Practice English Speaking&Listening with: NASA Science Live: Science in the Time of Coronavirus

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[ MUSIC ]

>> OUR PLANET IS FACING

AN UNPRECEDENTED CRISIS

AS WE CONTINUE TO WRESTLE

WITH THE IMPACTS

OF CORONAVIRUS.

WITH ITS UNPARALLELED

TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC

EXPERTISE, NASA HAS

JOINED THE FIGHT

AGAINST THE PANDEMIC.

ON APRIL 1ST, NASA LAUNCHED

AN AGENCY-WIDE CALL FOR IDEAS

FOR HOW WE COULD LEVERAGE

OUR UNMATCHED CAPABILITIES

TO HELP THE NATION

DURING THIS TRYING TIME.

FROM OXYGEN HOODS

TO VENTILATORS,

NASA ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS

HAVE DEVELOPED CONCEPTS

AND WORKED WITH PARTNERS

TO QUICKLY RESPOND

TO THE WORLDWIDE PANDEMIC.

>> HELLO, EVERYONE,

I'M MARINA JURICA WITH NASA'S

JET PROPULSION LABORATORY,

AND WELCOME TO ANOTHER

VIRTUAL EPISODE

OF "NASA SCIENCE LIVE."

TODAY WE ARE TAKING YOU

ACROSS THE COUNTRY

TO HEAR FROM NASA EXPERTS

WHO ARE WORKING TIRELESSLY

TO RESPOND TO THE GLOBAL

COVID-19 PANDEMIC.

FROM SUPERCOMPUTING EFFORTS

AND OXYGEN HELMETS

BEING DEVELOPED IN CALIFORNIA

TO SANITIZING TECHNOLOGIES

DEVELOPED IN OHIO,

HERE ARE SOME OF THE WAYS

NASA HAS CONTRIBUTED

TO HELP COMBAT

THIS GLOBAL HEALTH CRISIS.

LAST MONTH, NASA SPACE APPS

COVID-19 CHALLENGE

INVITED CODERS, ENTREPRENEURS,

SCIENTISTS, DESIGNERS,

STORYTELLERS, BUILDERS,

ARTISTS, AND OTHERS

TO USE DATA FROM NASA

AND OTHER SPACE AGENCIES

TO DESIGN SOLUTIONS

RELATED TO COVID-19.

IN JUST TWO DAYS, MORE THAN

15,000 PEOPLE FROM 150 COUNTRIES

AROUND THE WORLD

REGISTERED TO PARTICIPATE

IN THE GLOBAL HACKATHON

CREATING OVER 1,400 PRODUCTS

RANGING FROM MOBILE APPS,

WEBSITES, MUSIC, ART,

AND MORE.

CHALLENGE WINNERS WILL BE

ANNOUNCED IN AUGUST.

IN THE MEANTIME, YOU CAN VISIT

COVID-19.

SPACEAPPSCHALLENGE.ORG

TO LEARN MORE.

A NASA SUPER COMPUTER

USUALLY USED

FOR EARTH SCIENCE RESEARCH

IS NOW BEING LEVERAGED

TO STUDY COVID-19.

AMONG OTHER PLANS,

TWO RESEARCHERS FROM NASA'S

AMES RESEARCH CENTER

IN CALIFORNIA ARE USING

THE POWERFUL COMPUTER

TO STUDY GENETIC

RISK FACTORS AND MORE.

RESEARCHERS AT NASA'S

LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER

IN VIRGINIA

AND THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE

OF AEROSPACE

ARE LENDING THEIR EXPERTISE

IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE FLOW

OF A PERSON'S BREATH

THROUGH AN N95 MASK.

RESULTS FROM THEIR STUDY

ULTIMATELY COULD HELP

ENGINEERS DESIGN MASK FILTERS

THAT LAST LONGER AND KEEP OUT

MORE HARMFUL PARTICLES.

JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY

IS INCORPORATING

NASA EARTH SCIENCE DATA

SUCH AS TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY,

AND RAINFALL IN ITS ONLINE

COVID-19 DASHBOARD,

A LEADING MODEL

OF CORONAVIRUS SPREAD.

WHILE IT'S TOO SOON

TO DRAW ANY CONNECTIONS

BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

AND THE SPREAD OF COVID-19,

RESEARCHERS SAY THAT

PULLING IN THE FULL ARSENAL

OF NASA EARTH OBSERVATIONS

COULD HELP US LEARN MORE

ABOUT THIS DISEASE.

FOR REGULAR UPDATES ON EFFORTS

AROUND THE AGENCY,

VISIT NASA.GOV/CORONAVIRUS.

WHILE SOME MEMBERS

OF THE NASA FAMILY HAVE

DIRECTED THEIR EFFORTS TO HELP

COMBAT COVID-19 PANDEMIC,

OTHERS CONTINUE TO WORK

ON NASA MISSIONS.

BUT LIKE MANY OTHERS

AROUND THE WORLD,

THEY'RE DOING IT

FROM THEIR HOMES.

>> HI, I'M JANELLE WELLONS

AND I'M AN ENGINEER AT JPL.

>> I'M MIKE [ INDISTINCT ]

AND I'M A SPACE WEATHER

FORECASTER WITH NASA'S

GODDARD SPACEFLIGHT CENTER.

>> HI, EVERYONE,

MY NAME IS INIA SOTO RAMOS.

I AM THE DATA MANAGER

FOR EXPORT AND SVS

AT THE OCEAN ECOLOGY LAB

AT NASA GODDARD.

>> I'M ARMIN SOROOSHIAN.

>> MY NAME IS

MAMTA PATEL NAGARAJA.

>> I'M JORI,

AND I'M THE LIVE PRODUCER,

DIRECTOR FOR NASA HEADQUARTERS.

>> HI, MY NAME IS [ INDISTINCT ]

AND I WORK ON THE MARS

PERSEVERANCE ROVER.

>> I'M STEPHANIE OIJ,

AND I WORK AT

NASA JPL AS A MARS

CURIOSITY ROVER DRIVER.

>> LOOK, YOU CAN EVEN SEE

A SMALL ERUPTION

THAT'S GOING ON AS WE SPEAK.

>> AND, I COULDN'T GET AWAY

WITHOUT MENTIONING

MY FURRY PAL, LUNA.

>> ACROSS THE HOUSE IS

MY COWORKER,

WHO'S BUSY PLAYING TOYS

MOST OF THE DAYS.

>> SO, THIS IS MY DESK SETUP.

I AM IN MY LOFT,

WORKING ON A YARD SALE TABLE.

I AM MONITORING

THE SOCIAL MEDIA ACCOUNT

FOR THE NANCY GRACE ROMAN

SPACE TELESCOPE

WHILE ALSO MAKING SOME EDITS

TO SOME POSSIBLE SOCIAL PIECES.

>> I WOULD LIKE TO GIVE YOU

A QUICK TOUR OF VIRTUAL EXHIBIT.

HERE WE ARE AT THE LOBBY

OF AMERICAN

ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY.

>> IN THE KITCHEN

IS MY SECOND COWORKER,

WHO'S BUSY IN A ZOOM MEETING.

>> AT JPL, I WORK ON

THE AUTONOMY

FOR MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS,

LIKE THESE SMALL-SCALE ROVERS

CALLED PUFFERS RIGHT HERE,

WHICH WORK TOGETHER AS A TEAM

TO EXPLORE THE MOON

AND OTHER PLACES.

NORMALLY WE WOULD BE AT JPL

TESTING OUT IN THE MARS YARD,

BUT THESE DAYS

WE'RE TESTING RIGHT HERE

IN MY BACKYARD.

>> HERE WE CAN DO ALL

OF OUR ROBOTIC TEST PLANNING

FROM RIGHT HERE IN MY KITCHEN

WITH SOME FUN DECORATIONS.

>> AND YOU CAN SEE,

WHILE I'M WORKING FROM HOME,

I DO HAVE

SOME NEW COWORKERS.

THERE'S LOTS OF DANCING,

LOTS OF LAUGHTER,

SOMETIMES CRYING,

THEIRS AND MINE.

BUT WE'RE GETTING

THROUGH THESE TIMES.

>> HI.

>> TO DO OPERATIONS REMOTELY

WE WEAR TWO HEADSETS.

ON ONE EAR WE TALK

TO THE OTHER ROVER PLANNERS,

AND ON THE OTHER EAR IS

THE REST OF THE UPLINK TEAM.

ELLIE SEEMS TO LIKE MY NEW LOOK.

>> THE PRE-PLANNING WAS DONE

FROM RIGHT HERE.

AND THIS IS MY HOME OFFICE.

IT'S ALSO MY PERSONAL

CREATIVE SPACE.

AS EVIDENCE-- [ LAUGHING ]

THAT'S ONE OF MY PAINTINGS.

>> I GOT TO KEEP MY VOICE DOWN

A LITTLE BIT,

BECAUSE MY OTHER COWORKER

IS ON A TELECON.

>> WORKING FROM HOME

IS DEFINITELY DIFFERENT,

BUT AT LEAST

I GET TO ENJOY SMALL PERKS

LIKE GETTING TO WEAR

MY GAMING HEADSET EACH DAY.

>> IT'S BEEN A CHALLENGE

WORKING AT HOME.

IT'S BEEN DIFFERENT.

SORT OF A BLESSING IN DISGUISE,

BECAUSE I GET TO SPEND

MORE TIME WITH MY FAMILY.

BUT I HAVE MORE DUTIES AT HOME

AS A FATHER, SINCE WE DON'T

HAVE DAYCARE ANYMORE

SO IT'S A LITTLE BIT MORE

CHALLENGING TO DO MY WORK.

BUT IT'S ALL FUN SPENDING TIME

WITH THIS LITTLE GUY.

>> I AM OUTSIDE ENJOYING

THE NICE WEATHER

WITH MY NEW COWORKER

WHO IS CLEANING A LITTLE BIT.

AND WHILE I WORK

WITH SOME DATA FOR SVS--

HERE'S SOME OF THE DATA

I'M WORKING WITH RIGHT NOW,

I'M MAKING SURE THE DATA

IS CLEAN AND READY

TO BE ACHIEVED.

>> I DO LONG FOR THE DAY

FOR WHEN WE CAN

RETURN TO NORMAL,

BUT FOR NOW WE'RE PERSEVERING

THROUGH THIS PANDEMIC

AND WORKING HARD TO ENSURE

THE SUCCESS OF OUR LAUNCH.

>> WELL, THAT'S IT.

SO I'M LOOKING FORWARD

TO WORKING WITH EVERYONE

IN-PERSON AGAIN SOON.

>> WE'VE ALL HAD TO ADAPT

TO OUR WORK SPACES AT HOME.

AND I HAD TO MAKE A TV STUDIO

ON TOP OF MY CHINA CABINET,

AS YOU CAN SEE HERE,

AND MY SON LOVES

TO BRING THE DINOSAURS

INTO THE LIVING ROOM--

>> HI.

>> TO MAKE SURE THAT WE ARE

ALL HAVING THE BEST TIME

WE POSSIBLY CAN

ALL UNDER ONE ROOF.

AND TODAY WE'RE JOINED

BY AN ENGINEER WHO HAS BEEN

WORKING WITH SEVERAL PARTNERS

TO BUILD A MEDICAL DEVICE

TO HELP CORONAVIRUS PATIENTS

WITH THEIR EARLY SYMPTOMS.

>> WE'RE HERE TODAY DOING

SOME OF THE ASSEMBLY

OF THE OXYGEN PRESSURE HOODS.

WE'VE GOT A WHOLE BUNCH

OF TABLES SET UP, SPACED APART.

A COLLABORATION BETWEEN TSE

AND NASA EMPLOYEES

COMING TOGETHER

AND ASSEMBLING THESE

IN SORT OF LIKE

A PRODUCTION LINE SETUP.

YOU CAN SEE AT EACH

DIFFERENT STATION

THERE'S SOMETHING ELSE

KIND OF GOING ON.

WE ARE LOOKING IN THE END

TO PRODUCE ABOUT 500 HOODS.

SO FAR THINGS ARE GOING

PRETTY WELL.

YOU CAN SEE WE HAVE A HOOD HERE.

IT'S ABOUT HALFWAY DONE

AND IT'LL BE JUMPING THROUGH

A COUPLE MORE STATIONS

IN ORDER TO PUT THE SEAL

ON THE BOTTOM, ADD STRAPS,

AND THEN ULTIMATELY DO

A QUALITY INSPECTION

ON THE UNIT.

>> MIKE BUTTIGIEG,

WELCOME TO THE SHOW

>> HI, MARINA, THANK YOU

FOR HAVING ME.

>> NOW, MIKE,

YOUR TEAM AT ARMSTRONG

FLIGHT RESEARCH CENTER

HAS PARTNERED WITH

ANTELOPE VALLEY HOSPITAL,

THE CITY OF LANCASTER,

VIRGIN GALACTIC,

THE SPACESHIP COMPANY,

AND ANTELOPE VALLEY COLLEGE

TO CREATE THESE

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS

FOR POSSIBLE SHORTAGES

OF CRITICAL MEDICAL EQUIPMENT.

AND YOU ARE INVOLVED

IN AN EFFORT TO BUILD

A PROTOTYPE OXYGEN HELMET

THAT DOCTORS ARE TESTING

FOR FUTURE USE.

CAN YOU TELL US EXACTLY WHAT

A POSITIVE PRESSURE HOOD IS?

I UNDERSTAND

IT'S LIKE A CPAP HELMET.

HOW DOES IT HELP PATIENTS

THAT HAVE COVID-19?

>> SURE, THE CPAP HELMET WORKS

ESSENTIALLY BY HAVING

AN ENCLOSED SPACE

OVER A PATIENT'S HEAD.

DOING THIS DOES

THREE MAJOR THINGS FOR US.

SO, THE FIRST IS THAT

BY ENCAPSULATING

THE PERSON'S HEAD,

WE'RE ABLE TO PRESSURIZE IT,

AND BY PRESSURIZING THE BAG,

WE'RE ABLE TO INFLATE

THE PERSON'S LUNGS.

SO, AS YOU CAN IMAGINE WITH--

WHEN A PATIENT HAS COVID-19,

THEIR-- THE LUNG CAPACITY

IS REDUCED.

SO, BY PRESSURIZING THEIR LUNGS,

WE MAKE THE REMAINING AREA

OF THOSE LUNGS

TO BE MORE EFFECTIVE

THAN IF IT WAS NOT PRESSURIZED.

THE SECOND MAJOR POINT IS

WE'RE ABLE TO THEN

TAKE THAT ENCLOSED SPACE

AND ALSO FILL IT UP

WITH PURE OXYGEN.

SO, BY FILLING IT UP

WITH PURE OXYGEN,

WE'RE ABLE TO EVEN--

WE'RE ABLE TO TAKE THAT

REMAINING SPACE IN THE LUNGS

AND TAKE IT EVEN FURTHER.

THIS AGAIN, FURTHER INCREASES

THE RECOVERY ABILITY

OF A COVID PATIENT.

LAST AND VERY IMPORTANT POINT

OF HAVING THIS HELMET

IS THAT THERE'S A SEAL

AROUND THE NECK,

AND IT PREVENTS ANY AIR

FROM ESCAPING THE PERSON

AS THEY'RE BREATHING.

SO, THERE IS

AN EXHALATION VALVE

WHICH IS FILTERED,

SO ALL THE COVID AIR

IS TRAPPED BEFORE IT LEAVES

THE PATIENT'S HELMET.

>> NOW AS YOU SAID,

IT TAKES A VILLAGE, MIKE,

AND YOU ALL HAD AN IDEA,

BUT IT WAS A HUGE

COLLABORATIVE EFFORT.

HOW DID YOU ALL WORK TOGETHER

FROM SO MANY DIFFERENT PLACES?

>> SURE. SO, WE HAD A TEAM

PUT TOGETHER BY ONE OF THE MAJOR

AEROSPACE COMPANIES HERE.

IT WAS COMPRISED OF, AGAIN,

OTHER AEROSPACE COMPANIES,

A LOCAL COLLEGE, A HOSPITAL,

AND CITY LEADERSHIP.

SO, THERE--

WHEN WE ALL CAME TOGETHER,

IT WAS VERY QUICKLY

WE'RE ABLE TO KIND OF UNDERSTAND

THE SAME LANGUAGE

AS MANY OF US WERE ENGINEERS

OR VERY FOCUSED

ON A VERY SPECIFIC GOAL.

SO, WHAT MADE

THE TEAM SO EFFECTIVE

IS NOT SO MUCH THE IDEAS

THAT HAVE COME OUT OF THEM.

OBVIOUSLY, THOSE ARE

VERY IMPORTANT,

BUT IT'S THE CULMINATION

OF ALL THE PLAYERS

THAT MAKE IT A VERY IMPACTFUL

TYPE OF MISSION.

SO, WHAT I MEAN BY THAT IS

THAT IF YOU HAVE A GREAT IDEA,

IT'S LIKE, OKAY, WELL,

HOW DO WE-- HOW DO WE GROW THAT

TO IMPACT OUR CITY

OR OUR STATE OR OUR COUNTRY

OR EVEN THE WORLD.

IN ORDER TO DO THAT,

WE HAVE TO HAVE PEOPLE

FROM MANY DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES

THAT ARE ABLE TO PROVIDE

THOSE MAJOR KEY POINTS.

SO THAT MIGHT BE, YOU KNOW,

YOU HAVE INVENTORS,

YOU HAVE IMPLEMENTERS,

YOU HAVE FUNDING MANAGERS,

YOU HAVE LAWYERS,

YOU HAVE DOCTORS,

SO YOU HAVE ALL THOSE DIFFERENT

TYPES OF PEOPLE ON THE TEAM

THAT ARE ABLE TO MAKE

A REALLY BIG DIFFERENCE.

THE LAST POINT I WANT TO MAKE

IS THAT IT'S--

WITH ANY EFFECTIVE TEAM,

YOU NEED TO HAVE A COMMON GOAL.

OBVIOUSLY, THE COMMON GOAL HERE

IS HELPING COVID PATIENTS.

AND SO, WHEN YOU-- WHEN A TEAM

SHARES SUCH A STRONG GOAL,

THE POSSIBILITIES ARE ENDLESS

WITH HOW MUCH YOU CAN HELP.

>> THAT'S AMAZING WHEN

EVERYONE CAN COME TOGETHER

WITH THAT ONE COMMON GOAL.

AND YOU SAID IT'S

A VERY SIMPLE DEVICE,

BUT IT REQUIRES

EXTENSIVE TESTING.

IT'S TAKING OVER

A LOT OF YOUR TIME.

>> IT SURE HAS.

ABOUT TWO MONTHS OF MY LIFE

WAS PRETTY MUCH DEDICATED

TO DEVELOPING THIS HOOD.

>> AND WE'VE ALL HAD TO GET

A LITTLE CREATIVE WITH OUR WORK

AND AT-HOME SPACES.

I KNOW EARLIER I SHOWED YOU

THAT I HAD TO TURN

MY LIVING ROOM INTO A TV STUDIO,

AND IT LOOKS LIKE

I'M TALKING TO YOU

FROM A GARAGE.

IS THAT YOUR HOME LAB?

>> IT IS.

THIS IS THE GARAGE

WHERE I SPENT A LOT OF MY TIME

DEVELOPING THE HOODS

AND DOING SOME TESTING,

AND IT'S WORKED OUT GREAT.

>> IT LOOKS REALLY GREAT,

AND YOU WERE ABLE TO HAVE

A LOT OF THE THINGS

THAT YOU NEED RIGHT THERE

ON HAND, WHICH IS GREAT.

>> ABSOLUTELY.

>> WELL, THANK YOU SO MUCH

FOR JOINING US TODAY, MIKE.

>> THANK YOU, MARINA.

>> AND NASA EMPLOYEES

MET THE NEED

WITH A SPEED OF RESPONSE,

AND AEROSPACE VALLEY TASK FORCE

STEPPED UP TO THE PLATE WITH

NOT ONLY THESE OXYGEN HOODS,

THEY'VE WORKED ON

PROTECTIVE ENCLOSURES,

SAFE OXYGEN

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS,

AND 3D PRINTING

FOR MASS PRODUCTION

OF LOW-COST MEDICAL NEEDS

JUST TO NAME A FEW

AS THEY CONTINUE TO MOVE

FORWARD IN THIS EFFORT.

ANOTHER URGENCY

IS TO SUPPLY VENTILATORS,

AND IT HAS BECOME A TOP PRIORITY

TO MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS

ACROSS THE COUNTRY,

BUT ALSO TO NASA'S

JET PROPULSION LABORATORY.

THEIR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS

HAVE EMBARKED ON A MISSION

TO HELP PROVIDE A SOLUTION

TO THE NATIONWIDE

VENTILATOR SHORTAGE.

LET'S TAKE A LOOK.

>> WE ARE DESIGNING AN EASY

AND RAPIDLY MASS MANUFACTUREABLE

VENTILATOR DEVICE,

AND IT IS A CRAZY PROJECT.

>> THIS CRISIS IS UNPRECEDENTED

IN OUR LIVES,

AND IT REQUIRES

UNPRECEDENTED ACTION.

>> I'M SO AMPED UP.

I MEAN, IT REALLY--

THE ADRENALINE RUSH.

IT'S EXCITING,

BUT IT'S EXHAUSTING,

AND I THINK WE ALL JUST WANT

TO DO EVERYTHING WE CAN

TO TRY TO HELP.

>> ARE YOU READY?

>> YEAH.

[ WHIRRING ]

>> OH, VERY COOL.

THAT'S AWESOME.

>> I WOULD SAY,

THE BIGGEST PERSONAL CHALLENGES

THAT I HAVE MYSELF

IS THAT I DON'T

HAVE TIME TO SLEEP.

>> I THINK THAT WHAT JPL

BRINGS TO THE TABLE

IS EXTRAORDINARY TALENT.

IT ALSO BRINGS TO THE TABLE

TREMENDOUS INNOVATION.

THE THIRD THING

IT BRINGS TO THE TABLE

IS TREMENDOUS FOCUS.

THE OTHER THING THAT I FELT,

I SEE IT IN OUR TEAM,

AND THAT IS A CALL TO DUTY.

I HAVE THIS TALENT,

I'M AN ENGINEER OR A SCIENTIST,

I CAN DO SOMETHING.

>> WE HAVE THE POTENTIAL

TO SAVE HUMAN LIVES,

PEOPLE THAT WE MIGHT KNOW,

OUR NEIGHBORS, OUR FAMILIES.

AND THAT INTENSITY?

UM... AMAZING.

IT'S AMAZING.

AND AS STRESSFUL,

AS IT'S BEEN FOR EVERYBODY

IN THE LAST COUPLE OF WEEKS,

NOT ONE OF US CAN STOP.

[ MUSIC ]

>> TEAMS AT JPL HAVE CREATED

ADDITIONAL PRODUCTS

SUCH AS RESPIRATORS

AND EVEN AN INFRARED PENDANT

TO WARN YOU NOT

TO TOUCH YOUR FACE

AND HAVE MADE THOSE

OPEN-SOURCE ON GITHUB

FOR THE COMMUNITY

TO BUILD AND REFINE.

AS YOU CAN SEE, EVERYONE

WANTS TO DO THEIR PART.

AS NASA ENGINEERS

AND SCIENTISTS ARE STUDYING

WHAT CAN BE DONE TO FURTHER

AID COVID-19 PATIENTS,

THEY ALSO ARE CONDUCTING

RESEARCH TO SEE HOW

WE CAN FURTHER MINIMIZE

THE SPREAD OF THE VIRUSES

IN SPACES SUCH AS AMBULANCES

AND HOSPITALS.

WE'RE JOINED BY MARIT MAYER,

A RESEARCHER AT NASA'S

GLENN RESEARCH CENTER

IN CLEVELAND

WHO IS WORKING

WITH A PRIVATE COMPANY

TO DEVELOP AN AEROSOL PRODUCT

THAT COULD DISINFECT

ENCLOSED SPACES

LIKE CLASSROOMS AND OFFICES.

MARIT, THANK YOU SO MUCH

FOR JOINING US.

>> IT'S GOOD TO BE HERE

THANK YOU.

>> AND YOU ARE JOINING US

FROM A LITTLE BIT

OF A NOISY LOCATION,

A HOME TO YOU, THOUGH, FOR SURE.

>> YES, I'M IN THE LABORATORY

HERE AT GLENN RESEARCH CENTER,

AND THE VENTILATION SYSTEM

IS VERY LOUD,

BUT THAT'S AN IMPORTANT PART

OF OUR SAFETY PROTOCOLS

SO I CAN'T TURN IT OFF, SORRY.

>> OH, NO, NO PROBLEM AT ALL.

NOW YOU'RE AN AEROSOL EXPERT.

IT'S PRETTY FASCINATING.

CAN YOU EXPLAIN A LITTLE BIT

ABOUT WHAT THAT MEANS,

AND WHY IT'S COME

INTO THE LIMELIGHT DURING

THIS FIGHT AGAINST COVID-19?

>> I ALWAYS TELL PEOPLE

THAT AEROSOLS ARE

TINY PARTICLES IN AIR,

AND MOST PEOPLE HAVE USUALLY

ASSOCIATED THE WORD "AEROSOL"

WITH DEODORANT OR HAIRSPRAY.

SO, I'VE BEEN EDUCATING PEOPLE,

BUT NOW THAT WE HAVE A PANDEMIC,

AND PEOPLE ARE BECOMING AWARE

OF DROPLETS COMING OUT

OF THEIR MOUTHS

WHEN THEY BREATH,

WHEN THEY TALK.

THEN EVERYONE HAS

A HIGHER AWARENESS,

AND PEOPLE ARE BEGINNING

TO KNOW WHAT THE WORD

"AEROSOL" REALLY MEANS,

AND EVERYONE

IN THE AEROSOL COMMUNITY

IS STEPPING UP TO EDUCATE

THE WORLD ABOUT WHAT WE KNOW.

>> AND, MARIT,

IT'S ALL ABOUT EDUCATION.

THAT'S SO IMPORTANT

SO WE UNDERSTAND.

NOW YOU ARE WORKING

ON A DISINFECTANT FOGGER.

YOUR WORK WITH

THE LIFE SUPPORT

SYSTEMS PROGRAM

ADDRESSES THE AIR QUALITY

IN REALLY TIGHT QUARTERS

LIKE THE INTERNATIONAL

SPACE STATION.

HOW DO YOU THINK

THAT RESEARCH THERE

WILL HELP YOU WHEN YOU DEVELOP

THIS PARTICULAR FOGGER?

>> SO, WHEN I STARTED LOOKING

INTO THE AIR QUALITY

ON THE SPACE STATION,

I STARTED BY DOING AN INVENTORY

OF WHAT I BELIEVED

WERE THE POLLUTANT PARTICLES

THAT WERE FLOATING

AROUND UP THERE

FOR THE ASTRONAUTS TO BREATHE.

AND I DID AN INVENTORY,

WHICH STARTED WITH A TABLE

FROM THE SPACE SHUTTLE ERA,

AND THEY HAD LISTED COUGH

AND SNEEZE DROPLETS.

AT THAT TIME, I DIDN'T THINK

THAT WAS A VERY IMPORTANT

SOURCE OF AEROSOLS

IN THE TIGHT QUARTERS

OF THE SPACE STATION.

HOWEVER, NOW THAT WE'VE

HAD A PANDEMIC,

I SEE COUGH AND SNEEZE DROPLETS

COMPLETELY DIFFERENTLY.

IT REALLY IS IMPORTANT TO

UNDERSTAND HOW THEY TRANSPORT,

HOW LONG THEY LAST

BEFORE THEY EVAPORATE.

THEY CAN ALL BE CARRYING

VIABLE VIRUSES THAT--

IF THEY ARE EXHALED FROM

AN INFECTED PERSON FOR EXAMPLE.

SO, THE DISINFECTANT FOGGER

THAT WE'RE GOING TO BE

WORKING WITH HERE

IS A WAY TO GET RID OF ALL

OF THE POLLUTANT PARTICLES

THAT HAVE LIFE,

ANY KIND OF VIABLE VIRUS,

OR BACTERIA IN IT,

AND WE'RE WORKING WITH

THE SECOND GENERATION

OF THIS FOGGER,

HELPING THE COMPANY

OPTIMIZE THE SETTINGS.

I'M GOING TO MEASURE

THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION

TO UNDERSTAND THE FATE

AND TRANSPORT OF THESE DROPLETS

AND HOW MUCH WE NEED

OF THE DISINFECTANT TO DISPERSE

TO BE ABLE TO DISINFECT

LARGE SPACES SUCH AS CLASSROOMS,

PLACES OF WORSHIP,

CONCERT VENUES, ET CETERA.

>> YES, I REMEMBER

YOU TELLING ME

THIS IS MUCH MORE POWERFUL,

THIS SECOND-GENERATION FOGGER.

AND YOU MENTIONED

YOUR PARTNERING

WITH THE EMERGENCY PRODUCT

AND RESEARCH TEAM,

AND YOU'D LIKE TO GET

THIS PROTOTYPE CHEAP ENOUGH

FOR ALL CUSTOMERS

AND GET PEOPLE BACK TO WORK.

THAT'S BEEN SUCH A HUGE EFFORT.

WHY DO YOU THINK THIS PRODUCT

IS GOING TO HELP

KEEP THE ECONOMY

OR AT LEAST GET THE ECONOMY

UP AND RUNNING AGAIN?

>> WELL WE'VE ALL BEEN

SHELTERING IN PLACE,

AND IT'S BEEN VERY DIFFICULT,

AND NOW WE'RE BEGINNING

TO BE ABLE TO GO OUT

AND BE IN PUBLIC SPACES AGAIN.

AND PEOPLE NEED

TO HAVE CONFIDENCE

THAT THESE SPACES ARE CLEAN.

WE HAVE TO CLEAN IN NEW WAYS

THAT WE NEVER CLEANED BEFORE,

AND THIS DISINFECTANT FOGGER

CAN BE USED INEXPENSIVELY

IN ANY KIND OF BUSINESS.

AND IT'S REALLY GREAT TO BE ABLE

TO HELP KIND OF WITH THE EFFORT

TO GET AMERICA UP

AND RUNNING AGAIN,

TO GET BUSINESSES OPEN,

AND HAVE PEOPLE FEEL COMFORTABLE

GOING OUT IN PUBLIC AGAIN.

AND I HAVE A GREAT TEAM

OF COLLEAGUES HERE AT NASA GLENN

IN MY BRANCH THAT ARE HELPING ME

WITH THIS EXCITING WORK,

AND WE'RE-- WE JUST ARE

HAPPY TO BE ABLE

TO MAKE A CONTRIBUTION,

AND THIS IS A REGIONAL COMPANY,

A REGIONAL PROJECT,

BUT IT REALLY HAS

THE POTENTIAL TO HELP

EVERYONE IN AMERICA

AND IN THE WORLD AS WELL.

>> THAT'S SO AMAZING, MARIT,

AND CONSUMER CONFIDENCE

IS SO IMPORTANT,

ESPECIALLY AS WE TRY

TO GO BACK TO NORMAL.

AND YOU'VE HAD TO GET

A LITTLE BIT CREATIVE

AS YOU HAVE BEEN WORKING.

I'M SO GLAD YOU GOT TO GO BACK

TO YOUR LAB NOW,

BUT YOU HAD TO BE

A LITTLE CREATIVE OVER

THE LAST FEW WEEKS, DIDN'T YOU?

>> YES, I DID,

AND WHEN WE FIRST GOT

THE DISINFECTANT FOGGER

FROM THE COMPANY,

WE HAD TO MEET IN A PAVILION

IN MY NEIGHBORHOOD PARK,

AND MY TEAM WAS THERE,

AND OUR CONTACT GAVE US

A DEMONSTRATION AND EXPLAINED

THE WHOLE SYSTEM

OUT IN THE PAVILION

WHILE IT WAS RAINING

CATS AND DOGS AROUND US.

SO, THAT WAS, LIKE, A KIND OF

A MAKESHIFT ARRANGEMENT,

BUT AT THE TIME WE HAD TO GET

THIS COMMUNICATION DONE.

AND BEING OUT IN THE OPEN,

IT'S GREAT BECAUSE, YOU KNOW,

WE HAD A LOT OF FRESH AIR TO

DISPERSE OUR EXHALED AEROSOLS.

>> A SCIENTIST LIKE YOU,

MARIT, THAT JUST WANT

TO GET THE JOB DONE

AND MAKE A GLOBAL INFLUENCE.

AND THANK YOU SO MUCH

AND GOOD LUCK WITH

YOUR CONTINUED RESEARCH.

>> THANKS, IT'S BEEN GREAT

TALKING TO YOU, MARINA.

>> YOU, TOO.

NOW THIS HAS TRULY BEEN

REWARDING WORK.

AND SPEAKING OF OUR PLANET,

AS PEOPLE ACROSS THE GLOBE

ARE RESPONDING

TO THE IMPLICATIONS OF COVID-19,

MANY OF US HAVE CHANGED

OUR DAILY HABITS,

INCLUDING HOW MUCH WE TRAVEL.

THESE CHANGES ARE HAVING

AN IMPACT ON OUR PLANET,

AND NASA SCIENTISTS ARE

MONITORING OUR GLOBE'S RESPONSE

TO THESE UNUSUAL TIMES.

I'M JOINED WITH BARRY LEFER,

A NASA AIR QUALITY SCIENTIST

TO GET SOME PERSPECTIVE

ON WHAT RECENT EARTH DATA

IS TELLING US.

THANK YOU SO MUCH

FOR JOINING US TODAY, BARRY.

>> THANK YOU, IT'S MY PLEASURE

TO TALK TO YOU TODAY

>> NOW, BARRY, TELL US MORE

ABOUT THE CHANGES

THAT WE'RE SEEING

ACROSS THE PLANET

IN THE RECENT MONTHS

SINCE THESE STAY-AT-HOME EFFORTS

HAVE BEEN IN PLACE.

IT'S VERY UNUSUAL,

SO HAVE THERE BEEN ANY CHANGES

IN THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE OR,

SAY, THE EARTH'S AIR QUALITY?

>> YES, THERE HAVE.

WE'VE DONE THIS

UNINTENDED GLOBAL EXPERIMENT

BY REDUCING THE TRANSPORTATION--

THAT'S AUTOMOBILES

AND AIRCRAFT.

THESE STAY-AT-HOME ORDERS,

AND NASA HAS-- NASA SATELLITES

ARE SAMPLING DAY AND NIGHT

AROUND THE WORLD.

AND SO EVEN THOUGH OUR ACTIVITY

HAS BEEN DECREASED,

THE ABILITY TO OBSERVE

THESE CHANGES HASN'T,

AND WE SEEN DRAMATIC REDUCTIONS

IN THE POLLUTANTS BEING EMITTED

FROM THESE ACTIVITIES.

INITIALLY IN CHINA AND ITALY,

AND THEN AS THE STAY-AT-HOME

ORDER SPREAD

TO OTHER COUNTRIES,

IN THE UNITED STATES

AND MOST RECENTLY

IN SOUTH AMERICA.

>> AND THESE HAVE BEEN

REALLY TRYING TIMES,

BUT YOU'RE LEARNING

SO MUCH ABOUT IT,

AND AS FOLKS CONTINUE

TO STAY AT HOME,

AND YOU CONTINUE TO DECIPHER

THROUGH MORE AND MORE OF

THIS DATA IN THE COMING MONTHS,

WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNT

FROM WHERE WE'VE SEEN SO FAR

AND HOW ARE WE GOING TO USE

THIS MATERIAL TO MOVE FORWARD

INTO THE FUTURE?

>> YEAH, WE'RE TRYING

TO MAKE THE BEST

OF THIS BAD SITUATION,

SO WE'RE MAKING--

WE'RE TAKING THESE LEMONS

AND MAKING LEMONADE OUT OF IT.

AND WE'VE SEEN THAT

WHAT WE UNDERSTAND

ABOUT AIR POLLUTION,

IT'S REALLY TESTING OUR ABILITY

TO SEE HOW WELL CAN WE FORECAST

AIR POLLUTION, HOW WELL--

AND IT ALSO HIGHLIGHTS

HOW PEOPLE'S ACTIONS

REALLY MAKE A LARGE DIFFERENCE.

JUST BY NOT DRIVE-- BY THINKING

ABOUT TAKING A TRIP --

DO YOU REALLY NEED

TO TAKE THAT TRIP?

I LEARNED THAT I DON'T

HAVE TO GO TO WORK EVERY DAY,

THAT I CAN DO A LOT OF THE STUFF

THAT I NORMALLY DO

JUST FROM HOME,

AND IN THE PROCESS

POLLUTING LESS.

AND SO, ALL THESE ADVANTAGES,

ALL THESE THINGS THAT WE DO

THAT EMIT LESS AIR POLLUTION

ALSO EMIT LESS CO2,

AND SO THERE'S

A CLIMATE BENEFIT AS WELL.

>> IT'S FASCINATING TO SEE

THIS DIRECT CORRELATION,

AND WHAT I THINK IS SO KEY

IS THE EDUCATION,

AND NASA AND ITS PARTNERS

ARE PUTTING TOGETHER

THIS INCREDIBLE DASHBOARD

IN A BROWSER

SO EVERYONE CAN SEE

THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

OF STAYING AT HOME.

HOW DO YOU THINK THAT THIS

WILL HELP EDUCATE PEOPLE

ABOUT THEIR PERSONAL

ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT?

>> YEAH, THIS IS REALLY

A UNIQUE OPPORTUNITY.

WE CAN HARNESS

ALL THE CAPABILITIES

OF OUR INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS

WORKING TOGETHER.

THE DIFFERENT SPACE AGENCIES

MEASURE DIFFERENT THINGS,

AND BY PUTTING THIS

JOINT DASHBOARD TOGETHER,

OUR HOPE IS PEOPLE WILL BE ABLE

TO SEE HOW THE THINGS

THEY DO EVERY DAY

DO MAKE A DIFFERENCE.

IT'S EASY TO BE OVERWHELMED

BY THESE REALLY LARGE

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS,

BUT IT TURNS OUT

YOUR DAY-TO-DAY ACTIVITIES

REALLY DO MATTER.

AND IT'S NOT JUST DRIVING

IN YOUR CAR

OR TAKING AIR TRAVEL,

BUT ALSO WHERE YOU GET

YOUR ELECTRICITY FROM.

AND SO, THIS-THIS

UNINTENDED EXPERIMENT

HAS HELPED US UNDERSTAND

HOW WELL WE-- HOW IMPORTANT

OUR DAILY DECISIONS ARE,

AND HOW WE CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE

AND IMPROVE THE PLANET.

>> AND, BARRY, WHAT A LOT

OF PEOPLE DON'T UNDERSTAND

IS THAT AIR POLLUTION

CAN HAVE A DRASTIC EFFECT

ON PEOPLE WORLDWIDE.

>> YOU'RE RIGHT.

MORE THAN 7 MILLION PEOPLE

DIE EVERY YEAR

FROM AIR POLLUTION

RELATED ILLNESSES,

AND THE-- MILLIONS MORE

HAVE REACTIONS TO AIR POLLUTION

SUCH AS ASTHMA.

AND SO, THOSE PEOPLE

ARE SEEING-- THERE'S PEOPLE

THAT ARE SENSITIVE

TO AIR POLLUTION

ARE NOTICING THAT

THEY'RE BREATHING EASIER,

AND IT'S GREAT THAT SOME CITIES

NOW HAVE STARTED TO BLOCK OFF

SOME OF THEIR STREETS TO TRAFFIC

AND HAVING MORE OPPORTUNITIES

FOR BIKING AND OTHER FORMS

OF WALKING THROUGH

THEIR URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS

IN WAYS THEY HADN'T BEEN

ABLE TO DO UNTIL NOW.

>> OH, I KNOW MY COLLEAGUES

AND I HAVE SAID THAT AS WELL.

JUST WALKING AROUND

OUR NEIGHBORHOOD WE GET TO SEE

SO MANY BEAUTIFUL THINGS

THAT WE WOULDN'T HAVE HAD

A CHANCE TO OTHERWISE.

SO, LIKE YOU SAID, MAKING LEMONS

OUT INTO LEMONADE,

SO, BARRY, THANK YOU SO MUCH

FOR JOINING US TODAY

>> THANK YOU, IT'S MY PLEASURE.

>> HUMANS ARE CONNECTED THROUGH

EARTH'S VIVID BLUE OCEANS,

LUSH GREEN LANDS,

AND THE HUMAN EXPERIENCES

WE SHARE TOGETHER

ON OUR PLANET.

HOWEVER, WE ARE NOW CONNECTED

BY A GREATER COMMONALITY--

THE SHARED GOAL

TO FIGHT CORONAVIRUS.

HERE AT NASA WE REACH

FOR NEW HEIGHTS

AND REVEAL THE UNKNOWN

FOR THE BENEFIT OF HUMANKIND.

WE ARE ALL IN THIS TOGETHER.

WE ASKED SOME OF OUR NASA FAMILY

TO SHARE A FEW WORDS

ABOUT WHAT INSPIRED THEM

TO WORK ON THESE PROJECTS.

>> HI, EVERYONE.

>> MY NAME IS SARAH HEMMINGS.

>> MY NAME IS YVONNE IVEY.

>> MY NAME IS [ INDISTINCT ]

>> MY NAME IS [ INDISTINCT ]

>> MY NAME IS MICHELLE EASTER.

>> MY NAME IS SHOBHANA GUPTA.

THIS PANDEMIC HAS AFFECTED

EACH AND EVERY ONE OF US

IN UNIQUE AND CHALLENGING WAYS.

I AM VERY INSPIRED

TO SEE PEOPLE FROM DIFFERENT

BACKGROUNDS COMING TOGETHER

AND SHARING THEIR IDEAS,

CREATIVITY, AND TALENTS

TO FIND SOLUTIONS TOGETHER.

>> BECAUSE I BELIEVE

THAT MASS COLLABORATION

CAN SOLVE SOME

OF THE MOST PRESSING ISSUES

WE FACE ON EARTH.

>> WE CAN ACTUALLY DO SOMETHING

AS SCIENTISTS,

AND GLOBALLY EVERYONE

CAN COME TOGETHER

TO SOLVE THIS PROBLEM

AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE.

IT'S A GREAT FEELING

TO BE PART OF SOMETHING THAT

COULD POTENTIALLY EXPEDIATE

AND HELP FIND A CURE QUICKER

THAN POSSIBLE INDIVIDUALLY.

>> IT'S BEEN AN INCREDIBLE

EXPERIENCE TO WORK

WITH THESE SCIENTISTS

AND CONTENT DEVELOPERS

ACROSS ALL OF THE AGENCIES,

AND I'M EXTREMELY EXCITED

FOR OTHERS TO SEE

HOW SCIENCE CAN REALLY EXPAND

OUR UNDERSTANDING

OF THIS GLOBAL PANDEMIC.

>> I'M VERY PLEASED AND EXCITED,

BECAUSE I PERSONALLY

AND ALONG WITH THE STAFF

IN MY DIVISION

WOULD PLAY A ROLE

AND HAVE AN IMPACT

IN UNDERSTANDING THE DISEASE

AND POSSIBLY CONTROLLING

THE PANDEMIC.

>> IT'S BEEN AN INCREDIBLY

INSPIRING EXPERIENCE,

AND PROBABLY

THE MOST IMPACTFUL THING

THAT I'VE GOTTEN OUT OF IT

IS JUST A FEELING OF EMPOWERMENT

ABOUT WHAT WE CAN DO.

WHEN WE TEAM TOGETHER,

AND WE USE

OUR TECHNICAL MINDSETS

DURING AN OTHERWISE

POWERLESS SITUATION,

WE CAN REALLY EMPOWER

OURSELVES AND EACH OTHER.

IT'S BEEN INCREDIBLE.

>> THANK YOU FOR LETTING ME

BE A PART OF IT.

>> FOR MORE INFORMATION ON HOW

NASA WILL CONTINUE ITS EFFORTS,

PLEASE VISIT

NASA.GOV/CORONAVIRUS.

AGAIN, THANK YOU SO MUCH

FOR JOINING US HERE TODAY

ON "NASA SCIENCE LIVE."

BE WELL AND BE SAFE.

[ MUSIC ]

The Description of NASA Science Live: Science in the Time of Coronavirus