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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: The Evolution of Computing (Vacuum Tube to Transistor to Integrated Circuit) [Documentary]

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Hi, thanks for tuning into Singularity

Prosperity. In the previous video on this

channel we discussed the evolution of

the field of computing, from as early as

the Chinese abacus to the integrated

circuit. To expand on that, this video is

a culmination of a series of

documentaries from the vacuum tube,

transistor and integrated circuit eras.

The reason I wanted to do this is to

provide further insight into how

computers have evolved, highlighting the

exponential growth from less than half a

century ago and providing further

background context for future videos on

this channel.

Additionally, so we can appreciate the

advances in modern technology we all

often take for granted and the humble

beginnings that came from. Enjoy the

documentaries, consider subscribing and

let me know your thoughts on the subject

matter in the comments below!


Electronics is a science that applies

these tubes to the service of math to

the speeding of production to the

winning of the war to understand how

electronic tubes work let's take a good

look at one of them one this

representative of his species this is a

diode the typical two element electronic

tube let's get inside in fundamental

operation it presents an ordinary single

pole switch a switch that can connect

for instance this battery and it's motor

low one power lead comes to the anode

the other lead goes to the cathode when

this switch is open the contacts are

insulated from each other by a vacuum or

by some inert gas inserted into an

evacuated tube under low pressure to

close this switch electronically all we

need do is heat the cathode and give the

anode a positive potential then here's

what happens as electron

from the surface of the heated cathode

being negatively charged they fly at

tremendous speed to the anode in this

way a current-carrying path is formed

which closes our electronic switch and

permits our motor to operate you'll

notice by the way that the direction of

electron flow is contrary to the

Orthodox concept of current flow from

plus to minus now at this point you may

ask if an electronic tube is basically

just a form of switch

why is electronics hailed today is the

technique of a new engineering era to

answer that question let's review six of

the basic things that we can do with

this new kind of switch in the first

place we can rectify current with

converting AC to DC we can do this

merely by connecting an electronic tube

in series with an AC circuit as you

study this circuit diagram note that

only each positive half wave of AC

voltage will now produce a current when

the anode is negative the electrons are

repelled and no current flows in other

words because only the cathode can emit

electrons we have here what amounts to a

one-way street we can visualize the

result of the tubes rectifying action

with the aid of these two oscilloscope

the one on the Left shows alternating

current coming in the one on the right

shows pulsating direct current going out

the applications of this basic

rectifying principle are many and

important here's one of them

changing AC to DC on the nation's

electrified transportation systems

here's another rectification for

electroplating operations of all kinds

operations possible only with direct

current LLL another example furnishing

DCM steel-mill

for the driving of variable speed motors

such as the one controlling this giant

ladle or the ones driving steel

conveyors with such precise control of

speed the danger of buckling and tearing

and consequent mill damage is eliminated

electronic rectification is also helping

to build American airpower by making

available record-breaking quantities of

aluminum for plane construction come

Arkansas must to American air power

involves a complicated conversion of

material before pure aluminum can be

extracted from this bauxite ore

direct-current must be applied in a

vital reduction process to obtain that

direct current from AC transmission line

the exact tron rectifier is used this

Westinghouse electronic development

changes vast quantities of AC to DC with

higher efficiency than any similar type

of conversion equipment today it's the

main source of current supply for the

nation's great aluminum industry an

industry that has achieved a miraculous

expansion to meet the demands of a world

at war

magnesium from seawater is another

achievement of industry under the stress

of war ignite Tron's used in the

extraction process speed up the

delivering of incendiary and demolition

bombs to the centres of axis production

still another example of electronic

rectification at work is the precipitant

a device for cleaning air

electrostatically this diagram explains

how the Pacific Tron works the

rectifying property of electronic tubes

is used to apply a potential of 13,000

volts DC to tungsten wires and 6,500

volts DC to collect their place as

incoming air passes through the field of

these wires each particle of dirt

receives a positive electrostatic charge

when the positively charged particle

reaches the collector chamber is

attracted to and deposited on negative

plate in this way air is clean so

thoroughly the dirt particles down to a

quarter millions of an inch are removed

this is a vital advantage today not only

in homes and public buildings but in

industrial plants of all kinds for

instance in plants manufacturing

delicate instruments where air

cleanliness is necessary for precision

work in work rooms where optical systems

are assembled for a host of military

purposes in inspection rooms where my

new parts must be closely examined under

high magnification air cleanliness is

vital to in film developing rooms like

this one to understand how electronic

air cleaning helps here let's go aloft

in a reconnaissance plane


click 5,000 feet above the earth the

camera shutter opens and closes scores

of square miles of enemy territory have

been squeezed down into an image on a

photographic plate an image measured in

inches instead of mild on this

photograph a city might be covered by a

tip of a finger a speck of dust could

hide enough the airdrome the rectifying

tubes of the precipitant help make sure

that dust doesn't sabotage military

photography now so far in this film

we've discussed only one of the basic

things we can do with the electronic cue

we can use it to rectify the second

basic thing we can do with it is amplify

here's how between the cathode and the

anode of the two elements to which we

diagrammed a while ago we now place a

grid to this grid we connect an input of

some weak voltage which we wish to

amplify perhaps that of a faint radio

signal from halfway around the world now

let's see what happens every time a

negative potential is impressed on the

grid even though it'd be very - it has a

large effect in reducing the number of

the negatively charged electrons which

would otherwise keep flying from cathode

to anode conversely when the grid is

positive an equally large effect is

exerted in increasing the flow of

electrons from cathode we know the

important thing to note here is this a

small amount of power applied to the

grid is amplified into a large amount of

power in the anode or work circuit this

amplifying property of the 3 element

electronic tube is put to work in

innumerable way westinghouse electronic

amplification now helps provide radio

and radio telephone contact between

aeroplanes and control stations on the

ground between ships and their

communication bases both afloat from the

shore between individual tanks and their

tank Force commanders between firing

line and headquarters between C drom

lights and light flying pilots who can

turn them on by radio signal

in the field of power engineering

electronic amplification permits the

measurement and analysis of minus

voltages stepping them up to the point

where they can be seen and interpreted

on oscilloscopes when this giant rotor

is completed its precise Dianetics

balancing will be made possible by

amplifying to testing of these

propellers the vibration fatigue will

also be facilitated by electronic

amplifying to up to now we've considered

two of the basic things that the

electronic tube can do it can rectify it

can amplify a third thing it can do is

generate the term generate in this

connection is meant in a general rather

than a technical sense a triode is

connected for oscillation in the way

shown here the system then becomes

capable of changing direct current into

alternating current note that what we're

doing in this case is amplifying in the

usual way and then feeding back to the

grid part of the amplified voltage

continued repetition of this feedback

results cumulatively in a strong

alternating current this electronic

means of generating alternating current

is important because it can produce very

high frequencies frequencies up to

millions of cycles far beyond the range

of ordinary rotating equipment a

familiar application of this is the

radio transmitter

this modern transmitting room the

Westinghouse station KDKA is a far cry

from the pioneering equipment of its

famous predecessor this scene reproduces

an historic occasion the first time a

radio transmitter was used for

large-scale public entertainment this is

station KDKA of the Westinghouse

Electric and manufacturing company we

are about to begin the reading of the

presidential election returns between

warren g harding and James M Cox standby

please here is a new less familiar

application of electronic high frequency

generation high frequency heating of two

hundred thousand cycles per second is

now used to float Tim as the final step

in the electrolytic plating of steel


after steel strip comes from its

electrolytic tin plating bath it first

passes through a washer and between hot

air drying jets at this point the steel

strip has a coating of Tim that is

relatively dull and porous next comes a

vital step the strip is raised to the

top of the heater unit housing inside of

which is a series of high-frequency

coils as the strip comes down through

these coils induced electric current

causes heat which flows the tin almost

instantaneously greatly improving its

structure as a protective covering

here's the result in place that is

mirror smooth

free from porosity so perfect a

protective covering the one pound of tin

can now do the work of three note the

horizontal bars in this close-up these

are parts of one of the high-frequency

coils that affect the tins low if you

look closely you can see the difference

in texture between the poorest TM

entering the top of the coils and the

shiny flows Tim leaving at its base and

these are the tubes that generate the

high frequency current which makes the

entire process possible another

important result of this new

westinghouse electronic process is time

saving tim can now be flowed at a rate

of more than a thousand feet a minute

here's another example of where

electronic high frequency generation is

doing a job today dialectic bonding of

plastic and plywood sections in a matter

of minutes instead of days as a result

of this application by wood instructed

PT boats can be produced more speedily

dielectric heating also cures intricate

plastic forms faster and better here our

dialectically cured plastic pieces being

given a stress analysis carrier currents

relaying also applies the electronic

principle of high frequency generation

here's part of the equipment that does

the work this equipment makes possible

an enormous increase in the speed with

which transmission lines can be cleared

of faults its effect is to increase the

load carrying ability of a system up to

50 percent or more

we've now Illustrated three of the basic

ways that the electronic tube can be put

to work it rectifies it amplifies is

generate and here's a fourth thing it

does its control this diagram

illustrates one of the principle

mechanisms of electronic control we use

the grid here not to amplify a weak

signal but to control the flow of power

to a machine to do this we connect the

control circuit in such a way that it

becomes a function of temperature feeds

time or any other variable as a result

grid potential is varied and the work

circuit is automatically closed modified

or open and we can do all this with

split-second timing and incomparable

precision take for instance this

electronically controlled spot welder

without sound without friction without

flame electronic control on this

equipment makes and breaks contact with

split-second timing team welding - is

electronically controlled as a result

flame parts today are being literally

sewn together with electric current as

thread but welding of course represents

only one opportunity for electronic

control automatic stepless regulation of

motor speeds is another application

without the smooth acceleration which

such control makes possible delicate

materials such as the capacitor windings

being handled here might be broken under

the shock of starting and abrupt speed

changes now for still another basic

thing that the electronic tube can do it

can also serve as a bridge to transform

light into electric current here's how

we replace the ordinary heat activated

cathode of a two element electronic tube

with one made of photosensitive material

light can now replace heat as the

simulator of electronic emission the

stronger the light the greater the

electronic emission and consequently

with the aid of an amplifier the more

power flowing through the worse circuit

this is important because it means that

photoelectric tubes can function as

light relays and so be given an almost

infinite variety of jobs to do handing

the soundtrack of the talking motion

picture film you're listening to right

now is one of them another is the

television camera

the Icona scope used in this camera is

merely a special form of electronics to

product and process control is still

another application in this plant a

photo troller automatically stops a

conveyor belt every time a lightning

arrester comes to its point of

inspection here a westinghouse

electronic eye inside the metal housing

our pinholes in metal strips as it comes

from the rolls automatically operating a

relay that rejects defective sections

dropping them out of the production line

without a moment's loss of working time

one of the most important basic things

is the electronic tube can do remains

yet to be listed

besides transforming light into electric

current it can also transform electric

current into light let's go

ray tube is an application of this

property through the aid of this tube an

electron beam is able to recreate an

original image on a screen of a

television receiving set the electronic

x-ray tube indirectly also transforms

electric current into light and bias

effect on photographic plate into light

images here's how an x-ray tube works a

high potential ranging up to 300,000

volts or more is applied between me an

Odom cathode electrons are emitted by a

focusing cathode

due to the extremely high voltage the

electrons hit pianos with tremendous

impact and caused the emission of waves

of exceptionally high frequency these

high-frequency way to do three useful

things penetrate excite fluorescence or

affect photographic plates as a result

doctors can now study human internal

organs by means of the fluoroscope or by

means of radiography they can photograph

them industrial x-ray today is also

playing a vital role detecting porosity

and fissures in welded metal scene

examining heavy castings for invisible

internal weaknesses but x-ray isn't the

only example of electronic usefulness in

the conversion of current into light the

whole field of modern fluorescent

lighting represents another application

so does the field of ultraviolet

radiation harmless-looking tubes like

this one have a deadly effect on

bacteria and other forms of microscopic

life in this demonstration farm easier

rather than bacteria are about to be

subjected to sterile amp ray

notice what happens the sterile lamps

today is becoming increasingly important

both as a servants of Public Health and

as a device for the preservation of

perishable good so many I'm so buried

are the applications of electronics but

a single film like this can mention only

one in a thousand we haven't even

mentioned for instance radar the

electronic developments that help save

Britain during the decisive weeks of the


here's what happened ultra-high

frequency waves were broadcast into the

skies from English defense stations when

enemy planes approached in the darkness

or in the fog

these waves would reflect back to the

transmitting point thus giving warning

to the defenders of Britain permitting

out aircraft batteries to swing into

action nor AF planes to rise for combat

whenever Hitler's bombers attack at

whatever altitude from whatever

direction British interceptors were

waiting for them as a result the

Luftwaffe was blasted from the English

skies on the tide of war turn


yes the electronic tube in essence is

only a switch but wanna switch it

rectified amplified generate control

transforms right into electricity and

back into light again


these cubes that look so mysterious are

essentially simple in operation

incredibly rugged and sure in

application they open enclose all forms

of electronic circuits as quickly as the

lightning flash and as silently as the

passage of time in the world of today

they're helping us to win a war in the

world of tomorrow they bid fair to lift

all of us the new levels of achievement

comfort and security


this picture is about the transistor

there are three transistors here in this

collection of small electronic parts the

original point-contact type the junction

type and the photo transistor and here

is a more complex type of transistor

this is called the junction tetrode

these tiny transistors are destined to

play a big part in our electronic age

they will make possible smaller more

compact electronic devices that will

need less maintenance and have a longer

life but to grasp fully the importance

of these new members of the electronic

family let's recall the wonders made

possible by the high vacuum Q the common

radio tube the roots of the electronic

age reached back into the early years of

our century in nineteen seven dr. lee

deforest discovered that a grid of fine

wire placed between a filament and a

metal plate in a vacuum tube could

control the flow of electrons between

the filament and plate and the tube

could be made to amplify as well as

detect electrical waves

he called this amplifying cube and

Audion weak signals applied to the input

or grid of the Audion caused similar and

much stronger signals to flow from the

plate or output a few years later two

scientists dr. Arnold of Bell Telephone

laboratories and dr. Lyon your of

General Electric working independently

found it by pumping out the Audion tube

to create a very high vacuum they

obtained greater fidelity and stability

here is one of the first time vacuum

tubes that started us on the way to the

wonders of our electronic age by 1915

telephone research physicists and

engineers had succeeded in developing

methods of manufacturing the vacuum tube

with sufficiently uniform

characteristics so that hundreds of them

were installed as amplifiers thus making

possible the first telephone line

between New York and San Francisco and

three thousand mile transcontinental

telephone calls became a reality

this same year 1915 at Arlington

Virginia telephone engineers hooked

together 500 vacuum tubes to generate

enough radio power to send the human

voice across the Atlantic for the first

time in history words spoken into a

radio telephone transmitter at Arlington

were heard by engineers listening at the

Eiffel Tower in Paris and also at Pearl

Harbor Hawaii 1920 brought the beginning

of radio broadcasting but a vacuum tube

radio receiver it was a real luxury then

the next 10 years gave us talking motion

pictures transoceanic radio telephone

service television demonstrations and

ship-to-shore telephony

with our electronic age in full swing

the coaxial cable the cathode ray tube

the Icona scope and the image orthicon

aided by hundreds of more conventional

vacuum tubes gave us television radar

for war radar for peace and then

microwave radio relay to speed hundreds

of telephone calls as well as television

programs from coast to coast the heart

of all these electronic systems has been

the vacuum tube but the Bell Telephone

laboratories have added an entirely new

and different heart to modern

communication systems the transistor

operating on a new and different

principle arising from basic research on

solid substances and how the electrons

inside them behave how did it all come

about well doctors Shockley Bardeen and

Brattain and their associates at the

Bell Telephone laboratories were working

on a problem in pure research

investigating the surface properties of

germanium a substance known to be a semi

conductor of electricity their study

suggested a way to amplify an electric

current within a solid without a vacuum

or a heating element and after months of

calculations experiments tests the

transistor was born the transistor a new

name a new device that can do many of

the jobs done by the vacuum tube and

many that you can't do let's see how the

transistor and cube measure up first off

the vacuum tube is power-hungry while a

tube like this generally demands a watt

or more of electricity a millionth of a

watt is enough for the transistor even a

makeshift battery of moist blotting

paper wrapped around a coin can power a


the vacuum tube gets pretty hot

sometimes a little too hot that's why in

complex devices the tubes must be spaced

far enough apart for proper ventilation

since transistors remain cool they can

be crowded together in a small space in

size reliability and ruggedness to the

tiny transistor has many advantages and

research goes on to make it still more

useful many new and improved types of

transistors have followed the early

models but transistors are no longer

just an experiment here they are being

produced at the Allentown Pennsylvania

plant of Western Electric the

manufacturing and supply unit of the

Bell System different types for

different purposes

the Bell Telephone people have lots of

jobs lined up for them jobs based on the

transistors ability to amplify speech

sounds in this way this is all my voice

would sound over a 75-mile telephone

line that has no amplifying device now

with the transistor amplifier in the

line my voice is amplified so that you

can hear me distinctly this for example

would mean that in isolated farmhouses

far from central exchanges the

transistor right in the telephone will

make it easier for the farmer to hear

and be heard on his rural telephone and

transistors can replace many of the

vacuum tubes used in providing

long-distance telephone service because

they are so tiny transistors have made

it possible to miniaturized many types

of electronic equipment this equipment

requires less space and will cost less

to maintain transistors may also be used

in multi-channel telephony which

increases the number of calls that can

be carried at the same time along

telephone lines when you dial Direct

from your town to a distant city

transistors in this route selector may

be helping to mark out the pathway along

which your call will go transistors may

someday go under the sea

built right into underwater telephone

cables but transistors go well with lots

of other industries too many

manufacturers have been licensed to

produce transistors and devise new

applications through their efforts you

may be able to get music with the flick

of your wrist from the so called Dick

Tracy radio


and with a portable television set you

may be able to enjoy video entertainment

anywhere you go for the military the

transistor opens up fantastic

possibilities most of them into earlier

stage of development to be talked about

transistors will take their place in the

complex calculating machines that have

often been called electronic brains

because they enable man to save days

months even years in solving

mathematical problems of course we

cannot build a calculating machine as

flexible as the human brain but even a

man-made computer designed to do

hundreds of brain like calculating jobs

might need an empire state building to

house it and a Niagara Falls to power

and cooler

if vacuum tubes were used in its

construction substituting transistors

for tubes such a versatile machine could

fit into a good-sized room and power and

cooling needs would be relatively low

with the transistor man has drawn far

toward matching some of the capacity of

the human brain he has done it with

imagination with the inventiveness and

teamwork of the Bell Telephone

scientists who are looking forward to

the age just beyond the age of




this is a report on integrated circuits

with dr. Jim angel professor of

Electrical Engineering and director of

the solid-state electronics laboratory

at Stanford University and dr. Harry

sello manager of the materials and

processes department at Fairchild

Semiconductor research laboratories

hello we're going to tell you about the

recent revolution of electronics of

course there have been many recent

revolutions in electronics you hear a

bottom all the time will tell you what

is an integrated circuit how to design

it we'll go through the agony of how

it's made and finally tell you about

some of the uses of it and what they're

good for

but first let's have a commercial it

started here pure PN junctions from a

pile of sand plane are silicon

integrated circuits invented here the

epitaxial process a secret locked in a

crystal higher yields in 1/10 the time

invented here metal over oxide you can't

make an integrated circuit without it

invented here

Fairchild brought out the first NPN

silicon Mesa double diffused transistor

the first PNP Silicon Mesa double

diffused transistor the first plain are

NPN transistor the first planar PNP

transistor the first lifetime controlled

silicon plane on our transistor the

first planar epitaxial PNP transistor

the first silicon RF transistor the

first plane r2 transistor the first

planar silicon controlled rectifier the

first planar epitaxial power transistor

the first resistor transistor logic

family the first complimentary

transistor logic family the first dual

inline package the first commercially

available face-down bonded circuit


processes product packages price oh yes

and production invented here just not a

jump by you saying what is an integrated

circuit here is a packaged integrated

circuit inside this package is a tip of

silicon which provides the electrical

equivalent of many transistors resistors

and diodes all interconnected to provide

the desired function before we discuss

in detail what's inside that package I'd

like to show you some evolutionary

examples of what integrated circuits can

do for the appearance of electronic

equipment here is a photograph of a

printed circuit board from a digital

computer all our 1960 pre-historic right

built out of transistors separate

resistors and diodes wired together on

the printed circuit board here is the

electrical equivalent of the circuit you

saw in the previous photograph built-in

integrated circuit form of vintage 1963

notice how much smaller and simpler to

this board I have here a newer version

of integrated circuits containing in the

upper left hand corner eight integrated

circuits outlined now those eight

integrated circuits provide essentially

the same function that was provided by

this board namely 24 integrated circuit

down to eight notice that the wiring on

this package is extremely orderly and

well-organized I see less pin

connections - this is perhaps too

typical Harry that we find as we make a

more complex function in one structure

the number of pins tends to go up only

as roughly the square root of the

complexity that's provided by that for

now you've seen an evolution of

transistors to early integrated circuits

through modern ones let me show you a

series of photographs which shows you

what's inside the corresponding

and here is a photograph of a single

transistor chip such as we might find in

the 1960 version of the computer board I

showed you old-style again is the

intermediate style you remember the 1963

integrated circuit packages here is what

would be in one of them typically 10

transistors here is a modern 1966

version of integrated circuits with many

hundreds of components on this one

circuit this particular function

provides 16 bits of digital memory in

this one package now integrated circuits

can not only be used for digital but

also for linear service here is an if'

strip transistorized and hence perhaps

three years old here is its integrated

circuit counterpart providing exactly

the same function notice how much

simpler it is the wiring is roughly the

same the simplicity is greater hence we

can expect that it will not only be

cheaper but more reliable and these are

perhaps the most important contributions

of integrated circuits let's get on to

how to design an integrated circuit

alright let's do it by way of an example

up here we have a circuit or a typical

structure which might be an integrated

form this particular circuit has 20

components in diodes transistors and

resistors after the configuration has

been chosen by usual techniques the next

step is to build a breadboard model in

actual working form on the breadboard we

have separate transistors and other

components all actually wired into a

working circuit the purpose of working

with the breadboard is to try to

optimize the numerical value of each of

the components in the circuit once this

optimization has been achieved the next

job is the design of the masks which

will be used to make the integrated

circuit alright I wonder if you could

cover some of that work yes I can so we

made the engineer pick up a soldering

iron let's see we can make it an artist

out of him by using yet another example

there is a full-scale 30 by 30 inch

piece of typical integrated circuit

artwork which represents in a careful

careful precise form the interconnection

pattern of an integrated circuit for

example these are the metal pads these

will be on the integrated circuit the

metal pads which in connect to the

outside world here we have the

transistors and here are diodes and more

interconnecting metals the problem here

is to very carefully and precisely

convert this large scale drawing into a

small precise version of this on a 2 by

2 inch glass plate this artwork is

reduced 500 times by a process of

high-resolution photography - a glass

plate upon which the pattern shown by

the artwork is successively stepped and

exposed all the way across the glass up

to 1500 times which means of course 1500

integrated circuits now the artwork

which I showed was only one mask

potentially here is the artwork in

reduced plastic overlay version which

goes with a complete set to make an

integrated circuit there are five to

seven or even more of these potential

masks all of these must align carefully

and precisely these then will be

translated into another set of glass

masks which will then be used for

contact printing directly onto silicon

wafers in working with silicon this is

what you begin with a silicon ingot it's

a glass-like material very brittle very

much like diamond in fact it costs about

like diamonds and is a member of the

diamond family this is made in a series

of long rods by a process known as

crystal pulling it cools as it is pulled

however it is still very hot since it's

been grown at a very high temperature up

around the region of 1,400 degrees

centigrade we cut this into thin wafers

about 12 thousandths of an inch thick

by using a diamond saw

after cutting the wafers are very

carefully polished so you end up with a

mirror-like surface which is essential

in the preparation of the integrated

circuits the finished chip is about five

thousandths of an inch thick let's take

a look inside the silicon this is a

cross-section of the wafer we just

watched being made to protect it from

the outside world we allow oxygen to

react with the top surface and grow an

oxide called the passivating silicon

dioxide layer now we're going to make

use of the masks we made earlier first

the wafer is coated with a

photosensitive resin the mask is then

placed on the wafer and the system is

then exposed to light as a result the

exposed resin hardens the remaining

resin can be simply rinsed away the

wafer is then exposed to acid those

areas of the passivating layer not

protected by the hardened resin are

etched away in the next operation called

diffusion the wafer is exposed to a

dopant this impurity diffuses through

the window and into the silicon below

forming the collector of a transistor in

our integrated circuit but notice at the

same time diffusion is taking place more

oxide is being formed this is the

essence of the planar process now we're

going to strip off the passivating layer

and grow a new layer of silicon right on

top of the diffused wafer by a process

called epitaxial growth now we form

electrically isolated regions on the

wafer by a process of diffusion

photosensitive coating masking exposure

rinsing edging and diffusion next we

prepare the individual parts of the

integrated circuit first a transistor

base and a resistor the same procedure

is followed

notice that diffusion takes place not

only downwards but also laterally under

the oxide as a result the junction is

formed beneath the passivating layer

where is protected from the outside


the next diffusion forms an emitter and

a collector contact to complete the

transistor again the same process the

next step

enables us to interconnect the various

components and to make contact with them

again will etch Windows in the oxide but

instead of another diffusion a layer of

metal is deposited over the entire

surface of the wafer then by use of the

proper masks the excess metal can be

etched away sometimes we like to make

resistors a different way by using the

metal interconnection pattern all you

have to do is make the metal pathway a

little narrower and it provides higher

resistance if we wish to make a

capacitor we take advantage of the fact

that the oxide layer is an excellent

dielectric material a small area of

metal is deposited forming one plate of

a capacitor the oxide is the dielectric

and the silicon directly below the oxide

forms the other plate the series of

schematic operations taking place on one

structure that you just saw actually

takes place across a whole wafer this

results in a wafer containing many

integrated circuits up to 1500 of them

now comes the electrical testing of this

wafer Jim can you take over on this part

certainly Harry even though we have been

very careful in fabricating this wafer

containing many hundreds of integrated

circuits not all these circuits on the

way from a flawless the first job is to

determine and mark those circuits which

are not good

we test the wafer in a probe testing


we then scribed the wiper using a

diamond point in the scribing machine

after separating cleaning and drying the

integrated circuits we fish out the ones

that are bad if we have been successful

to this point we have a high yield of

good ones from this point on we are

going to package the circuit and so

whenever we throw it away we're going to

fall away a complete package that's a

good point Jim let's look into this

matter of packaging a little bit you

know we've exercised a lot of care in

bringing the integrated circuit chip to

this point in the processing and we've

also done it economically because mostly

we've processed them as wafers fifteen

hundred at a time from here on out as

you point it out we will be handling

them as individuals putting expensive

packages around them so how we treat the

packages is important in the old days it

was simple you had a wide choice to

large and small a to18 outline small and

the to.5 larger outline these days we

have upwards of two hundred and fifty

varieties of packages and the user can

select any one of them here are an

example of three of these the dual

inline package a plastic package and a

flat pack the most nearly universal of

these is the dual inline package let's

take a closer look at just how that is

made you start out with the idea that

you're going to build a tasty but in out

of old sandwich here are the two halves

that you begin with two ceramic parts

into which the integrated circuit chip

will form the sandwich meet the two

halves are glass with a material which

will form the solder that glue the two

halves together later a Kovar frame has

been prepared in advance and cut out to

the pattern necessary to connect the

chip to the outside world

this Kovar frame will also be placed in

the middle of the sandwich along side of

the chip and here is the arrangement

chip in Center Cove our frame around the

outside and notice that the tips of the

frame here have been metallized this

will form the connection to the chip

directly as shown here where the lead

bond wires have been placed connecting

the pads on the chip to the metallized

tips of the cove our frame we complete

the sandwich by putting the top half of

the package right on top of the frame

the next operation will be to clip the

ends of the frame package is now

revealed in its magnificent beauty the

solder glass is peeping out so that we

have to clean that up a little bit by

sending the part through the furnace

along with many thousands of others so

that the solder glass is all melted in

and neatly arranged in place this is the

finished dual inline package now that

the circuit has been packaged we must

again test it substantially before we

would dare ship it to the user first is

a series of electrical tests many of

which use special test equipment which

is again built from integrated circuits

many of the tests made on the integrated

circuits now duplicate those tests which

were made on the wafers in addition to

these tests which duplicate those which

were made before we must make some

special tests such as frequency response

of a linear amplifier or switching speed

of the digital circuit before we would

dare ship the unit we can't make these

tests on the wafer State due to the

limitations of the test equipment

through the probes in addition to these

electrical tests we make a variety of

mechanical tests such as shock vibration

and acceleration

finally we make a set of temperature

tests running the unit at high

temperature and at low temperature to

ensure that the unit will work

dependably in service now let's look

into some of the things that we can do

with integrated circuits but first a

commercial the past year so Fairchild

has been publishing a series of

applications notes on integrated

circuits if you read the design journals

you might have seen one if the guy ahead

of you didn't tear it out they talked

about the switch to integrated circuits

how to design them in when to use them

which ones that costs basic design rules

a pretty complete short course then on

the back of each sheet we've covered a

specific industrial application an XY

controller a tape reader and display

cyclo converter

a dozen ideas


but if you're really serious you'll have

to read the book it covers all the IC



right here


memory customer

it tells about packaging testing and of

course how to order I cease altogether

that's about a hundred pages of fresh

information on integrated circuits we'll

send it to you of your writers got a


Fairchild TV briefing box

10:58 Mountain View California we send

you the whole stack by return mail now

that we've talked about how to design

build and test integrated circuits let's

look at some of the functions which are

available now in integrated circuit form

here is a list of readily available

digital circuit functions this list

includes about all the circuits which

are needed to build the electronics part

of a digital computer this list of

linear functions includes a large

variety of things as you probably know

operational amplifiers for example are

rather precise amplifiers that are used

as the major building block of analog

computers the voltage comparator is a

circuit which very accurately compares

which of two voltages is the larger you

know it's exciting to think that all of

these functions are here today they can

be used they're available and it's even

more exciting when you consider the

number of applications that these can be

put to you couldn't even begin to make a

list of all of them actually the uses of

integrated circuits are limited only by

those who are designing these uses let's

take a deeper look into some of the

present day applications of integrated

circuits one of the many industrial

companies using integrated circuits

today is Burroughs corporation at

Burroughs integrated circuits in dual

inline packages are inserted in circuit

boards automatically affording more

efficient production using this machine

which is proprietary with Burroughs a

single integrated circuit can be

installed for about the same cost it

previously took to install a discrete

component in order to automate the

entire manufacturing process Burroughs

uses other

advanced techniques such as slow

soldering this guarantees reliable

connections to each integrated circuit

in addition computerized wire wrapping

machines are used to make the backplane

interconnections so that the inherent

reliability of the integrated design

isn't compromised the machine

automatically cuts each wire to the

correct length strips the ends routes

the wires and makes the connections

meanwhile each completed circuit board

is tested individually finally circuit

boards are installed in the computer

frame and the completed system is

thoroughly tested wells is now committed

to integrated circuits and in fact

recently placed one of the largest

single orders ever placed for these

devices or burrows integrated circuits

provide a significant cost reduction and

a proven increase in reliability both of

which are real benefits to burroughs

customers stromberg-carlson is another

company committed to integrated circuits

their data products division is now

manufacturing the first in a line of new

stromberg-carlson products built with

ICS integrated circuits in this case

until five packages both metal and

plastic were used in the SC 1100 because

of their low cost size reliability and a

stronger Carlson says because integrated

circuits are here to stay the SC 1100

system consists of up to 18 desk top

interrogators like this one which are

handled by a single station control unit

which in turn ties into the computer

memory the operator asks the computer a

coded question on the interrogator the

computer responds with the requested

information almost instantly for

instance with an employee personnel

record this is the model 388 am/fm

stereo receiver built by HH Scot it's

only one of a new line of hi-fi

components in which linear integrated

circuits replace discrete transistors

Scot engineers have chosen ICS for one

specific purpose better performance more

stations can be pulled in with less

noise and interference which stations

become loud and clear and outside

interference is drastically reduced but

there are other benefits too a total of

37 discrete components in the receivers

if' strip have been replaced by only

four icees

this new approach to circuit design

promises even more dramatic new products

from the people at H H Scott we've seen

some examples of how industry is putting

integrated circuits to work today but

how about the future well that's a very

exciting part of the story research has

constantly gone on to find new ways to

use integrated circuits not only in the

R&D labs of semiconductor manufacturers

but in the universities like here at the

solid-state electronics laboratory of

Stanford University in Palo Alto the

facilities you see here in this

integrated circuits lab are made

available by funds from many industrial

organizations our lab at Stanford is a

miniature of the production facilities

you've seen in industry it was built

with the help of contributions from the

majority of our nation's semiconductor

manufacturers right now we're working in

several areas we do basic research in

integrated circuit technology we're

doing circuit research using the unique

capabilities of integrated circuits we

also develop devices which incorporate

ICS and we conduct research in several

peripheral areas as an example of our

research in IC technology we're studying

new ways for getting impurities into

semiconductors normally this is done by

diffusion we do the same thing by ion

implantation this machine takes

individual ions and accelerates them

ramming them into semiconductor material

much the same as you would shoot a

bullet into a bale of hay right now this

is a much more expensive process than

diffusion but it's a different technique

here we're not interested so much in

developing the technique as we are

learning the fundamentals how heavily

can you don't materials and what kinds

of materials can you dope this way let's

look at an example in the field of

medical electronics here we're using IC

technology to develop an array

find probes which a neurologist can

implant down in a living brain to study

the potential at different points on a

single neuron here you're looking at one

of the masks prepared by the student

doing this research we're developing

probes using the same technology as for

the metallization patterns on ICS the

probes will probably be of gold this

would have been impossible before I see

technology one of the most dramatic

devices being developed is this reading

aid for the blind this is a reading

device in which ordinary printed

material is converted to a tactile image

which is presented by a closely spaced

array of 48 piezo electric reads by

resting his finger on the vibrating

reads the blind person can sense a

vibrating and grainy facsimile of the

material being viewed the great

advantage is that this machine enables a

blind person to read the printed page

this version is relatively large even

though it incorporates integrated

circuits ultimately 170 by 90 mill chip

will take care of all the necessary

electronics to drive one vibrating read

certainly integrated circuits are used

in many present-day applications but we

mustn't forget one very important factor

and that is the reliability of an

integrated circuit it is a reliable

device in the industry we've logged

almost 80 million element hours without

a failure

that's reliability we have considered

many different things regarding

integrated circuits one question which

we might ask is why do people care about

integrated service well there are many

reasons certainly one of them is the

reliability factor that we were just

considering the second one is the fact

that they are inexpensive even today it

is often less expensive to do a function

with integrated circuits than it is with

separate discrete components the fact

that they are small is important this

board there contains many functions many

many more functions that we could get in

this volume otherwise finally there are

new functions which can be achieved with

integrated circuits that just plain

couldn't be achieved any other way

Perrie we've considered a large variety

of topics on this program I'm wondering

if you'd be willing to summarize it for


yes let's summarize we started out by

telling you what an integrated circuit

is this is an integrated circuit it's a

piece of silicon into which have been

built all of the necessary components to

perform an electronic function the piece

of silicon and a blow-up picture looks

like this all of the functions are there

we've taken you through the design and

building of an integrated circuit from a

circuit diagram through masking to wafer

processing and finally on to the final

packaging of an integrated circuit we

showed you that it takes a lot of

extensive testing to prove out an

integrated circuit and finally you've

seen a lot of the uses both present day

and future uses for integrated circuits

hopefully we've given you some ideas on

how you can put integrated circuits to

work or you


The Description of The Evolution of Computing (Vacuum Tube to Transistor to Integrated Circuit) [Documentary]