Practice English Speaking&Listening with: TWGC Topic #4 Part B - 5th Guru's Shaheedi and 6th Guru

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From 1606 to 1644 Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji is the Guru, so that's 38 years

Even longer than Guru Arjan Dev Ji Maharaj, 25 years. So They're Guru for a long time!

At 11 Years old, They get trained in the martial arts by Baba Buddha Ji. Now, this is something which is quite...

Sorry, it's not very well known amongst the community: Baba Buddha Ji was a Sikh of Guru Nanak Dev Ji

And they were nearly a hundred years old at this time

They lived to 125 years old so they were over a hundred at this time

And they become Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji's teacher in Martial Arts

Where did they learn it from?

And the Sikh tradition holds this, that Guru Nanak Dev Ji blessed Baba Buddha Ji with all that knowledge

Just like Chajju, whom Guru Harkrishan Sahib Ji blessed

And he could repeat the meaning of the Bhagavad Gita to Pandit Lal Chand

In the same way, Guru Nanak Dev Ji had blessed Baba Buddha Ji with all this Gyan.

So they were like what you might call the Matrix version where Neo wakes up and goes "I know Kung Fu"

Maharaj Guru Nanak Dev Ji blesses Baba Buddha Ji and They know Shastra Vedya, They just have it.

And They keep it until Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji picks up the two swords and They teach Them

So our martial arts, actually the Buddha Dal, They hold it themselves.

They are the older generation, but they also trace their name back to Baba Buddha Ji.

People were quite scared because they start picking out... Sorry, there's a problem with this PowerPoint.

So, 38 years of Gurgaddi, They're 47 when they pass It on

Again, when They had the succession ceremony,

Instead of this Seli Topi which is this woolen cord (Seli just means woolen) They used to have a cord,

Have you seen Guru Nanak Dev Ji's picture with Dastar and a beaded thing around the head?

And even some Malia were made out of wool.

Before They would give that around the Dastar, Maharaj said "No, now I will wear the Gatra and the Kirpan

So They took on two Kirpans at that time

Miri Piri was the phylosophy

Just like Guru Arjan Dev Ji had two nicknames, I don't know if you are aware of this

One is Bani Da Bohith, we talked about it the last time

When They were very young, Guru Amar Das Ji who is Their grandfather saw Him and said:

Pota Bani da Bohitha: He will be the boat of Bani.

So, just the same way as Guru Arjan Dev Ji was Bani da Bohita and Shaheedan de Sirtaj (the second nickname),

Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji is called Bandi Chor and Miri Piri de Malak, the King of Miri Piri.

So, They take on these two swords:

Miri comes from the word Amir, rich, They're politically powerful, political power and leadership

Piri comes from Pir like Nanak Shah Fakir, Hindu ka Guru, Musalman ka Pir. So spritual leader

Spiritual and temporal, worldly leadership

They give themselves a Miri Piri de Malak. They are the King.

One of the swords would smite the oppressor and the other would protect the innocent

Look at Daya and Dharam, the first two words

Daya and Dharam, that would be all about protecting and feeding people, helping them

But then look at the last two, Himmat and Mohkam

That's about fighting who is going to be destroying you when you start to do good things.

So to fight them back, and for that you need Himmat, a bit of... and to cut down you attachment to the world

Because you are going to end up fighting people getting Shaheed

Then finally if you have these two things, Miri, Piri, Daya and Dharam, Himmat and Mohkam, you will get Sahib

You will get that leadership, that rule over the world, Raj Karega Khalsa

These, basically, are the two sides: we must help but we must also fight those that are oppressing.

Maharaj says this: from now on spiritual and mundane power shall be combined, it will be Ek

From two it will become Ek

The Mala will be the sword belt, the Gatra, and on my turban I shall wear a Kalgi

A Kalgi is a Royal Insignia, it signifies This is a King standing here and not just a Saint

A lot of the Saints at that time were looked over by the king who thought they didn't know anything

They would ask for blessings but they would say "You don't know about the world"

But Guru Sahib says now He is both Miri Piri de Malak

And these become the new symbols of succession, last time we said that there is a ritual of succession

Those of you that were here last time. There was a Tika, the coconut and all these kind of things

But now, instead of having this Mala put around the head, the Kirpan becomes the new sign of leadership.

People were quite scared by this. They were like "Hold on, Sikhi is starting to change!"

Imagine that even now some people do say "I like the first five Gurus, I am not so sure about the next five"

They do say this, it's not uncommon to hear

Also, at that point this question gets raised up: people said "I am not sure whether they should become militant

Given the fact that our Guru is a Shaheed, maybe we should just calm down

Lay off, keep our head down for a little while, and maybe Jahangir will pass away, and things will get better"

Maharaj says no, this is the time.

So they went to Mata Ganga Ji, Their mother, and they said please do a Benti of Hargobind Sahib Ji

"He's only 11 years old, He has got some... inside Him, He should calm down"

The problem is they don't understand who is Guru

As per Sikh tradition, Guru is

He is the Light, He is the Power.

He is God upon Earth, physically, Parthak Har

So, this has not been taught to us properly

We have been taught that Guru is like a teacher, like a wise man...

Guru Sahib has come as the Avtar of Kal Jug, He is the answer, He's bringing the complete system to bear

And it's just part of that game that His father had to become Shaheedi

And He had to bring down this part which is important for Sikhi to grow.

What Guru Sahib does is, instead of listening to these people, Maharaj decides to build the Akaal Takht

The Takht is a specific word used by the Mughal emperor. Takht means throne.

The Delhi Throne wasn't called Delhi Raja but Delhi Takht.

So They used the word but They used Akaal which is an Indian word, combining the two. Akaal Takht.

And the physical building it's taller, higher than the throne in Delhi

It's basically a throne of God and Maharaj sat there and They ruled from there

They start to build up a kingdom within a kingdom

Also, the two Sikhs who helped Them to make that is Baba Buddha Ji and Bhai Gurdas Ji

Before we start thinking "I'm not sure about the next five Gurus", just imagine this:

The very nephew of Guru Amar Das Ji who had been one of the preachers appointed by Guru Amar das Ji

Who lived with Guru Ram Das Ji, who has written the Bani that Guru Arjan Dev Ji was saying

That person is now helping to build this place because they know what Guru is

He is describing Guru Sahib as

That the great warrior Guru who is so powerful and is doing so much Kirpa, helping people

So He is still doing that but He is a warrior.

Then Baba Buddha Ji. Who is Baba Buddha Ji?

Sikh of Guru Nanak

100 years old. He is the person that Guru Nanak Dev Ji blessed that "you will always know me"

Remember we talked about this?

When Guru Angad Dev Ji went away, Baba Buddha Ji found Him

When Guru Amar Das Ji went away, Baba Buddha Ji found Him

He had been blessed: "You will always know me" and he knew this is Guru Nanak now

Guru Nanak just changed, came as the Sixth Guru

If you sit in Akaal Takht, there's an angle of Harimandar Sahib.

The Akaal Takht is not facing right opposite Harimandar Sahib, it is slightly at an angle

If you sit inside Harimandar Sahib, as you look out across the patway, you can't see Akaal Takht

It's not there, but if you sit inside Akaal Takht Sahib and you look out the window, you can see Harimandar Sahib

What that means is that as political leader, in wordly matters you need the guidance of VaheGuru

Harimandar Sahib, you need the spiritual guidance of God

But in spiritual matters you don't need wordly guidance

We don't need... come and tell us how to read our Paat

But if a Sikh becomes a leader, a politician, then the Sikh must always keep an eye upon what Bani is saying

They take their guidance from there

They set up an army now

Sikhs would always come to Guru Sahib and give a Bheta: before it used to be flowers or food

Maharaj now says "Bring me horses, bring me weapons"

So Sikhs start to bring this and They start telling Sikhs to become traders in horses

I think horse trading is essentially what we now might call trading in arms

Because horses were as important as having armies

Even in Tav Prasad Savaiye Maharaj talks about...

The fastest horses that can jump around like deers, that are so lively,

Those are the kind of things that people wanted in their army

They have 300 horsemen , 60 gunners, 50 foot soldiers, and this is called the Akaal Sena (Sena means army)

Now people get a bit scared of this word because of the Shiv Sena and they think it's a Hindu word but it's not

It's just a word from India and it belongs to the Sikhs as much as anybody else

They wore blue and this was the flag. I just want to point out one thing:

The current Khanda that is everywhere, even on our flag, is a recent thing

It was made probably around the thirties forties fifties, that's when it got developed

I know it's everywhere now but it's a recent invention, it's not actually made by the Gurus.

This used to be our flag: tha'ts a Katar, it's a punch dagger, you hold on to it and you punch

It's sharp and a little bit fat at the end so it would go in and it would open up, like an armour piercing

So when you have chainmail on it would go in and open that up, and then it becomes like a knife at the sides

So you can put it in and then twist

But also, that's a Dhaal on the top left, a shield, and a Kirpan

So when you look at many old pictures of the Gurus, you will see this was the battle standard.

The sword, the shield and the Katar, okay?

Because you can actually hold the Katar and the shield in the same hand as well

And you can have a Katar and a Kirpan in the same because it's one of those things that you can put around

It's one of Guru Gobind Singh Ji's favourite weapons as well

We end up having our own flag that is Miri Piri, the sword, the shield and the Katar and they also

And they also had a fortress called LohGarh

They used to have a wrestling place right outside Harimandar Sahib called the Mul Akhara

The army would be made of full-time soldiers, meaning they were employed

They left their job, they didn't do farming and come there in the evenings. They were full-time soldiers.

And they trained.

Maharaj had this tradition of having soldiers always around him and They had this Nagara

Negara is that massive drum (Nagar Kirtans) that you beat with sticks. That's a royal thing again

So They had the Kalgi, a standing army, their own flag, a Nagara. What does it sound like? A King.

Kingdom within the Kingdom

Sikhs start to see themselves in a new way, we have our own Kingdom and our own King, Sache Patshah.

Effectively a State within a State

Maharaj starts to administer justice and He starts to run far off congregations as a ruler

So the system was already there, but They start to determine law as well

They also Build political alliances, this is the word used by Bhai Gurdas Ji

And this is what Bhai Gurdas Ji writes about his Guru:

Maharaj was a soldier type of Guru

However, Bhai Gurdas Ji carries on writing about Maharaj and says that He is still the same light

But many people coudn't see that, they started getting a bit confused

"This is sound like a Guru to me", but it's the same Light

No. More people came in, Sikhi grows. It's the opposite.

Newfound confidence that Maharaj is stepping up

Maharaj is Guru for a long time and the proof of that is what happens in Gwalior

Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji goes away to Gwalior, They're not there for a short period and it's a couple of years

The Sikhs are going there all the time to worship their Guru

I thought Bahu Paraoupakaaree meant doing good for other people, but it also means Kirpa

They were doing a lot of Kirpa on people, people still have that experience of the enlightenment of Guru

They dress royally. At one point, Swami Sat Ramdas Samrath (what a long name)

He becomes a Guru of Shiva Ji Maratta later on, and he laughs at Guru Sahib saying:

"Look at you, are you supposed to be the descendant of the famous Guru Nanak?

Look at you now on horses, with fine clothes on. You don't look like the descendant of Guru Nanak Dev Ji"

Which is what we might think nowadays when we go to a Gurdwara,

We might look at our Guru with Their lovely Takht and might think "This is not needed, it's only a text."

I'm not criticizing, I'm just saying that many people have this idea that it's only a book, but it's not

Maharaj replies to Swami Sat Ramdas Samrath saying: "I have inner renunciation,

You see these things and they attract you, I see them and they don't attract me

I am a renunciate inside but on the outside I live like this". They live in the world.

This actually changed Shivaji Maratta because he wasn't a Tyagi either, he became a warrior as well

Now what happens is, remember that Guru Sahib Ji became Guru when They were 11 years old?

Later on, Chandu Shah again complains about Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji

And he has got a bit of a vendetta so Chandu starts to become a bit of a thorn, against Sikhi

Maharaj is called to Delhi to meet Jahangir. They actually got along quite well

Jahangir had been in power for a long time, he chilled out a little bit, things have changed

Guru Ji showed respect for all religions, and they actually get along quite well

They go hunting together. One crucial thing happens then: a tiger comes on Jahangir and everyone runs away

And Guru Sahib, single-handedly, tackles this tiger, They had a Katar, They killed the tiger and saved Jahangir

So, he is very thankful because the Guru has proven Himself, He is a young Guru and a great warrior

Jahangir and Guruji became a bit close and Guruji didn't hold a grudge for His Father's death.

This is crucial to understand because most of that was caused by the Muslims who were quite fanatical then

And Chandu. He is one of the main reasons, okay?

There is a story I want to mention here

Maharaj had gone to Delhi, They had gone to Agra, hunting with him, and then to Delhi

Basically they are in encampments: when people went hunting, they didn't used to stay in palaces,

They would live out, be up there for days, like a camp

So there was two beautiful tents of the kings and other little tents around there

And there was a Sikh in Delhi who wanted to go and meet his Guru

Because he heard his Guru has come to Delhi

This Sikh decides to go and meet Guru Ji and he decided to get all of the best grass for Guru Sahib's horses

And he had one coin, all of his earnings

Imagine if now somebody who lives in a town where there is not Guru Granth Sahib Ji

And then Maharaj comes to that town, the Sikh will go to meet his Guru and take something worthy!

This Sikh takes all of his belongings that you could afford, this nice coin, and goes to see Guru Ji

He goes to the encampment. Being just a poor person, he doesn't know what his Guru looks like

There were no pictures at that time.

So he goes up and he sees This massive tent and he thinks "That must be Guru Sahib's tent!"

So he goes inside, begging his way in to the people at the front. "I must meet the Sache Patshah!"

He goes in, bows down to the King, and says: "Oh Sache Patshah, I brought you this coin. Bless me with Mukti!"

"Bless me with Mukti"

Poor Jahangir! What can you do to this guy? He can't bless him with anything because he is a wordly king

He doesn't have the powers of blessing with Mukti

So he says: "Who are you coming to me?" "I have come to meet Sache Patshah Dhan Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji"

"That's not my tent, it's the next one!"

So the Sikh asked: "Who are you, then?" "I am Jahangir, the emperor of India"

He must have thought then "well, I don't want to see you", he grabs his coin and starts to get back

But Jahangir says: "Hold on, hold on! You are going to give that tiny little coin to Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji

That's not a worthy offering! Here, I give you some gold coins, go give this to Him, at least it's something!"

He says: "I don't want your gold coins, I don't know how you got them, I am going to give him this coin of mine!"

Because Maharaj is not looking for that ill-gotten wealth, He is looking for that pure Kamai, our own Dasvand

He says: "I'm not going to take this money" and Jahangir offers even more money

Because you know how kings are, they want to win, It's always a battle of wills

So he wants to take his coin and this guy is not giving it, and says he doesn't want his money!

So the king is bribing him for this little coin, and he is like "No" and he leaves anyway.

He goes back and he finally finds Dhan Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, he goes in and Matha Tek again

"Oh Dhan Sache Pathsah, bless me with Mukti! You are the King of all Kings, King of this world and the next one

Bless this poor Sikh! I brought you a coin, please, bless me with Mukti!

Let me stay close to your feet"

What happens is that the Sikh was blessed with Mukti, Guru Sahib knew what had happened

He knew that this Sikh had refused all the worldly wealth for the sake of his Guru's Kirpa

That's what he wanted: Guru's Kirpa with his own Kamai, he didn't care about the money in the world

He wasn't asking Maharaj for any kind of wealth, he was asking Him for Mukti

For that Tyagi, that sort of not caring about the worldly wealth, caring about his Guru's Kirpa

He was blessed with Mukti

What happens now, this is an important thing. Diwali.

At one point, Jahangir falls ill and Chandu makes a suggestion to the King:

"I heard that if you imprison a holy man, he would take the Karma off you and you would become well."

So basically Chandu tried his best to still hurt the Sikh Kingdom

And at that point Guru Sahib is asked by Jahangir to go into prison for him as a kind of Tapassiaa

So that Jahangir can get better

Maharaj agrees to this. There was no battle there, Maharaj was okay

Because they knew Jahangir and they wanted to teach this lesson. Obviously what happens next is important

So Maharaj goes to Gwalior and He spends two years there. Gwalior is known as a place you don't come out of

I don't know if you know this: it was a prison that if you went to, you didn't come out

It was a political prisoner place, it wasn't just normal prisoners. People went there as political prisoners

And they had inside a cremation ground

So if you were a Hindu, you stayed there until you died, then you were burnt and that's it

They also had a burial site inside the prison. It's a castle

So if you died as a Muslim, then they buried you there as well, you never came out

Maharaj is in there for two years, the Sikhs are very upset as you can imagine

"Guru is not here, Guru is in prison in Gwalior" and this tradition still happens to this day:

The Sikhs from Amritsar would get together and they would go all the way to Gwalior

And they would go around and around the fort singing Kirtan, doing Parkarma of the Guru

Imagine that now when we go to our Gurdware, we do Parkarma of our Guru, we go around our Guru

And those Sikhs, the power they must have had! It's not a small fort, to go all the way there and then go around

And do a Shabad Chowki, that's how it is called, singing Kirtan around in a group

And this still happens now, people still go to Gwalior

There was a lot of other political prisoners there as well. Here is an important fact:

Basically, after two years Jahangir got better and Wazir Khan who was a good Muslim, on our side

And Mian Mir, the Sufi Saint, was still around. He convinced Jahangir to free Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji

Reminded him: "Don't you remember He saved your life from that tiger? And you imprisoned Him.

Because people didn't use to come out of there so he probably had forgotten about Guru Sahib

And Jahangir says "I should repay that favor and now I'm better anyway", so they asked for Maharaj to be freed

But Maharaj refuses to leave and Jahangir is in a conundrum because he said "Free Him!" and Maharaj said no

If you are going to free me, you must free all these other princes as well

Jahangir thinks "I owe Him my life"

So he says "Okay, you can take as many people out as you can hold on to your coat

Those are the words, so once the Bachan has been given Maharaj accepted

And Guru Sahib orders a specially made coat with 52 strings coming off it

Kalis are those pleats that old indian coats used to have, They order this massive coat with 52 long pleats

Nowadays is like a string but it wasn't, it was a big cord

Maharaj basically, because of that word that was given that "anybody who can hold on to your coat"

They didn't get around that and they actually freed all those people

The principle is Vand ke Shako, the word Shakna means to eat, consume

Vand Ke means before you consume, you must share

It's a funny thing. Most of us nowadays, you know there are these charity things

where you can get the money taken out when your income comes to your bank

Why? Because once it goes into your account, it's very hard to get rid of it, isn't it?

"What will be left at the end of the month?" and pretty soon you think "I don't know if I can afford it"

But Dasvand should always go out before you even touch it.Vand ke, then Shako.

First share the 10% out for the Guru and then do the rest. And remember Guru's Golak is not just in the Gurdwara

It's in any Garib person's mouth. Any poor persone you can feed with your money, that's Guru's Golak

We are going to come to that in a second, there is a famous story about this

Guru Sahib took 52 people out, special Chola was made with 52 Kalis.

And these kings were released. All these people are political prisoners

They are only in there because somehow they displeased Jahangir for whatever reason

Wanted to take over their kingdom or help the next successor...

Maharaj is called Bandi Chor for this day. Bandi means people in prison, Chor means free

Obviously, the problem with Punjabi is that there are letters that are not in English, so you can't write "Chor"

This letter doesn't exist, you can't write it. So we use R or D, it doesn't make any sense

It is important to learn Gurmukhi for that reason, because you just can't romanize it

Guru Sahib goes to meet Jahangir in Delhi and He explains to Jahangir how Chandu had tricked him

Into imprisoning Guru Sahib, and for this reason Chandu was given to the Sikhs

Jahangir said "You can have him now, he has done so much bad to your community that he is now in your care

Now what happens is that Sikhs have a grudge against Chandu

because for two years they had to go all the to Gwalior to see their Guru, all because of Chandu

And what happened to Guru Arjan Dev Ji Maharaj

So you can imagine how much I would be annoyed if now someone tried to ... to my Guru

So we can imagine that at that time they were very annoyed as well

Chandu is taken by the Sikhs to Lahore

And he is killed in the street by a Sikh who saw Guru Arjan Dev Ji being tortured

So he has got that ..., that Pyar for his Guru, and they kill Chandu in the streets

Just like those people that came into Harimandar Sahib, they're Shaheeds, so Chandu was done that way

But Maharaj forgave Chandu because he never got to explain himself, he was tortured and killed

When they come back to Harimandar Sahib... You see down there all those Divas?

This is why Diwali or Deepmala is celebrated by the Sikhs:

Because Guru Sahib from Delhi after meeting Jahangir, from Gwalior, They come back to Amritsar

That welcoming party here is what we celebrate now because, funnily enough,

The whole of Diwali is about Raam coming back to Ayodhya because he was in Banwas, exile

And the same way now our Guru has come back, but this is not somebody who is you know in bygone era

This is just 400 years ago when our Guru Sahib comes back, 350 years ago

So we celebrate Deepmala and Bandi Chor, even now. That's exactly why we celebrate Diwali

And then the Festival of Diwali Deepmala becomes one of the two main festivals for Sikhs

Many years later, after Guru Sahib's grandson makes the Khalsa Panth

Diwali is always celebrated in Amritsar because that's where Guru Ji came back

And Hola Mohalla is celebrated in Anandpur Sahib

And those became the two main meets for the Khalsa Panth

Now just a few little stories about Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji because next week we're not going to go into this

One thing is that Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji was very important for our history

They traveled around to all the ancient historical shrines from Guru Nanak, Guru Angad, Guru Amar Das

They travel to those places and They preserved them, They made sure that history was not lost

One of the things you will see is that

If you go to places like where Guru Nanak became a Guru, Sultanpur Lodhi and the river Bein

There you will see Guru Nanak Dev Ji's Gurdwara, where They were working in a shop

You will see the Mosque that was preserved,

You will see where He became Guru, the actual spot where They went into the River is there

But there you will also see a Gurdwara for Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji

Because they came there as well. To recognize where they stayed, there's a Gurdwara there

Also, They develop a town called Sri Hargobindpur and in 1621 They build there Guru Ki Maseet

Maseet means mosque

The financially poor Muslims of Sri Hargobindpur didn't have a Mosque

So They came to guru Sahib and said "Look, You are the King of all Kings, you run this area

We've heard that You are from the Home of Guru Nanak, You had Bhai Mardana singing Kirtan

And Muslims doing Kirtan in Harimandar Sahib. We need a Maseet!"

So Maharaj makes them a Mosque

Now imagine His own Father has been killed by the Mughals

Maharaj has been imprisoned by the Mughals

But They don't have any hatred against Islam as a religion, because there is no such thing as religion

There's just people

Maharaj makes them a Mosque, and that place which is there has got a good history around it

What happens is that it was discovered in 2004 that it had been there

And who had been looking after it? The Nihungs

They knew the history of this place and they had been looking after it for many many years

Our history is getting discovered now, unfortunately. We are finding out what treasures we have

And it was discovered by this Lady who's like a historian

And she brought it to the attention of the Muslims. Now it has become back into a Mosque

It became a Gurdwara, the Nihung Singhs had it, they kept it in pristine condition and now it is a Mosque again

And is now a UNESCO protected site as well. It's a great example of interfaith

The head of her faith makes a praying place for people of another faith

So that's one of the things on our three facts that we point out: that Guru Sahib did this

Because it's an amazing example of respecting other people's faith

In 1626 They found a place called Kiratpur Sahib, it was a gift from one of those freed princes

Kiratpur still exist now, and it becomes an important place for Sikhs following that

Because Guru Harkrishan Sahib Ji's family lives there as well

They have three wives okay, and it's in our history, so I'm not gonna cross over the history

At that time, three fathers pledge their daughter to Guru Ji

"Guru Sahib, this daughter is for you, I pledged her to you , I made a public pledge that she will marry the Guru"

So if Guru Sahib had rejected her, then she would remain... because she had been rejected

The same with Chandu's daughter who was rejected by Guru Sahib

They did actually have three wives

But I just want to say one thing: there's a line in Bani which goes like this. Maharaj says:

Whatever Guru Sahib says, earn that. If Guru Sahib is saying read Bani, do this, do those things Maharaj says

But why are you trying to follow gurus Karnee, why are you trying to copy Him?

He is who He is, He's perfect. He's not like us

We act out of Kam Krodh Lobh Moh Ahankar, Guru Sahib doens't to that. He is perfection personified

So we don't have to think "My Guru did it, so I can do it", it's not like that

We are we're not the ones that are willing to give up our four sons

We're not prepared to sit there and be sitting at Tatti Tavi and be cooked and killed

So why are we trying to copy Them only when we like something and we want it? Guru Sahib is perfect

Mata Nanaki, Mata Mahadevi and Mata Damodiri

They have five sons and one daughter. The only daughter is called Bibi Beero Ji

In 1613, one of Their sons, Baba Gurditta Ji is born and he is important because

Later on, the son of Guru Nanak comes up to Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji and says:

"I haven't got any children, I am an ascetic, I haven't been married .Give me one of your sons, you have five"

And Baba Gurditta is given to Baba Siri Chand and is raised by him to become his successor

He does become the successor of the Udasi Panth

So it wasn't like Maharaj said "who are you? get away", They actually gave one of Their own sons

But Baba Gurditta's son becomes the next Guru, Guru Har Rai

1617 They have Suraj Mal, 1718 Ani Rai who is not into spirituality that much

1620 They have Baba Attall, the story is that there's a... next to Harimandar Sahib

If you go to Harimandar Sahib, right next to it there's a Gurdwara called Baba Attall, there's a big tower there

The story of Baba Attall is that he was a very spiritual person, very spiritual as a child

One day, he was going to play a game with one of his friends,

But he went home and that evening that friend died, from whatever illness

The next day Baba Attall goes to the house of that son, sees that he's dead,

But because of his ability, because he was so high, he basically brought that child back to life

Because he didn't want to lose his friend

But he didn't live in the Hukam

My Guru can bring a person who is dead back to life, or kill and bring back to life

Basically he did this and Guru Sahib said "That's extremely wrong

I have told you many times that a Sikh must always stay in the hokum of Vahe Guru,

Must always accept the Pan of Vahe Guru as good and not try and change what has happened"

So Maharaj banished him. They basically rebuked him very harshly

And Baba Attall, very soft-hearted, he felt the Pyar for his friend and changed the Hukam

He went away and said "I have done something very bad, now I must give up my life"

So he laid down in that place where now Gurdwara Baba Attall is and left his Praan

Because people of that level can actually decide "I'm going to go now"

So he passed away there and a Gurdwara was made there by Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji remembering his son

1622, Tyaag Mal who is then called Guru Tegh Bahadur because he's very brave with the sword

Tegh is from Degh Tegh, Tegh means sword, Bahadur means brave. So brave with the sword

They have four battles, very quickly

In 1621 they have a battle against the Faujdar of Jalandharunder, a small battle

It wasn't a big battle like the one against the Mughal Army, it was just against this guy Jalandhar

Abdulla Khan was incited into battle by Bhagavan Chand's son

So Bhagwan Chand's son decides to incite Abdulla Khan to fight Him

Guru Sahib fought and killed Abdullah Himself

It's one of the first victories against the Mughal forces but it's not with the wider Mughal Army

Maharaj kills Abdulla Khan himself, but it's a big gap between the next couple of battles

So they had the initial skirmish and then the Sikhs won and got a bit more confidence "we can fight, we can win"

Then Jahangir dies and Shah Jahan becomes the emperor

Remember that this kind of interaction is not mentioned outside,

But that's why we bring in it here, to let you know there was a big interaction

In 1627 Shah Jahan becomes a king, he's the one who made the Taj Mahal

In 1634 there's the battle of hawk

Basically what happens is Shah Jahan, the king, has a white hawk, beautiful white hawk

It comes into the hands of the Sikhs and there was a little bit of a skirmish because they caught the hawk

And said: "We are keeping this" and the Mughal force said "give it back" and they answered "no"

There was a bit of a skirmish

And the Sikhs won that skirmish. Those people that they beat went back to tell the rest of the wider army that

The sikhs have got our white hawk, Shah Jahan's white hawk

So then they decided to send a bigger army and the Sikhs defeated that army as well

So Shah Jahan's 7,000 men are sent with Mukhlis Khanat at the head

At the same time it was Bibi Biro's wedding so they decided to move it out of the town

Rather than have everybody else slaughtered inside the town, they moved it out of the town

The wedding was moved and the battle took place there, in the same place, Kiratpur Sahib

And 7 hundreds Akaali Sena soldiers beat 7 thousands of these Mughal soldiers

It was ten to one, so it was it was a big thing to go for it but they went for it and they won as well

So this is a great victory for the Akaali Sena

Guru Sahib takes Muklis Khan Themselves

1634, there is a bit of a gap, there is another battle straight after over the horses

The Mughals decided that they wanted the horses that the Sikhs were bringing to Guru Ji, and they took them

Maharaj wasn't happy about that. Bidhi Chand is one of the five commanders of the Akaali Sena

He was there when Guru Arjan Dev Ji Maharaj was Shaheed in Lahore

He was actually, from his previous life, a thief

And now he decided to put his skills to use for the Guru so he goes back and steals these horses

He's very clever in his thievery

Bidhi Chand basically dresses up sometimes as the grass cutter, sometimes as this, sometimes as that...

And he always sneaks in, steals his horses and away he goes

You would have seen big pictures of him previously, jumping into the river. He is very clever

8 months later, there's the big clash. Skhs outnumbered but they won again

But a thousand Akaalis Sena are now Shaheed in the battle

So what's happening is: Sikhs are fighting, they're winning, Sikhs are becoming Shaheed

But they are still joining and they are still fighting

That's the third battle the Sikhs have won

And again, in 1635, there was the big battle of Kartarpur

But this Arjan Dev's Kartarpur, isn't it? Probably Yeah

Painde Khan is a childhood friend of Guru Ji and he now joined with the Faujdar of Jalandhar Qutab Khan

And he ends up turning agains Guru Sahib

And these two people make forces to strike against Guru Ji

There is a famou story. There is Painde Khan lying down and Guru Sahib says to him...

They face each other on the battlefield and they've trained together as friends.

And Maharaj says: "Painde Khan, I'll give you the first blow" and he tried but he didn't manage to succeed

Maharaj said "I'll give you another one"- he didnt manage. And then a third one, and then Maharaj said:

"Now it's my turn to attack" and Maharaj killed him

But while he was dying, Maharaj said: "Read your Kalma" and They protected him from the sun

And they said: "Read your Kalma, say your last prayers before you go"

Although they tried killed Him, They didn't hate him. They wanted him to still go to his God, say the prayers

And They actually buried him as well, according to Muslim's way

I talked about it the last time

Sulhi Khan and his son came to kill Guru Arjan Dev Ji, and Sulhi Khan died in the brick kiln and burnt to death

The right way for a Muslim once they are dead, is to be buried

It's a bit like what happened when Guru Gobind Singh was given those presents and Raja wanted them as well

Tyag Mal, the youngest son, fights very bravely and that's when he gets given his name.

He is only 16 at that time

He's actually 13-14 years old and he's given this new name of Teg Bahadur

Baba Gurditta who, although becomes a Tyagi, still fights, is married and has children. But he's Udasi

All 4 battles are won by the Akaal Sena, Sikhs become very confident now

Our Guru Sahib is blessed. Because it is not enough to have soldiers and an army

When they start winning and they are lead by someone like Guru Sahib who is Sache Patshah

And they keep on winning. They have so much confidence.

We won this batte, 700 against 7,000 (second battle) but they won

The Mughals are now proven to the general populace not to be invincible

You know about 300? Those people that seem to be immortal and they go"I'll prove them not to be so"

It was ike that. Sikhs had proven the Mughal emperor not to be invincible

Actually, it's not long.

You see the Sikhs coming to power, into ascendancy, and the Mughal kingdom seems to go

By Guru Gobind Singh Ji's time there's no more Mughal Kingdom left, because the Sikhs destroyed them

Kiratpur becomes a big center for the Sikhs

Why is that important? Because Kartarpur was the previous space, this is Guru Arjan Dev Ji's Kartarpur

There is another Kartarpur

Dhir Mal is important because he ends up having the Bir of Aad Granth

The Aad Granth was taken out of Amritsar during all these battles, and it was in Kartarpur

Then Maharaj moves from Kartarpur to Kiratpur

But the original Aad Granth is left in Kartarpur, in the hands of Dhir Mal

Dhir Mal is the eldest son of Baba Gurditta and he's hoping that he's going to be the Guru

But he isn't, his youngest brother which is Guru Har Rai becomes the Guru

He hoped that it would make him Patshahi Satvin

Later on, Dhir Mal actually denies Guru Gobind Singh Ji access to that Kartarpuri Biri

That's why it's called a Kartarpuri Bir

Bir is the wrong spelling, that letter doesn't exist in english

But anyway, the point is that Guru Gobind Singh Ji has to write the entire Guru Granth Sahib Ji from memory

Because They are not given this copy

Only Guru Tegh Bahadur's Bani was not inside it.

There probably were Pothis available, but maybe not the entirety

You have to remember there weren't always so many copies of Guru Granth Ji

It wasn't like nowadays where they printed by the thousands

It was given a lot of respect

And it would probably be taken on a tour by the Nihungs when they went on the marching camp

That would be some of the few times people get to see Guru Granth Sahib Ji

The point was that Sat Kar of Guru Granth Sahib Ji was quite high

And not everybody could take care of it in that way, as a King

People just had the Pothia for reading their Paath

There were, later on, other Takhts

Baba Deep Singh Ji and Bhai Mani Singh, they make like five copy send it to all the Takhts

But it's not that proliferation that you see nowadays, so many Guru Granth Sahib Ji Birs everywhere

I don't know if you know that yesterday the Akaal Takht sent out a Hukamnama saying that

Guru Granth Sahib Ji is no longer allowed to be kept in a house where there is alcohol or Halal meat

So just be aware that that's a new rule that has come out

Partly because it should be anyway but people were doing it

And I know people in my family that if you tell them the go like "You're fanatic"

So you may as well just not argue with them

But there are people that keep alcohol in one small section of the house a drink it once in a while

But Maharaj is upstairs, and you wouldn't have alcohol in a Gurdwara.

When the Guru Granth Sahib Ji is in your house, it's a Gurdwara

So there is this kind of mentality nowadays where people don't treat It as the Guru

Dhir Mal tells Guru Gobind Singh Ji "If you are the Guru, write it yourself"

If you are the Guru, write it yourself.

That's when Guru Gobind Singh is in Damdama Sahib and recite the entire Guru Granth from memory

So that's the story of Dhir Mal and Baba Gurditta

Just a few other points. We're gonna go into what happened after this, but just some quick other points

Guru Sahib also invented the Taus

In the musician's world, there's a bit of an argument about this

Some people say They didn't invent the Taus, They invented the Dilruba and Guru Gobind Singh made Taus

And some people say They invented the Taus and Guru Gobind Singh made Dilruba

Either way, these to instruments, Dilruba and Taus are very similar

Played the very same way, same kind of tone system. One has got a deeper sound to it, and one is bigger

But look at it. It's called Taus and it means peacock

It literally looks like a peacock, isn't it? It has the head, a tail as well

And it's played with a bow

It's not like the Sitar: the Sitar is plucked, you pluck it with your fingers

This is touched with the bow, it has got frets but it's actually played like this with a bow.

Beautiful beautiful sound if you get a chance listen to it, just type into Youtube Taus

When we cover Kirtan, we are going to listen to Kirtan with all the different instruments.

We will cover that in more detail

The Dilruba is a smaller version of this, it doesn't have the ornate peacock's head and everything else

They don't write any Bani

Somebody asked recently the question "Why did Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji not write any Bani?"

Firstly, Gurus Sahib can do what They like, just as general point. They are perfect, don't make mistakes

So whether they choose to write Bani or not is Their choice, we don't have to question Them

But if you want to know the historical factors, we can just guess

And some of those are that Dhir Mal, the one who was trying to be the next Guru

And don't forget that Prithi Chand is still alive, Prithi Chand's son Miharvan is still alive

(Guru Arjan Dev Ji's brother and his son)

They are now trying to write Bani as well

And there are these Kachi Bani floating around and it's purported to be written by Guru Nanak Dev Ji but it's not

So there is Kachi Bani and Sachi Bani in Siri Guru Granth Sahib Ji,

I believe Guru Sahib didnt' want to cause conflict by writing more Bani

Aad Granth was already made, They just left it as that so no one could claim

Whatever was in there was Sachi Bani, everything that was outside it wasn't

That was a good way of kind of clarifying what was Bani and what wasn't

But what They did is making Aasa Di Vaar a kind of a tradition

The tradition is that now, if you look in Guru Granth Sahib Ji, you see that Aasa Di Vaar is not written with the Chands

If you listen to Aasa Di Vaar those Chands of Guru Ram Das Ji are not in that order in Guru Granth Sahib Ji

But Guru Hargobind Sahib is the person that said that we must sing these Chands with Aasa Di Vaar

What you see is that Aasa Di Vaar is written with Saloks, a Paurri, then you have a Chand, Saloks and Paurri

So those Chands are not in Guru Granth Sahib Ji in the same way, They made that tradition

It should be sung in a Dhuni, a battle beat, it's not like a Raag

Aasa is not in Raag, it's in Dhuni which is a bit

They also do the funeral of Baba Buddha Ji

In 1631 Baba Buddha Ji is 125 years old

He was a Sikh of Guru Nanak, and had their Antim Sanskar, Kirtan Sohila read by Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji

Just a quick quiz, see who is listening. How many Gurus did Baba Buddha Ji know?

Who did they know? Frst six we know, fair enough, then?

Guru Har Rai, obviously, because They are the grandson of Guru Hargobind

They would have been around at that time, 1631 They would have been born

Guru Tegh Bahadur, but not guru Harkrishan Sahib Ji because They were born much later

But they would have known Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji

Bhai Gurdas also passes away

Remember these people helped to build Akaal Takht

He's one of the major Sikh personalities, Bhai Gurdas Ji, the key to Guru Granth Sahib Ji

They do the Sanskar, Guru Sahib Themselves read Kirtan Sohila of these Sikhs

Baba Siri Chand, son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, is still around, even older than Baba Buddha Ji

So some people say he lived up to 140 years old

Now Baba Gurditta Ji passes away as well, who was the next successor

There is a story: at one point the Sangat from Kashmir come down to meet Guru Ji

Sikhs were spread out everywhere

It's an important story because Maharaj says that any poor person's mouth is the Guru's Golak

This is where the story stems from

There was a Sikh who was ill in that journey from Kashmir.

There was another Sikh who was very rich, and he bought this beautiful honey, cultivated

It was a gift for the Guru

The Sikh who was ill heard about his honey and thought it would help him to get better, and asked the other Sikh

According to Sikhi, we are all supposed to be brothers and sisters. Maharaj says:

We are all brothers and sisters in this big family

One brother asks to the other "Please, give me some honey", he says "No, this is not for you, it's for Guru Ji

Who is Guru? That's the question. Maharaj is in the Sikhs

When the rich Sikh goes to meet Guru Ji, Maharaj doesn't accept

They don't accept the honey, They say "I don't want it"

And he is obviously very distraught, I brought it all the way

Maharaj says: "When I asked you for it, you didn't give it to me, I don't want it now"

So be very aware that the Sikhs are the Guru

Maharaj says at that time: Gareeb da Muh, Guru Ki Golak

Also, there was the daughter of a Qazi

Basically there was a lady, Mata Kaulan Ji, who escaped away from her family who were persecuting her

Excuse me

She escaped to Amritsar and she asked Maharaj for help

Maharaj says "I'm not going to marry you because that wouldn't be right" but what they did do is

They said "I'll give you a place to stay"

Maharaj gives her a place right next to Harimandar Sahib

She says "How am I going to have any children? No one is going to marry me now"

Maharaj says to her: "This pool of water, Sarovar, this will be your child"

"All the people that will come here to drink water when they are tired and thirsty, you will be like a mother to them

You will look after them"

Mata Kaulan Ji gets a Kaulsar. Sar means Sarovar.

There is a Sarovar right next to Harimandar Sahib called Kaulsar, and that's after Mata Kaulan Ji

Just a bit of ... history

What happens next then?

As we mentioned, the children of Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji: Baba Atal does a miracle

He brings his friend back to life and then he gets rebuked, feels very sad and gives up his life

So he has passed away

Baba Gurditta is given to Baba Siri Chand, he becomes the head of the Udasi

One of his sons is Dhir Mal, who causes lot of problems and creates his own sect

When you take Amrit, they tell you that you're not meant to associate with Dhirmalias

They are still mentioned

Because Dhir Mal said he was the Guru

And he decided to form his own guruship, so we're not allowed to even talk to these people, the Dhirmalia

The other son was Har Rai, who was a great Sikh

Baba Tegh Bahadur, who was a very brave warrior, chopped people in half

But then He basically goes off into meditation

Maharaj sends him away to go into Bhagti, so They spent 22 years in underground meditation

The other two sons, obviously, we talked about them

They weren't really interested in in the Gurgaddi. Baba Ani Rai and, sorry, I forgot the last one

So the Gurgaddi is given to Har Rai Sahib Ji

They're the only one who is worthy, so far. The're only 14 years old

Guru Sahib became Guru when They were 11

And the Gurgaddi goes to a 14 year old next

So Sikhs were still accepting young Gurus. Guru Arjan Dev Ji might have been 16 as well when became Guru

So it wasn't always a case that, like nowadays,

Sorry to say but mostly youths nowadays aren't really ready for leadership in a sliced

Not only are they not ready for leadership internally, but even themselves,

They don't feel they can take on a responsibility

They're not trained for it

But they are not very confident at all about their faith or about how they can contribute to society

Basically... ?

We go to university, we doze our way through it

No one thinks seriously about serving this faith

Even though thay have got a lot of time when they are young

Imagine doing it now when you're working full time, you have pressure of going up the career ladder etc...

When you're 16, working in ... might be the highest responsibility you might think about

But there's a lot you could do for the Panth when you're 14-16years old. There's a lot you could do

Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji's Joti Jot when They are 51 years old

And in 1644 Satvin Patshah became Guru, Har Rai Sahib Ji

Now, just to remind you, Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji is the grandson of Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji

He's a son of Baba Gurditta Ji. The grandson becomes a Guru

At 51 years old They had a grandson who was 14 years old

Who's the other famous grandson of Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji?

Guru Gobind Singh Ji

Because They have got the same grandfather

There's the other son of Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, and then their son Guru Gobind Singh Ji, so the guru

So Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji and Guru Gobind Singh Ji are cousins, same generation

The ideal would be that when you finish this course, at the very least the Guruship lineage is clear in your head

Then, who is a cousin of the

Guru Harkrishan Sahib Ji

They're a child Guru, 5 to 8 years old

There was a age difference between Tegh Bahadur, youngest son of the 5 brother and the eldest, Baba Gurditta

The Description of TWGC Topic #4 Part B - 5th Guru's Shaheedi and 6th Guru