modified oath

with the understanding that they would

not have to fight against the French and

their Indian allies the Acadians remain

neutral during the fighting between

Britain and France in 1740 for 245 in

Nova Scotia

in 1749 the British established a new

capital for Nova Scotia at Halifax and

began to bring in english-speaking

settlers because of threats from the

French and Indians most of these

settlers remain close to Halifax British

skirmishes with the French and Indians

continued and a new war between France

and England was approaching governor

Lawrence decided that it was time to

settle the Acadian question he ordered

the Acadians either to take an

unqualified oath of allegiance to

England or to face expulsion from the

colony at the

time in 1755 there were troops and ships

from New England in the area and it

seemed like an opportune time to round

up the Acadians and ship them out when

the Acadians refused to take the oath

which might oblige them to fight against

France the British rounded up six

thousand of the 8,000 Acadians burned

their homes and shipped them away to

British colonies of Virginia the

Carolinas and as far away as the mouth

of the Mississippi River

several of the transport ships sank

drowning all on board and the Acadians

died from disease and hardship since the

expulsion order did not come from London

it has been suggested that Governor

Lawrence had personal reasons for the

expulsion it may have been greedy for

the land and possessions confiscated

from the Acadians others say there was

the genuine fear for the English

position in North America and that

Lawrence was only protecting the

interests of the colony Acadians still

live in maritime Canada today almost

2,000 fled into the woods and eluded the

roundup another 2,000 Acadians later

returned from exile to take the oath of

allegiance many stories were told of

their sufferings one tale relates to how

on the very day of his wedding a

bridegroom was seized by the British and

transported from the colony his bride

wandered for many years through the

American colonies trying to find him at

last when she was old she found him on

his deathbed the shock of fighting him

and his death soon caused her death this

is the story of Henry W longfellows poem

Evangeline

the Florida Everglades

southern Florida stretches south

dividing the Atlantic Ocean from the

Gulf of Mexico stretching further south

is the Florida Keys these coral islands

are the southernmost part of the United

States since much of southern Florida is

close to sea level it's very swampy the

famous Everglades or wetlands were tall

grass and bunches of trees grill part of

these swamps has been drained for

agricultural land the soil is rich and

market gardening is an important

activity the Everglades that remain are

too wet to be used for farming the

Everglades are a river of grass the

deeper water areas stay wet all year but

the shallower pools dry up in the dry

season some of the water has been

drained off for agricultural purposes

making the Everglades drier nonetheless

the best way to travel in this region is

by airboats these high boats can go

through water and sail over clumps of

grass

besides the wet grasslands southern

Florida has smaller areas of tropical

forests these areas of hardwood trees

are called hammocks and they are rich in

animal and plant life along much of the

coast are mangrove trees which provide

important nesting grounds for wild birds

the Florida Keys stretch 200 miles from

Miami's southwest these islands are

tropical and climate fishing and tourism

are important industries because of its

subtropical nature the animal and plant

life of southern Florida differs from

other parts of the United States

characteristic animals are alligators

and crocodiles alligators prefer fresh

water and usually live in land while

crocodiles live in saltwater along the

coast both animals are considered

dangerous alligator wrestling is

considered a sport for the brave or

foolhardy probably Florida is the most

famous for its birds at one time many

species were almost extinct their long

feathers were used on women's hats now

the law protects them Florida has at

least six species of herons several a

grits wood storks white IBC's and

cormorants characteristic Florida birds

are the purple gallinule

the enigma the limpkin flamingos and

Roseate spoonbills many of these birds

are notable for their size coloring and

interesting habits notable animals

include the key deer a miniature form of

the whitetail deer they're also Panthers

or Cougars

Katz Marsh rabbits and groves squirrels

round tailed muskrats and the man at sea

naturally the Everglades are home to

many reptiles snakes are common both

water snakes and land species there are

four poisonous varieties both land and

sea turtles abound and lizards are

fairly common fishing is a major

industry sports fishermen go to sea in

search of trophies such as Marlin

sailfish and tarpon smaller fish are

caught commercially freshwater sport

fish include bass and gar after many

decades of work to protect the animals

and plants of the Everglades the region

finally became a national park in 1947

it is the third largest park in the USA

and covers one and a half million acres

within the park lived three hundred

kinds of birds thirty kinds of mammals

65 kinds of reptiles and amphibians and

nearly 1,000 species of flowering plants

of course it is a major tourist

attraction

the great walls of China

the Great Wall of China is famous in

North America and many tourists would

like to travel there

however most North Americans don't know

very much about Chinese history that is

changing now as China is becoming an

important subject for study in the West

the settled communities of China were

targets for a nomadic raids since

earliest times for much of its early

history China was not fully unified

however she Wang who died in 210 BC

United the whole country then he said

about defending China from the northern

nomads it seems likely there have been

defensive walls in the north deform

however she Wang had a wall constructed

across the entire north of China this

defensive wall extended for almost 2,000

miles and had 25,000 towers such walls

were very expensive to build they also

required huge numbers of men to

construct them and later to defend them

even so the Great Wall did not stop

nomadic invasions altogether not long

after she Wang's death a tribe called

the Huns crossed the wall the Emperor

hootie-hoo expanded Chinese power beyond

the wall defeated them centuries later

the Mongols to the north of China were

united under Genghis Khan

the Mongols attacked China and Kubla

Khan grandson of Genghis became the

first non Chinese emperor of China in

1279 eventually the Chinese rebelled and

overthrew their Mongol rulers

nonetheless the Mongols remained a

threat in 1449 they destroyed a Chinese

army and captured the Emperor a new

great wall was begun to keep the Mongols

out this is the wall which tourists

visit today and which is pictured on

Chinese stamps construction continued

for 200 years while some parts were

built off packed earth much of the wall

was built of stone brick and rubble this

is why it took so long stones had to be

quarried in bricks baked and carried to

the site laborers peasants soldiers and

criminals were forced to work on the

wall large and small forts and

watchtowers carefully guarded the wall

nearly a million soldiers were stationed

along him the Chinese defenders lit

fires when the enemy was sytem plumes of

smoke and cannon shots told that the

enemy was advancing and how many there

were by 1644 the new wall was almost

completed

that's a near however an internal

uprising overthrew the emperor this

revolt was partly caused by the high

taxes demanded to pay for the wall

the Emperor's men invited the nomadic

Manchu tribe to come through the gates

in the wall to help put down the revolt

the Manchus came but they stayed and

ruled China for several hundred years

since the Manchus ruled both north and

south of the wall they did not care

about maintaining him many parts fell

into disrepair and some completely

disappeared today the parts that remain

are a major tourist attraction the Great

Wall of China is one of the wonders of

the world even if it really didn't

succeed in its purpose of keeping the

northern nomads out of China the

Internet

the first working computers in the 1950s

and 1960s were large mainframe machines

in some ways they were like large

calculating machines the US government

the military and businesses and

institutions use them for specific tasks

for example they might be used to handle

the payroll as more uses were found for

computers the need to transfer data from

one computer to another became a concern

in 1969 the US government sponsored a

program to explore ways for computers to

transfer data over telephone lines the

first internet was created with four

computers linked together of course

computer use increased beyond anyone's

expectations standards were developed

that described how data was to be

transferred between computers a common

language for commands and communications

emerged operating programs such as

ms-dos UNIX Macintosh and Windows came

into existence the internet quickly

expanded beyond government and military

uses the PC became the standard form of

computer private agencies acted as hosts

for Internet usage around 1982 there

were 213 hosts by 1986 there were 2,300

today there are millions the role of

computers expanded so quickly that the

USSR which had discouraged computer use

found itself left behind by the u.s. a

part of the reason for the collapse of

the Soviet Union in 1989 was that they

had fallen too far behind the United

States in high tech areas to ever catch

up one of the most popular uses of the

computer is electronic mail or email you

can send a letter by computer over the

internet to anywhere in the world in

seconds or less and it doesn't cost

anything extra

now data can be transferred great

distances almost instantaneously another

major Internet use is a world wide web

in the early days all web pages were

text only in the 1990s it became

possible to make web pages interactive

and multimedia interactive means that

readers could click on items on the web

page and get more information they could

also communicate directly with the

webpage owner multimedia means that web

pages were no longer text

only they could also have graphics film

video and audio this has helped to turn

computers into popular entertainment

nowadays people spend hours every day

surfing the net however there are some

problems for some people computers are

addictive many businesses are trying to

control employees using the net during

working hours since the internet

includes just about every kind of

information not all of it is good you

can find directions on how to become a

criminal or a terrorist there are scam

artists who want to cheat you out of

money

there are also aggressive pornography

salesmen not to mention people who want

to kill your computer with viruses since

the internet is not closely regulated

it's up to individual users to follow

computer etiquette parents need to

supervise their children's use of the

net although the internet has some

disadvantages many people see the net as

one of the greatest invention of modern

times

the planetarium

all around the world stargazing is a

popular activity the night sky lit up

with stars is one of the most impressive

scenes in nature besides its natural

beauty people study the night sky for

many reasons some believe that they can

read the future in the stars others

think that the Stars influence the

weather while some people worship the

Stars and the planets there is a problem

with stargazing if the night is cloudy

people on the ground cannot see the

stars also bad weather makes being

outside at night uncomfortable besides

not everybody wants to stay up late at

night a planetarium is an ideal solution

to all these problems a planetarium is

usually a large dome covered building it

has seating like a theater the program

here is a star show a special projector

throws a picture of the night sky on the

ceiling of the planetarium theater like

a movie projector the planetarium

projector can show a constantly changing

program it can show how the stars look

right now how they look thousands of

years ago and how they will look in the

future

planetariums can be both entertaining

and educational school children can go

to learn about the 9 planets of the

solar system or about the various

groupings of stars planetary ins can

teach you how to find the stars and

planets yourself when you're out at

night there can also be dramatic

showings about changes to the universe

over time this is also a way to view

special phenomena like Halley's Comet

which only appears once in a lifetime

planetary ins can also show how ancient

people view the skies Shepherds living

out under the sky imagine that groups of

stars represented wonderful people and

huge animals stories were told about

these constellations sometimes the story

explained how the people or animals

became stars for example why Orion the

mighty hunter is chasing Taurus the Bull

planet Aryans can project these figures

on their screen they can also speed up

changes in the heavens it takes about 28

days for the moon to travel through all

its phases changes in the moon or in the

Sun can be shown easily planetary ins

can also show the sky the way it appears

in another part of the world or the way

it appeared on a famous historical

occasion special heavenly phenomena such

as a meteor shower can also be

demonstrated things that appear only

rarely in the real sky can be shown

every night

anat Aryan is usually concerned to put

into special programs to keep its

audience coming back

since the heavens are always moving and

changing there is no shortage of ideas

for programmers

Alexander Graham Bell

the Victorian period was a time of many

new inventions earlier discoveries such

as the steam engine the screw propeller

the power of electricity and the

possibility of sending messages along a

wire were now applied to everyday life

inventors such as Thomas Edison and

Nikola Tesla explored new methods for

harnessing electric power some of the

greatest discoveries were made by

Alexander Graham Bell Bell was born in

Scotland in 1847 both his father and

grandmother taught speech methods and

worked with deaf and dumb children

Alexander was also interested in this

work especially as his mother was almost

deaf Alexander's two brothers died of

tuberculosis and he himself contracted

the disease so his parents decided to

leave Scotland for a drier healthier

climate they moved to Bradford Ontario

Canada and lived in a roomy comfortable

house overlooking the Grand River today

the Bell homestead is an historical

museum that attracts visitors from all

over the world at that time Canada did

not have a lot of business opportunities

so Alexander found a job teaching speech

in Boston USA but he returned to

Brantford every summer in Boston Bell

married one of his deaf students his

father-in-law suggested that there were

good business opportunities and invented

communication devices Bell soon

developed a method for sending more than

one Telegraph message at the same time

while working on improving the Telegraph

Bell and his assistant Thomas Watson

found a way to send the human voice over

wires on August 10th 1876 Bell sent the

first telephone message over wires

strung between Brantford and Paris

Ontario eight miles away the telephone

caused an international sensation with

government leaders asking to have one

but Bell didn't stop there he worked on

the recording properties of wax

cylinders and other approaches to flat

phonograph records he also developed the

photo phone which later led to the

development of the motion picture

soundtrack Bell worked on these

inventions at his laboratory in

Washington DC but he didn't like the hot

humid summer weather there so Bell began

looking for a new place to spend his

summers he decided to build a summer

home in Cape Breton Island Nova Scotia

the island reminded Belle of his native

Scotland now he had space during the

summer to do it

experiments outside he soon began to

experiment with flying machines Bell

designed and tested huge kites hoping to

come up with a frame for a flying

machine along with some enthusiastic

friends Bell also experimented with

airplanes on February 23rd 1909 one of

these planes flew through the air for a

half a mile this was the first airplane

flight in the British Empire Alexander

Graham Bell Museum emphatic Nova Scotia

displays many of these inventions Bell

was also interested in making a faster

boat since much of a boat stays

underwater the water resistant slows the

boat down Bell thought that if you could

raise the boat out of the water it would

go much faster working on Cape Breton

Island Bell and his friends developed

the hydrofoil a boat that would skim the

surface of the water at high speeds

hydrofoils are in use in many places

today every time people use the

telephone listen to a recording watch a

movie or television or ride on a

hydrofoil they owe a debt to that great

inventor Alexander Graham Bell

the story of Anne Frank

war persecution and economic depression

affect not only adults but also old

people children babies the sick and the

handicapped since history is written

mostly about politicians soldiers

intellectuals and criminals we don't

read very often about how events affect

ordinary people now and then a special

book will shed light on what it was like

to live in the midst of terrible events

such a book is the Diary of Anne Frank

and Frank was born in Frankfurt AM main

Germany in 1929 her father otto Frank

was a businessman who moved the family

to the Netherlands in 1934 in Amsterdam

otto started a company selling pectin to

make jams and jellies later he began a

second company that sold herbes for

seasoning meet Otto Frank had decided to

leave Germany because of the policies

and personality of the new German

Chancellor Adolf Hitler Hitler had a

personal hatred not only for Jewish

people but also for everything Jewish he

felt that one way to strengthen Germany

and solve its problems was to kill or

drive out all the Jews Hitler also felt

that other groups such as blacks gypsies

the handicapped homosexuals and a

chronically unemployed should be

eliminated that only strong healthy true

Germans would be left since Hitler had a

plan to solve Germany's economic

problems he received a lot of popular

support

very few Germans realized that he was

mentally and emotionally unbalanced and

would kill anyone who got in his way

the Frank family was Jewish and they

felt that they would be safe in the

Netherlands however in May 1940 Germany

invaded the Netherlands and soon took

over the government in 1941 laws were

passed to keep Jews separate from other

Dutch citizens the following year Dutch

Jews began to be shipped to

concentration camps in Germany and

Poland just before this began and Frank

Otto's younger daughter received a diary

for her 13th birthday less than a month

later the whole family went into hiding

otto frank had made friends with the

dutch people who worked with him in his

business operations now these friends

were ready to help him even though

hiding Jews from the authorities was

treated as a serious crime behind Otto

Frank's business offices there was

another house that was not visible from

the street here the Franks moved many of

their things

only a few trusted people knew they were

living there the Franks moved into these

small rooms on July 6 1942 and they

lived there with another Jewish family

the van pals until the police captured

them on August 4th 1944 so for more than

two years the two families never went

outside all their food and supplies had

to be brought to them during this period

and Frank told her diary all of her

thoughts and fears like any teenage girl

she hoped that good things would happen

to her that she would become a writer or

a movie star she complained that her

parents treated her like a child she

insisted that she was grown-up she also

talked about how difficult it was to

live in a small area with seven other

people and not to be able to go outside

she wrote about the war and hope the

Netherlands would soon be liberated from

the Germans and sometimes envied her

older sister Margot who was so much more

mature and who never got into trouble

she and Margot wrote letters to each

other to pass the time and even had a

romance with Peter van pals who was 17

then all their fears came true all the

aged Jews hiding in the house were

arrested and eventually sent to

Auschwitz death camp in Poland although

the war was ending it did not end soon

enough for the Frank family only Otto

Frank survived the war one of their

helpers me up geese saved Anne's diary

and kept it after the war Otto Frank

decided to publish it since 1947

more than 20 million copies had been

sold in 55 languages Anne's diary shows

a terrible cost of hatred persecution

and war better than any history

Charlotte Church

many years ago a German opera impresario

was asked why so many of his leading

ladies were physically unattractive he

replied the ones who look like horses

sing like nightingales and vice versa

certainly a good voice doesn't always go

with an attractive appearance but an

hour day of media images good looks seem

very important Charlotte Church recorded

her first album when she was 12 years

old it was called voice of an angel

everyone agreed that little girl has a

very big voice and they were delighted

that Charlotte not only sounded like an

angel she also looked like one her sweet

schoolgirl appearance and winning smile

are part of her success Charlotte Church

was born in Cardiff Wales in February

1986 music and singing are very

important in Welsh culture and all of

Charlotte's family were musical although

Wales is part of Great Britain the Welsh

people are very proud of their own

language history and heritage

now that Wales has its own Parliament in

Cardiff Welsh culture is promoted even

more strongly

Charlotte sings some of her songs in the

Welsh language Charlotte began singing

along with the radio as an infant and by

the age of three she could sing a number

of popular songs she began singing

lessons when she was nine

Charlotte first appeared on television

early in 1997 this led to a number of

other TV and concert appearances in 1998

she signed a contract with Sony to

record five albums since Charlotte's

first album appeared she has spent a lot

of time doing promotional tours since

she's a schoolgirl her two tutors travel

along with her voice of an angel was

recorded in five days in Cardiff Wales

all the songs were ones that Charlotte

already knew and liked these included

Pie Jesus The Lord's Prayer Jerusalem

and Danny Boy the album came out on

November 9 1998 and within a couple of

weeks was number four on the popular

music charts she recorded her second

album Charlotte Church in 1999

travelling involves doing showcases for

people in the music industry and the

media this is to encourage people to

promote your music Charlotte also

appeared on

various us talk shows including David

Letterman and Jay Leno she finds that

she gets asked the same questions over

and over again

besides media celebrities Charlotte has

met many leading public figures since

she is a Roman Catholic

Charlotte was especially excited to meet

the Pope this was after she'd been

invited to sing at a Christmas concert

at the Vatican she was also asked to

sing at Prince Charles 50th birthday

party in 1998 she saw the Prince again

in 1999 when she sang at the official

opening of the Welsh National Assembly

Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip talked

to her - later that year she sang for

Bill and Hillary Clinton at the Ford

Theatre in Washington something that

people liked about Charlotte church is

that when she hasn't been spoiled by

Fame

many show business kids are loud brash

noisy and rude but when she is away from

the stage the young singer leads a

normal life with her family and friends

even when she is on TV she comes across

as an ordinary teenager but a very nice

one Charlotte's voice always gets

comments it seems like such a big voice

for a little girl very few teenagers

have a powerful operatic voice like hers

some people have found it hard to

believe that it is actually Charlotte

singing for the most part she enjoys her

success she likes to travel and meet new

people Los Angeles is her favorite City

and she likes the United States and

Canada but she is always glad to get

home to Wales and be with her friends at

the moment she goes to an all-girls

school so she doesn't see boys very

often but at age 15 an interest in boys

is likely to become a factor in her life

Charlotte now has recorded three albums

and we can expect a fourth in 2001 she

also has written an account of her life

for all her fans it is entitled voice of

an angel my life so far

Christmas holidays

in many ways Christmas is the most

important holiday in North America it is

the most important commercial festival

most retail stores do have their annual

business in the six weeks or so before

Christmas Christmas is an important

holiday from work and school many

workers take the whole week off between

Christmas and New Year's Day it is the

biggest time of the year for parties

gift-giving home decorations and

visiting many homeowners compete to see

you can have the best display of lights

it is also an important time for the

entertainment industry many Christmas

movies TV shows recordings concerts and

plays are produced every year for the

Christmas season it is also the time of

year when the largest number of people

attend church because Christmas is a

religious festival too it celebrates the

birth of Jesus how all these different

things came together to become Christmas

is a long story why for example is

Jesus's birthday celebrated on December

25th no one knows the exact day that

Jesus was born

but Jesus was born during the Roman

Empire and for the Romans December 25th

was a very important day the Romans had

many gods and many religions two

religions both of which had one main God

where the worship of the invincible Sun

and Mithras these gods were both honored

on December 25th because December 25th

was just after the shortest day of the

year it was a natural time to worship

the Sun December was also a time to

celebrate the end of the agriculture

year the Romans held one of their main

festivals the Saturnalia beginning on

December 17th that lasted for a week the

Romans also began a custom of

celebrating New Year's Day on January

1st so the last half of December and the

beginning of January was a wonderful

time for partying and games

the early Christians didn't know what

day Jesus was born at first they

celebrated his birthday on January 6th

however as most people in the Roman

Empire were becoming Christians it was

decided to move the date to December

25th the celebration lasted 12 days

until January 6th and took the place of

all other festivals that way people who

were

used to celebrating on December 25th

would feel more comfortable as different

peoples became Christian they brought

their own customs to be part of

Christmas the people of Northern Europe

used evergreen trees and mistletoe as

symbols of spring and eternal life the

evergreen tree became the Christmas tree

the mistletoe is hung from the ceiling

at Christmas for couples to kiss under

it was also in Northern Europe where the

idea of Santa Claus or father Christmas

began in Roman times there was a man who

became known as st. Nicholas he is said

to have given gifts to the poor and

provided Diaries for poor girls who

wouldn't otherwise be able to marry the

idea of the gift-giving Saint became

joined with the northern idea of spirit

of Christmas festivities it was a poem

written in 1831 by the American writer

Clement Moore which popularized Santa

Claus throughout the world twas the

night before Christmas told the story of

how Santa visits every house in the

world on Christmas Eve and brings toys

for good girls and boys since that time

parents have secretly bought toys for

their children at Christmas when the

children awake on Christmas day they

find toys by the chimney or under the

Christmas tree they are told that Santa

Claus and his reindeer brought them

adults also give gifts to each other at

Christmas time no wonder that the store

sells so many things then it is often

said that Christmas is becoming too

commercialized in the rush to get

everything ready to buy the gifts

decorate the house and tree give parties

visit family and friends and attend

special Christmas events the original

reason for celebrating is sometimes

forgotten only when people go to church

or sing Christmas carols or attend

musical performances about Jesus birth

do they remember that Christmas is the

birthday of Christ

garage sales and yard sales every

Saturday morning in our part of the

world except in winter many people drive

around the city looking for yard sales

yard sales or garage sales often take

place in the driveway of someone's home

or perhaps the front lawn

the homeowners take out all the stuff

they don't want and arrange it in front

of their house usually they put a price

tag on items people driving by will stop

to see if there's anything they want

many people spend every Saturday morning

shopping at yard sales if they find that

they have bought too many things then

they have a yard sale of their own some

of the shoppers are dealers who buy

things for resale sometimes they resell

them at their own yard sales but some

dealers are professionals who run

antique stores used book shops flea

markets or used furniture and appliance

stores usually the dealers will try to

get to the yard sale before anyone else

that way they have the best selection

often they'll try to buy items for less

than what the price tag says the cheaper

they can buy the item the more profit

they can make when they resell it their

motto is buy low sell high

sometimes a merchant will boast that he

paid one dollar for a glass or china cup

at a yard sale and sold it for a hundred

dollars at his store or on the internet

by having catalogs that show the value

of collectibles dealers can sometimes

make large profits now however many of

the people having yard sales will try to

check the value of the things they are

selling first so it is getting harder to

get a real bargain

one reason for yard sales is that North

Americans often live in big houses which

fill up with things people may use the

basement the attic the spare room and

the garage to store things that they

aren't using if they store things in

their garage all they have to do is open

the garage door I have a garage sale

when children grow up and move away the

parents will often sell the children's

old clothes toys and furniture another

reason for yard sales is that there are

a lot of things that people might like

but don't want to pay full price for for

example if someone likes to read novels

they may be happy to pay one dollar for

a book at a yard sale rather than 20 or

$30 at a retail

store what sorts of things are sold at

yard sales just about anything you might

find in a house or yard there are

ornaments China home decorations sports

equipment bicycles games dolls toys

tables and chairs lamps appliances books

records paintings clothes record players

and much much more

some items are things that were popular

a few years ago but now have gone out of

fashion

this might include many toys books and

games that relate to an old television

show that is no longer being shown while

a lot of older people go to yard sales

so do a lot of students students and

young people may need cheap furniture

for their apartment or a bicycle to get

to school or work they may not be able

to pay full price if you are lucky you

can find almost anything at a yard sale

the trick is to get there early

most yard sales are advertised to start

at 9:00 a.m. but dealers may arrive as

early as 7:30 a.m. by 10:00 a.m. the

busiest part is already over although

most yard sales go on into the afternoon

yard sales tend to prove the common

saying that one person's trash is

another person's treasure

Helen Keller

what would it be like to be unable to

see anything hear anything or say

anything life for young Helen Keller was

like that she had an illness before she

was 2 years old that had left her deaf

dumb and blind after that it was

difficult for her to communicate with

anyone she could only learn by feeling

with her hands this was very frustrating

for Helen her mother and her father

Helen Keller grew up in Alabama USA

during the 1880s and 1890s at that time

people who had lost the use of their

eyes ears and mouth often ended up in

charitable institutions such a place

would provide them with basic food and

shelter until they died or they could go

out on the street with a beggar's Bowl

and ask strangers for money

since Helens parents were not poor she

did not have to do either of these

things but her parents knew they would

have to do something to help her one day

when she was 6 years old

Helen became frustrated that her mother

was spending so much time with a new

baby unable to express her anger Helen

tipped over the baby's crib nearly

injuring the baby

her parents were horrified and decided

to take the last chance open to them

they would try to find someone to teach

Helen to communicate a new school in

Boston claimed to be able to teach

children like Helen the Kellers wrote a

letter to the school in Boston asking

for help in March of 1887 a teacher 20

year old and Sullivan arrived at the

Keller's home in Tuscumbia Alabama and

Sullivan herself had a very difficult

life her mother had died when she was 8

2 years later their father had abandoned

and and their little brother Jimmy and

was nearly blind and her brother had a

diseased hip no one wanted the two

handicapped children so they were sent

to a charitable institution Jimmy died

there at age 14 and who was not quite

blind was sent to the school for the

blind in Boston since she had not had

any schooling before she had to start in

grade 1 then she had an operation that

gave back summer for eyesight since Anne

knew what it was like to be blind she

was a sympathetic teacher

for an could teach Helen anything she

had to get her attention because Helen

was so hard to communicate with she was

often left alone to do as she pleased a

few days after she arrived and insisted

that Helen learned to sit down at the

table and eat breakfast properly and

told the Kellers to leave and she spent

all morning in the breakfast room with

Helen finally after a difficult struggle

she got the little girl to sit at the

table and use a knife and fork

since the Keller family did not like to

be strict with Helen and decided that

she needed to be alone with her for a

while there was a little cottage away

from the big house the teacher and pupil

moved there for some weeks it was here

that Ann taught Helen the manual

alphabet this was a system of sign

language but since Helen couldn't see

and had to make the signs in her hands

so she could feel them for a long time

Helen had no idea what the words she was

learning meant she learned words like

box and cat but hadn't learned that they

referred to those objects one day and

dragged Helen to a water pump and made

the signs for water while she pumped

water over Helens hands Helen at last

made the connection between the signs

and the thing water was that cool wet

liquid stuff once Helen realized that

the manual alphabet could be used to

name things she ran around naming

everything before too long she began to

make sentences using the manual alphabet

she also learned to read and write using

the square hand alphabet which was made

up of raised square letters before long

she was also using Braille and beginning

to read books Helen eventually learned

to speak a little although this was hard

for her because she couldn't hear

herself she went on to school and then

to Radcliffe College she wrote articles

and books gave lectures and worked

tirelessly to help the blind the little

girl who couldn't communicate with

anyone became in time a wonderful

communicator

trial by jury if you are a citizen of

Canada or the United States it is very

likely that you will be summoned at some

time for jury duty a letter will come in

the mail telling you to report to a

certain place at a given time there are

legal penalties for not attending

because jury duty is considered every

citizens responsibility often a large

number of people perhaps several hundred

will be summoned at one time when you

arrive you will join a lineup of others

who are registering for duty eventually

you will get to a table and talk to an

official if you have a special reason

for not being a juror such as ill health

you may be excused at this point those

not immediately exempted will become a

part of a jury panel out of this panel a

number of juries of twelve people will

be chosen these will decide a variety of

criminal cases over the next few weeks

what follows is the experience of one

woman in a jury pool she went ahead with

others into a large courtroom where they

spent the whole day at the front of the

courtroom were the judge and the lawyers

for the prosecution and for the defense

one of the lawyers explained what the

case was going to be about the names of

the jury panel were in a box at the

front when someone's name was called

they went up to the front of the

courtroom the person called up would

then have a chance to explain why they

couldn't serve as a juror if there was

some reason preventing them for example

one woman was dismissed because she knew

the accused the first jury to be chosen

was for a burglary case a panel member

went forward and faced the accused then

the lawyers in the trial decided whether

the juror was satisfactory to them at

lunchtime the panel was dismissed for an

hour

the second jury was to try someone on a

charge of murder usually the panel was

told approximately how long the trial

might be since jurors are not usually

paid many would like to avoid being

involved in a long trial the woman was

called forward and had to look the man

accused of murder any eye this made her

quite nervous judging by her expression

the two lawyers would decide whether

they wanted her on the jury or not the

defense lawyer would try to choose

someone who seemed sympathetic to the

man accused the prosecutor would prefer

someone who was not sympathetic the

woman excused herself by saying she had

a very young child to look after and no

relatives to help she was allowed to go

home at the end of the day some people

wonder whether it is fair for lawyers to

dismiss jurors who may not be

sympathetic in their cases for example

defense lawyers may try to choose young

people if they think these will be less

severe to their clients in the case

above the lawyers seem to prefer women

to men this means that a lot of people

are dismissed from being jurors without

a good reason one principle of the jury

system however is to protect the rights

of the accused particularly well one

might say that the jury system is biased

in favor of the defendant this is why

defense lawyers have an opportunity to

dismiss people who they think will not

be favorable to their clients

furthermore having 12 jurors gives the

defense a good opportunity for a

successful defense if the defense

attorney can raise a reasonable doubt

about the guilt of his client in even

one juror then the accused has a chance

of being released this happened in the

OJ Simpson murder trial there even

though there was strong evidence that

Simpson committed the crime the defense

was able to insinuate some doubts among

the jurors

moreover the defense lawyers may be able

to appeal to the emotions of the jurors

particularly if they can think of a way

to gain sympathy for their client for

this reason defense lawyers are more

likely to choose trial by jury over

trial by judge alone a judge is less

likely to be swayed by emotion than a

jury and a defense attorney may also

prefer a criminal trial to a civil suit

in the latter case the client does not

have to be proven guilty beyond a

reasonable doubt but will be found

liable if the preponderance of evidence

is against him or her this is why OJ

Simpson was acquitted on criminal

charges but then found liable for

damages in a civil suit a favorite place

it is good to have a favorite place

where you can go to be alone and relax

sometimes this spot is your own room or

quiet part of the house sometimes it is

somewhere outdoors away from people and

busy streets or you may feel most

comfortable in a shopping mall or a

downtown park

our favorite place is especially nice to

go at times of stress when work gets too

hectic or we have trouble with other

people then our favorite place is a

refuge from these difficulties my

special spot is very close to where I

work it is on a busy University campus

at one end of the university hidden

among several buildings there is a pond

this pond is surrounded by large rocks

which rise up like a small cliff on one

side shooting out of these rocks are

water pipes which create a small

waterfall the water is drawn up from the

bottom of the pond and drops back into

the middle this keeps the water from

becoming stagnant on the other side of

the pond there is a grassy shore and a

flat stone patio here in the summer

people can sit out and have meals yet

very few people come here to sit perhaps

because they are very busy with their

work

there is something very calm and

pleasant about trees and grass and shade

about bird singing and water rippling

and flowers blooming all around green is

a relaxing color for the eyes

Stillwater suggests peace running water

seems full of life there's a large

weeping willow tree on the grassy side

of the pond its branches touch the water

and shade much of the pond rushes grow

in the shallow water the pond is only

about three feet deep in the summer

there are beautiful water lilies in

bloom over much of the pond sometimes I

have counted over thirty blooms and some

flowers are over five inches wide

goldfish and minnows are the pawns chief

inhabitants but there are also crayfish

and other animals at different times

there have been a turtle a water snake

and a family of ducks

behind the pond is a large glassy wall

which reflects the entire scene one can

also go inside and view the pond even on

rainy or snowy days there are several

Gardens close to the pond one of the

gardener's told me that he could turn

the waterfall off and on usually on the

weekends it is turned off but if there

is a special event the waterfall is left

on behind the glassy wall is a cafeteria

here visitors to the University are

sometimes taken for meals the students

do not use it in the winter the pond

freezes over sometimes if the winter is

very cold the pond freezes right down to

the bottom then most of the goldfish and

minnows die usually some survive in the

mud at the bottom of the pond

occasionally people will skate on the

pond if the ice is smooth when spring

comes a lot of the old rushes and water

lily leaves from the previous year are

cleared away

this makes the pond more attractive and

gives the new plants room to grow if

there are too many rushes they are

sometimes cut down in summer then

visitors can see the water lilies better

chances are that if you ever visit Brock

University in st. Catharines Ontario you

will hear about Pond Inlet and if you

come in the summer you will probably see

me there thinking about my next article

business ethics

what do business and ethics have to do

with each other business is about making

profits ethics is about right and wrong

how are they connected well business

ethics is the study of right and wrong

as applied to business actions some

businessmen would say that there is no

need for business ethics if we don't

break the laws of the country we have

nothing to worry about

however we can do many bad things

without breaking laws in some countries

it would be legal for a businessman to

pollute the land sea and air to confine

his workers to barracks and to hire

children to work in factories but these

things may not be right on the other

hand it may be illegal for a businessman

to do some good things for example his

society may expect him to treat people

unequally and discriminate against some

ethnic or religious groups in order to

know what is right or wrong

we need a moral rule this rule does not

come from business itself but from

ethics so we need a statement of what we

believe to be right the American

Declaration of Independence in 1776

states an ethical principle we hold

these truths to be self-evident that all

men are created equal the declaration

further tells us that all men have a

right to life liberty and the pursuit of

happiness principles such as these can

be used in American politics and law to

decide whether an action is right or

wrong many companies have their own

ethical guidelines IBM for example

outlines its corporate ethics under

headings such as tips gifts and

entertainment accurate reporting fair

competition and not boasting so each

employee knows what to do or not to do

in various situations ethical choices

are made on three levels individuals by

companies and by society's make them an

individual might choose whether or not

to accept a bribe a company might decide

whether or not to bribe government

officials a government or Society

decide whether or not to outlaw bribery

similar principles of right and wrong

might be used at all three levels for

example it might be decided that bribery

is simply wrong in all situations on the

other hand it might be decided to view

the situation case-by-case in other

words there is a strong ethical stand

and a more tentative ethical stand the

strong ethical stand applies when you

have a basic moral principle and apply

it to all situations for example you

might believe that it was always wrong

to let workers handle hazardous

substances without any protection the

weaker stand would consider whether it

is legal to do so if it is legal to let

workers handle dangerous materials and

this conforms to social expectations

then the weak ethical stand would say no

problem as long as the law is not broken

and no one strenuously objects then

everything is okay however in ethics

there is a principle called the moral

minimum this principle means that you

should never harm another person

knowingly the only exception would be to

protect some other people or yourself so

business ethics would say that the

businessman who exposes his workers to

hazardous chemicals is wrong he is not

practicing the moral minimum Colonial

Williamsburg

travelers in the desert or the jungle

sometimes see the remains of old cities

these cities were once large and

prosperous but something has changed

perhaps the climate got dryer or wetter

perhaps the trade routes which had

brought merchants to the city now went

elsewhere perhaps enemies destroyed them

or perhaps disease or famine drove the

people away other cities which were once

important have become less so in time

Jamestown Virginia the first English

colony in America is now only an

historic site it began as the capital of

Virginia but when fire destroyed the

government buildings in 1699 the capital

was moved to nearby Williamsburg

Williamsburg was an important town for

many years the British governors lived

there and two of them worked on the

plans for the town and its buildings the

College of William and Mary was

established there in the 1690s the

second oldest College in America as the

capital Williamsburg contained many

public buildings including a courthouse

a jail a powder magazine the governor's

palace and the government building of

course there were many private houses as

well from 1699 until 1780 Williamsburg

was the capital of Virginia many people

came there for government and legal

business it was also a social center

with dances fairs horse races and

auctions the governor and his wife

provided expensive dinners and

entertainment for their guests

most of the important people in Virginia

owned tobacco plantations in 1612 John

Rolfe had first raised tobacco to sell

to England soon tobacco farming was

Virginia's most important business most

planters were able to build large houses

and buy slaves to do their work

one plantation owner is said to have

owned 300,000 acres of land and one

thousand black slaves as well as having

large amounts of money the planters were

the leaders of this colonial society and

they resented British interference in

their local government when England

imposed taxes on the American colonists

in 1765 it was a Virginian Patrick Henry

who spoke against them his words

give me liberty or give me death help to

inspire the American Revolution as

complaints about British rule increased

it was Virginians who led the rebels

George Washington became commander of

the Revolutionary Army and Thomas

Jefferson drafted the Declaration of

Independence in 1776 in 1780 the capital

of Virginia was moved to Richmond

Williamsburg was now simply a small

college town of local importance not

much changed in Williamsburg for many

years in the 20th century the Reverend

dr. Goodwin who was the priest at the

Williamsburg Church had the idea of

restoring Williamsburg to the way it

appeared in colonial days Goodwin

approached john d rockefeller jr. with

his idea and rockefeller agreed to

finance this project beginning in 1926

the old buildings of Williamsburg were

restored to their original form first

were the college buildings then the

rally tavern the government building the

governor's palace and so on buildings

that had been destroyed over time were

reconstructed from plans and

descriptions soon the restored buildings

were open to the public

guides dressed in 18th century costumes

show visitors through the buildings and

Gardens visitors can also travel to

nearby tobacco plantations now

tourists who pay admission to visit this

wonderful historic town financed much of

the work

of restoration and conservation

Oh

The Description of English Listening Practice Level 4 | Part 2 - Learn English Listening Lessons Online