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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Diagramming Lincoln's Gettysburg Address

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let's try to diagram the first sentence

of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address if we're

going to find that it's quite

challenging

and that would be four score and seven

years ago our fathers brought forth on

this continent a new nation conceived in

Liberty and dedicated to the proposition

that all men are created equal

that's a mouthful even to say but the

diagram you'll see that there's actually

quite a few little looks and crannies

that are that are interesting to deal

with first of all of course we need a

baseline so I will draw it up here 407

years ago and that whatever that is

that's adverbial that's answering a

question plain let's put that off for a

bit it's actually a very thorny thing to

do our fathers did something or other so

there there's something that that we can

get a get a hold of fathers is the

subject which fathers our fathers the

verb is actually kind of interesting

what did our fathers do they brought

forth the nation well another way of

saying that that it's exactly the same

is brought a nation forth they've

brought a nation forth forth is a lot

like down in the sentence he brought the

house down like what you might say of a

singer or a comedian who just totally

made the audience go while they've

brought the house down

you could equally say they brought down

the house that shows you that these

these little words the function the same

forth and down and forth and down it

sounds like football but in fact they're

not prepositions as you might suppose

and they're not adverbs exactly we call

them particles and they are attached to

the verb in such a way that you

put them either before or after the

direct object that follow them or to

precede them and what we do with

particles and diagramming is we we put

them right with the verb it's one of the

few places where you would put in the

verb position something that was part of

speech is not verb I mean fourth is just

that is not a verb you can't put it in

the past tense but they didn't yesterday

we did we forced you can't do that it's

not a verb but we put it in with the

verb but that is a particle so what was

brought forth there's a direct object

what was brought forth if there's an

answer to that question and there is a

nation that that means we're dealing

with a direct object so nation let me

hold off putting a and knew there those

would both be adjectives of course which

nation on nation which nation a new

nation that's which nation those are

going to be adjectives let's deal with

the other stuff that's hanging off of

nation a new nation conceived in Liberty

and dedicated to the proposition that

all men are created equal those two

things are both participial phrases

conceived in Liberty that's the first

one and dedicated to the proposition

that all men are created equal that

whole thing is the second participial

phrase and they answer the question

which nation or what kind of nation the

nation conceived in Liberty that's what

that's what kind of nation so to do this

let's have them descending from here now

the tricky thing is is that there's two

of them so we need to make a provision

for for that and we're going to do that

by doing this weird thing I'm splitting

this line you'll see why on

come on a dotted line there in a minute

now I'm descend there because now what I

have is a participle conceived in

Liberty so that's our first parts of the

phrase and I'll put conceived here and

that's how we note that something is a

participle get rid of that conceived tab

we have a prepositional phrase dangling

from conceived how does it conceived in

Liberty

that's how so here we have a

prepositional phrase modifying conceived

and functioning at verbally so that's

one of our participial phrases this is

where we would put the hand this hand is

joining it's a coordinating conjunction

and what it's coordinating is to

participial phrases function is

adjectives as parts of the phrase is

always two so that's what is being

coordinated and we make that look just

like the other one so it's conceived in

Liberty and dedicated to the proposition

as a dedicated is our participle okay

dedicated now we dedicated half well to

the proposition so well I think I can

fit Dedic but I'm not sure so I'm going

to make this a little shallower I'm

sorry I apologize dedicated okay

dedicated how to the proposition

so two goes here so we have another

prepositional phrase functioning at

verbally just as we have

liberty of their to proposition that's

the object of the preposition the object

preposition is proposition which

proposition the proposition okay so we

didn't hit rock bottom that's probably

just around the bottom of the screen now

we have something interesting the

proposition that all men are created

equal that all men are created equal

that might make you think that that it's

a relative clause which proposition the

proposition that all men are created

equal but that's not right that all men

are created equal is not modifying

proposition it is the proposition the

proposition is that all men are created

equal if you wouldn't be able to say

that sentence the proposition is that

all men are created equal if that all

men are created equal

were merely a relative clause so for

example the the Hat which is on the

table is blue you can't say the Hat is

which is on the table that sounds crazy

but you can say the proposition is that

all men are created equal you couldn't

say the Hat is that is on the table

either if it were the Hat that is on the

table it's blue you can't say the Hat is

that is on the table that's because that

is on the table is a relative clause but

that all men are created equal is an

appositive and is therefore nominal so

how do we do that well the market of

positive we put a parenthesis here if

this turns out we're going to need a

stand

pedestal to put the appositive on and so

let's make it a nice big one so we have

some room to spread out here

and I can go over here so the

proposition is that all men are created

equal I hope this all fits so men which

men all men so men is the subject all

men all men are created now what I would

do who were really coming right to the

edge here what I would do here now if

now this is in the passive voice all men

are created if this were in the active

voice and it were say God created all

men equal we would clearly have this

situation he created and then man would

be the direct object and what equal

would be would be the objective

complement he created them equal so that

would be he made me happy he created he

made me happy would be diagram the same

way he created men equal so this thing

is an objective complement when it's

expressed in the active voice in the

passive voice we should therefore not

make equal it's not an adverb it's not

it's how it's not a noun it's not direct

object of any kind it is complement

and therefore we should mark it this way

so all men are created equal the bat as

you see has no place to sit on this line

that is because this bat is an expletive

and when that happens we said we send

that up on to its own little pedestal I

am I'm wondering if that's over the

frame so I'll make it a very stubby

pedestal sorry that but there it is so

now what do we have here our fathers

brought forth we don't have on this

continent a new nation so now you can

see why I held off it's going to stick

the adjectives descending from nation

wherever I can put them so a new nation

conceived in Liberty and dedicated to

the proposition that all men are created

equal so now that leaves us with four

score and seven years ago what a pain

that is going to be so that is answering

the question when when did they bring

forth and the way I would so that's a

crowbill and it's clearly descending

from brought forth so what we would do

here and you may not like this so ago is

going to be the adverb that we build

this whole thing around

how long ago four score and seven years

that's how long that's how we know that

the four score and seven years is

modifying ago so ago belongs above four

score and seven years ago in our diagram

this is what's being modified now four

score and seven years ago how many years

four score and seven that's how many so

that tells you that the

that four score and seven modifying

years and that years is there if we're

going to be here and four score and

seven is going to be down here now what

we would do or what I would do and here

I think you know diagram was might

actually disagree but if we had a

simpler situation like as the sentence I

left last year I left the way we handle

nouns that function at verbally is

indeed we have to have them descending

from the in this case the verb that

they're modifying left when left last

year but we put them on a line a

horizontal line to indicate that they

are now needed that they are essentially

nouns and we've put last here that's and

that's really functioning adjective

early which year last year so that's a

refresher course so we remember that we

put these adverbial sorts of nouns who

diagram them this way so how many years

ago four score and seven years ago so to

make this work here I would do that so

that shows that we're modifying to go I

would put years here whoops I need to

spell years directly of course here's

how many years which time now that's an

adjective of question which is sort of

what you would expect since years is a

noun a kind of thing even though it's

functioning that verbally four score and

seven so now what I do here we have

another coordinating conjunction so we

split again

gonna have a dotted line here now a

score is a word like years and that a

score is is now the sort of thing a

score is a group of 20 just as a year is

365 days a score is a group of 20 things

so here's what we would do here we would

we would do something similar to what we

did with years we would make a little

neck horizontal line for score

how many score shows how many years

forth a score how many years how many

scores for score so four score and and

here I would put this parallel to score

7/4 four score and seven now I think

this may be it let's let's let's read it

a lab and see if we have the whole thing

well I can't maybe I should capitalize

this to show that that's where the

sentence begins it's funny it's sort of

the sentence begins on the outskirts of

the diagram but there you have four

score and seven years ago our fathers

brought forth ah I missed something on

this continent where did they bring it

forth on this continent I knew I left

that out cuz I knew I was gonna have

trouble fitting everything in so on

continent

this which continent this time so this

is an adverbial prepositional phrase

modifying brought forth this is a is

adjective Oh which continent this

continent so we show that so strike it

for four score and seven years ago our

fathers brought forth on this continent

a new nation conceived in Liberty and

dedicated to the proposition that all

men are created equal

ha we did it so that is the diagram of

the first sentence of Abraham Lincoln's

Gettysburg Address and it's quite

something to look at let me just get the

whole thing there because equal didn't

quite come out but there it is there's

the whole diagram

The Description of Diagramming Lincoln's Gettysburg Address