Practice English Speaking&Listening with: [PSYC 200] 8. Developmental Psychology: The Newborn

Difficulty: 0

[upbeat music]

>> Alright, here we go.

We're gonna start today with any questions

that you had from last time.

We are talking about developmental psych,

and we got to a point right here

where we were talking about social development of infants.

Are there questions from last time?

We're talking about the newborn.

I showed a couple of video clips

about some reflexive actions, what's this reflex ready?

In a newborn, if you touch them right here

and gently stroke their cheek, they will turn and start

sucking and we call that the?

It's the rooting reflex, 'kay?

Babies gently stroked right here will do that.

We talked about the root,

oh it's right there, rooting reflex.

We talked about the way we find preferences for mothers.

Their voices for example, or their smell.

And we can exploit, what are some ways,

what are some ways that we can ask a baby what it prefers?

How often or how frequently they might suck on a pacifier.

That's one great way, so sucking behavior.

Give me another one that we explored.

Brain activity, we can watch certain activity.

For example we can take an infant,

show it a picture over and over again,

and this infant's brain activity can be measured

when it sees something new or different.

And then anybody else, another technique?

What we can use, or another infant behavioral cue?

What is it?

Yeah eye movement, where they're staring,

and other one kinda related to that

would be let's say boredom.

We can watch when children get bored

by seeing the same thing over and over again,

and they show the same things you do.

Kinda yawning, and not really wanting to pay attention.


Now, social development, we ended by talking in here

how infants begin to develop these cues

or this repertoire of behavior given

some of the environmental cues that they get.

So for example in early interchanges that are going on

we find that the baby has a lot of impact on the parents

by these kind of very important social things.

We talked about language, and the beginning development

of language is when they begin to show babbling

and the parents respond back and forth.

And it's that give and take and we learn things like

how we elevate the pitch of our voice

to say we're done talking now or I wanna keep talking

and wait don't interrupt me okay

now I'm done talking and so we lower it.

And then babies start to pick this up very early on

it's part of this social development.

We talked some then about social interchanges.

Next, early social responses.

We're finding babies are very

sophisticated when they come out.

They obviously don't have all of the same kind of

social things that we would have in adults lets say,

but for infants there are clear signs

that they're showing very early on.

Children will begin to show what we call true smiles.

Have I talked about that, where infants in here

will show a true smile to a mom or to a dad?

And by six months they're beginning to show fake smiles

to people that they don't know that smile at them.

If a stranger sees a baby and comes up and smile

the baby kinda knows oh it's time to smile.

We talked about the impact of mirror neurons.

That is this baby's smile reflex is almost kicked in

and they smile but they're not showing true smiles

to strangers all the time.

They're kinda showing fake smiles,

something we do all the time.

But true smiles are found in this certain kinda muscles

that get crinkly up, and stimulated up here,

and we can follow and watch these

babies and see that's a true smile.

So those are early social responses.

Then physical contact is a very important

social developmental influencer.

We asked this question.

Why do babies get attached to mom or to a dad?

And it use to be we believed that a baby was attached

to a mom or to a dad because the baby

was getting nutrition from them.

And so we talked a little bit about this experiment

with Harry Harlow's study,

in which he tried to find out is it really because

a parent provides a baby with nutrition?

Or is there some other dynamic that's

causing this bonding between parent and child?

And Harlow found what?

Summarize it real quickly.

Found that?

It was much more likely to find bonding with social contact.

I'm sorry, with physical touch as a huge variable,

in helping babies attach to a parent.

So that physical contact that we provide,

has something to do with these children

now being connected to us.

So let me show you real quickly what this study was like.

By the way he found out when Harlow did these studies,

they weren't sure how powerful this was until

they began to look at other ways that babies

would show this kinda connection.

So he did a study where he scared them for example.

Lets see if this works.

Okay let's wait, turn this on.


Lets try it again.


It's not playing, lets see.

[computer clicking]


Well here's what he's doing, we'll try it one more time.

What he's doing is these little baby monkeys

will be scared eventually, and the goal

is to see where do they turn to.

See if I can get this audio to work.

[mutters] One more time.

[chords clattering]

If not I'll just describe what they found

and you can see it.


Good try.

[volume button clicking]

>> It was weened on a wire monkey, here's baby 106.


[monkey chatters]

He's going to the wire mother.

Gotta eat to live.

[monkey chatters]

Oop, he's going back.

[monkey chatters]

He's back on the cloth mother,

and he'll stay on the cloth mother.

Actually this baby spends 17 to 18

hours a day on the cloth mother,

less than one hour a day on the wire mother.

We had predicted that the variable of contact comfort

would be a variable of measurable importance.

But we were unprepared to find that it completely

overwhelmed and overshadowed all other variables

including those of nursing.

>> Frankly doctor if it comes to the choice between

wire and cloth it's reasonable to expect

that any child would go to the cloth.

It's a matter of creature comfort

like a baby with it's blanket, but is this really love?

>> Well what do you mean by saying a baby loves it's mother?

>> Chris: Okay, let me show you the next one.

Can you guys hear that okay?

>> In this experiment this is the apparatus we use.


>> [Observer On Video] That looks diabolical.

>> Harlow: That's just the way

the baby monkey feels about it.

Raging eyes, loud sounds, moving mechanical parts

all of these things are designed to frighten a monkey.

Now here we have a peaceful resting baby monkey.

[class chuckles]

Let's find out what his reactions

to his mother are when we frighten him.

[machine squeaks]

[class laughs]

[monkey screams]

[class laughs]

>> [Observer On Video] He's scared alright.

[class laughs]

>> Harlow: And he does what any child

will do in a similar situation.

[laughter drowns out speaker]

He was running to his mother,

to touch her to drive away his fear.

Contact with the mother changes his entire personality.

[monkey chatters]

Look, now he's actually threatening the diabolical object.

>> Chris: That's kind of a threatening move right there.

So you can see how comfortable he is.

>> This gives us part of the picture.

>> Okay.

These monkeys were well taken care of.

Other than being scared every once in a while,

and the goal was to try and figure out this.

Where does this attachment come to?

What variables are influential?

And they could do this with human babies.

Instead, what they tried to do with Harlow's studies,

was to show that this kind of attachment

comes in fairly early on and it's related

a lot to this notion of touch.

Now one kind of application of this right away

was in the area of working with premature infants.

One thing that happened was premature infants were treated,

let's see, who was a premature infant?

Anybody know?

Anybody in here born more than three weeks premature?

Or a month premature?

Okay for some of you that raised your hands,

how many weeks do you know?

Five weeks premature, anybody more than that?

Yeah, six, nine weeks premature.

Okay let's start with, do you remember how they

have you talked to your parents

or do you know how they treated you when you were premature?

Did they leave you in an incubator?

In an incubator for three months?

Do you remember, have you talked

or asked what your first couple of weeks were like?

Okay, what happened about your time of,

well about 18 years ago now there were kind of a big shift.

And the shift went like this.

Previous, 20-25 years ago we treated

premature infants this way.

We were afraid their hearts, lungs, other major organs

weren't fully developed and so the best thing

you can do is mimic the womb.

So you put em in an incubator, you put em in

it's kinda a darker room it's really quiet,

and you don't touch them.

You kinda let em be, because it seemed like

if they got overstimulated, and touch would do that.

It would kinda overstimulate them.

It might put to much pressure,

and it might tax their system to much.

And then there was a change, and it happened to be with a

researcher who decided to put it to the test

and say what if we did touch these babies?

Is that really a bad thing?

And so she was able to get permission

to take premature infants and begin to do,

like take their backs and massage them

three or four times a day.

And as she did this she started to find some amazing things.

Well in the end her study,

when they did a full study of this,

they took premature infants and they did

the way they would normally treat them.

Putting them into an incubator and keeping stresses

down to a minimum and touch down to a minimum

and then you took another group of prematures

and they gave them they would rub their backs

three four times a day and massage them

and these babies developed quicker.

In fact were released out of ICU on average

one week earlier than these babies.

And it had a lot to do with this power of touch.

Ultimately it started to change the way premature infants

were treated because this is a very big thing.

So touch, one of kind of the payoffs

of doing studies like this, related to for example

Harlow's studies was how big of a sense this is.

How important it is to development,

and so that was one great change

and now you'll find more and more

hospitals have adopted this with premature infants.

Okay, after infancy and as we move into

childhood and infancy we have now another way

of looking at babies and children

that is of interest to psychologists

and that's called their intellectual development.

Intellectual development with infants is something

we're gonna spend some time talking about today.

The brain is producing neurons during this stage

in some amazing speed, a half a million a minute

neurons may be being produced

during early stages of infancy.

And they're making huge numbers of what we call networkings

or connections between nerve cells

and these neuro-networks are forming at such a rate.

Now by the way, we take and prune these throughout life,

our brain seems to, those that get used more frequently

are maintained and those that are not,

those synaptics that aren't being utilized will get pruned.

So this is a very powerful time.

So now we're looking at infants

when it comes to their growth and intellectual development

as a very important time of setting some things.

Anybody have a name of somebody that comes to mind,

a psychologist that is associated with the area

of the study of intellectual development

or the cognitive development of infants and children?

Any name come to mind?

Okay, Freud was very big in one area.

He would study some things related to children,

especially in the areas of psychodynamic

approaches in therapy but how bout...

Alright, Piaget, same thing yep that's exactly who it was.

And he, Jean Piaget, was probably the one

the pioneer in studying babies and infants

and their intellectual developments and growth.

So we're gonna talk about him today,

and Piaget has a very interesting background.

His research was in a different field originally.

He was published by the time he was 16

in a scientific journal, I think he was studying

mollusks and other shelled sea creatures.

And eventually was fascinated as he began to explore

something that is primarily related

to the cognitive development of children.

He began to find, as he worked in an area

assessing IQs with soldiers and others.

They started assessing families,

but he started to notice that children

intellectually would begin to make some weird odd errors.

Piaget's work was primarily about the

idea of how we acquire knowledge.

And this study for him led him into some areas

related to the errors that children would be making,

and these errors in thinking and knowing

were fairly consistent.

He found them a lot in the kids that he interviewed.

And so Piaget began this movement of studying

cognition, ways of thinking and knowing,

and focused on these biases that children had.

Which at the time people use to believe

that you are fully developed, at least cognitively,

by seven or eight there's not much more that occurs.

Kids had brains and minds very similar to adults

until he started to find out,

they made some very important errors

which pointed back to some huge differences

between adult brains and children's brains.

So he began to study something called schemas,

for example, a schema is a cognitive structure or a template

that we all use at times to for example

navigate through the world or to understand things.

And Piaget began to study how children use schemas

to help them understand the world.

So a baby might have a schema initially

about how a parent responds,

and you can see an infant do this for example.

If you ever seen a baby play with a toy,

they develop a schema related to an interaction

with a parent and they'll do this.

They'll play with something, and you'll see em bang it

and then often times will throw it or drop it on the floor.

What happens next?

Well what usually happens next is the parent sees this,

they look down, the parent sees this event,

pick it up give the toy back and the kid goes [coos]

and they play with it and then they

throw it back on the floor.

And the parent comes over and picks it up.

Pretty soon this becomes a cool game doesn't it?

Like ooo I'll just throw that,

and now watch this kid, person,

mom, dad, whoever go and pick this up.

Well this schema is now developing,

they're developing this template that says

oh there's a response there's this

I do this, this happens.

And they begin to realize lots of things this way.

You know you have other schemas that can be

related to how, for example, how to use a straw.

So you'll see babies that you can give em a straw

and there's liquid in there and they finally go [sucks]

and they start to suck on it and they realize

oh something shaped like that you put it in your mouth

and eventually you get something good out of it

and then they begin to learn that schema.

And so you might give them anything, like a toothpick,

and they might go [sucks] like that

and start sucking out of it.

And so it's the schema that they now use to approach life.

What Piaget did was he found out that there's

different styles, or different ways,

of using schemas that go about changing.

So I'm gonna ask you to read about

assimilation and accommodation.

It's just two specific ways that these schemas can change.

If you give a baby, for example,

that knows how to use a straw

we gave our son when he was little a french fry

and he went like this.

Took this french fry and just sucked the whole insides out.

Because he had the schema of using a straw and went [sucks]

like that for like an hour.

Now that is assimilating,

taking what you know about the world

and as you know about the world

you then, you then apply that.

Or you can accommodate,

completely change the schema, and do something else.

So look at assimilation and accommodation in your textbook

and you'll find other good definitions of it.

It was just Piaget's attempt to explain

some different cognitive development things.

Here's what we're gonna do,

we're gonna talk about some stages.

I'm gonna put em up here on the Power Point,

but these stages are listed in your textbook

and so you don't need to write them all down.

Instead, what I'd like you to do, is look at them.

This is Piaget's kind of attempt at saying

that we all go through these kinda different

developmental stages, the first occurring right after birth

all the way up until about the age of two.

Something called a sensorimotor stage,

where a baby is most likely to experience the world

through putting things where?

Almost anything, lets say a baby that they learn to grasp,

where does that thing go that they're holding on to?

Right into their mouth for example.

A lot of times parents just go oh good night.

You gotta watch everything cause it will go into their mouth

cause that's how they're experiencing the world,

through this kind of thing.

And sometimes you think,

I don't want to know what they're chewing.

And often times, what you'll find,

is that babies are learning now

okay I do this, this tastes this way,

this feels this way, this does this.

Piaget just said, children go through

what's called this sensorimotor stage.

By the way, this stage has some cool things to it.

There are, I'm not even sure this is gonna play

but we're gonna try a video real fast

of different stages that kids go through

and different ways of finding out.

One of the things that occurs during the sensorimotor stage

is something called object permanence.

You all ever heard of object permanence,

when babies begin to learn that the world

or the objects in the world continue to exist

even if they're not there?

So a baby will be playing with a toy,

you can do this, how many of you have

if you ever have access to a child

that's under the age of one

and they're playing with something.

What would they do, let's say at six months,

if you took this toy and they're playing with it,

you set it in front of them

and you cover it up with a blanket.

What would they do at that point?

Anybody seen a four or five month old baby recently?

What would they do if we took that

four or five month old baby and

put that toy underneath the blanket?

They might cry, would they begin to look for the toy?

Well here's what's interesting,

around four and a half five they are probably

just developing what's called object permanence.

And that means that objects that are hidden,

if you develop object permanence,

that they continue to exist even when they're hidden.

Does that make sense?

Before then if an object disappears,

probably a four month old, if you covered it up

would stop even looking for it.

Because it would be like, oh well that's gone.

[class laughs]

Alright, five, six months you cover it up and they're like,

well that's to bad.

But as something interesting happens

around that time where they begin to go,

around six months and possibly earlier,

but they begin to start going,

oh there's an object it exists

and they will lift up the let's say the little blanket

and go oh there's the toy.

Now you know they're beginning to develop

this concept called object permanence.

Now we test that to find out cognitively when do they

pick this up and what implications does it have?

And so that's object permanence.

Let me show you a little video that might or might not play.

I have a feeling it's not going to, but we will try.

Let's see.

Ahh, the sound, um...

Well I'll just describe a little bit about it.

[class laughs]

This right here, this baby at about four months

has an interesting feature going on.

If you hold a baby at around this age,

four or five months, up to a mirror

and if you put something on their nose

let's say like a piece of red let's say lipstick

on their nose and you hold a six month old

in front of a mirror what will that baby do?

The baby will just look at that mirror and go,

wow there's another baby there.

Alright, something interesting happens at around one year

to in between the ages of a year to a year and a half.

You put a baby around a year and a half up there

with something on it's nose and it almost always does what?

Yeah, it looks at the mirror and goes,

oh that's me that's on my nose.

Now why is that significant?

Well the significance to that is this baby

is now identifying that that person in the mirror is me.

That's a huge developmental step.

So you'll see this baby just smiling.

I don't know if you can see the red on there.

But this baby doesn't have any idea

that that person in the mirror is it.

This is called the rouge test.

It's just a really quick way,

so now the baby doesn't know you put a little bit of red

rouge on it's nose put it up there

and the baby mostly just stares again.

[class laughs]

It's just happy to see another baby.

Now, same with this baby, alright

about seven eight months same thing.

Now she's right around 16 months and watch what she does.

She reaches up and says, wait that's me.

Now, that's an amazing milestone right there.

That provides something very important

for researchers to begin to look at.

When do humans develop the awareness of self,

that this is me, I exist?

By the way, anybody know of any other animals

that if we were able to do something similar

they would know that it's them and not just another mammal?

Elephants have probably the ability to do this.

They have a sense of self that it's close,

you know to be honest I'm not sure

if elephants could do that or not.

Go ahead.

Yeah, dolphins have sense of self-awareness.

Any of the major orangutans, chimpanzees,

all will do this they'll begin to touch

and they know that that object in the mirror is themselves.

Now, in animals like this, what happens is they begin to

show this kind of sense that they exist

or there's at least a rudimentary awareness.

For children it also means that they begin

to develop around that time a moral sense.

A sense of things like right and wrong

and it's tied into this at the same time

they're beginning to develop this sense of self.

They're beginning to have this

basis of knowledge, or a moral sense.

Things are good, things are broken.

If you have a little kid who's 18 months

you'll start to hear this all the time.

One of their favorite phrases is, uh oh, like that.

And that means, oh that's not really good.

When you hear uh oh it usually means

like the toilet's really bad and over flowing everywhere.

And the kid goes, well what'd you do?

Well, my toy, yeah that is an uh oh.

Or they'll bring in a doll without a head

and they'll go like this, uh oh.

[class laughs]

Somebody bad did this.

And that means they know, well see that's a funny thing

to go uh oh, it means there's a right and this is wrong.

That's a moral sense that develops

during this sense of sensory motor.

Let's see if this one plays.

Yeah, let's try it.

Here's this object permanence,

and you can watch.

Nope, maybe this doesn't have any sound.

>> Woman On Video: Where is it?

Where'd it go?

>> She's pretty much unable to know that it's there.

[class laughs]

So now she just leaves.

So that make sense?

Before object permanence that's the idea.

Okay, well that wasn't any good at all.

And so it's during that stage where they

ultimately begin this process.

Now as they progress out of that,

as these kinds of sensory motor skills

and as they move out of this stage,

they turn into another stage Piaget called

this preoperational stage.

A preoperational stage was one that was

strongly related to how they begin to use language.

They begin to represent words and images

but the problem is they don't always have logic.

So we're gonna spend some time with

some preoperational kids, let me just show you

one very powerful things that they're able to do.

And we'll try it in here with our kids

as well that have visited today.

But here's one thing called the perspective taking ability

of a preoperational child called theory of mind.

So let's see this, it's a great study

on when they develop the ability

to take perspectives of others.

>> I'm gonna hide the sweet in one of my hands

and you have to see if you can guess where it is okay?

Which hand is it in?


>> [Male Video Narrator] These children are being shown

a simple game of hide the candy.

They do quickly understand the game.

>> Woman On Video: Yay. >> That one.

>> Woman On Video: Yay, well done.

>> [Male Video Narrator] When it's the children's turn

to hide the candy they divide into two groups.

There are those that do it, the older ones.

>> Woman On Video: Oh I got it, you hide the sweet.

>> [Male Video Narrator] And those that just can't get it.

>> Woman On Video: You hide it and I'll find it.

>> [Male Video Narrator] Before they are three

[class laughs]

these children are certain they can not perform magic

while their opponent can.

So they are hopeful--

[class laughter drowns out sounds]

As their brain develops they too

will acquire the experience to be be misleading.

Soon they will be able to see

into the mind of their opponent.

>> When a baby, this is a fairly easy test you can do.

You can try a three year old or a two year old

and just play that game and just see.

It's a very important stage that occurs

during this preoperational where we call it theory of mind.

They begin to go, oh somebody else has a thought

that they're thinking this and they now

can know what that person's thinking.

And so if I show you this, for example,

that person will know where the candy is, but if I do this.

It happens at around three and a half or four.

Now that's called a theory of mind.

I'll show you an example of that

today here in just a minute.

I'll show you also this thing of conservation,

and it also occurs during preoperational.

Let me just show you how this would work.

You've probably seen this before,

it's a fairly common well done study

that's been repeated a lot of times.


This is a theory of conservation that shows,

in fact I'll do it in here with some kids real fast.

Let's try, and I'll put the camera on,

and we'll have some kids come up real fast.

Let's see if we can do this.

[papers shuffling]

Alright, hopefully you guys will

be able to see this up here.

Are there any chairs?

Do you think somebody could bring that bench over to me?

Maybe two people, we're gonna

set it up here and put the kids on it.

I think they'll be, that might be to high.

That might work.

[class laughs]

Making you carry that, thanks for doing that.

Oh that'll be perfect.

It's a little wobbly though.

[class laughs]

No it's actually very safe.

[class laughs]

And we'll try microphones so...

We have, let's see if I can remember.

I know we have Andrew here today.

Lets see if I remember other names.


Andrew, Bella, and...


No, Cathy.

Okay, lets try, Bella you wanna come on up for a minute?

You wanna come try somethin?

Andrew, you can bring him on up over here.

Come on Andrew, come on you guys can come on over.

[class cheers]

How you doing kid?

>> I'm good.

>> You get to sit right there, ahhh.

[class laughs]

Okay, lets try this.

Zoom out, yes!

How you doing today kid?

>> I'm good.

>> Whoa, okay can you hold that for just sec?

Have you ever talked into one of those?

Say hello everybody.

>> Hello everybody.

[class applauds]

>> I love this class, do you love this class?

Do you have any favorite teachers?

I heard you go to school.

>> Well I don't go to this school.

>> You don't go to this school?

[class laughs]

Alright, okay, I think you're gonna do just fine.

Alright, Bella you wanna come sit up here?

Where's Bella, you wanna come up in a minute?

No maybe later, you think about it.

Cathy, you wanna come hang out with me for a minute?

You can bring, your sister can come with you.

No not yet, maybe eventually they can.

They don't have to, you guys can

sit there and watch for right now.

Okay, Andrew.

Junior officer, where'd you get this thing what is that?

>> I got it from a police officer.

>> A police officer, did you get arrested?

>> No. >> Are you in trouble?

>> NO! [class laughs]

>> What did he give you that for?

Cause you're a nice guy or a good kid or what?

>> I's good kid.


>> Uh yeah, I believe that.

Okay, we're gonna try and play some fun things today.

Does that sound really good?

Let's do that.

Alright so I'm gonna start with some easy questions.

Are you ready to try an easy question?

Well wait, are you in preschool?

Do you have a preschool, do you go to school anywhere?

>> Yeah at the ones. >> Where?

>> At the wrong ones.

>> Oh, the wrong ones?

[class laughs]

Yeah, some of these students have wrong ones too.

Okay, lets try this, and let me add

this is a very easy question, but are you a boy or a girl?

>> I'm a boy!


>> Dang, I knew that!

Okay, I need an M A L, do you know how to spell?

Neh don't worry about it, you'll get it eventually.

If you were in my class though,

I would teach you how to spell.

Eh, okay, I need an M A L E, got it?

With L O N G, got it?

H A I R.

Raise your hand.

An M A L E with L O N G, come on there's gotta be.

A little longer.

Okay, oh no you have other things, facial.

[class laughs]

Come on, somebody's gotta have it.

Alright perfect, alright Andrew I gotta question for you.

And I need a G I R L with just the opposite.

Right, yeah right here.

Do me a favor, are you okay this, playing this game?

Andrew, I have a question for you.

Am I a boy or a girl?

>> You're a boy.

>> Really?

How do you know?

>> Cause I can tell how you're talking.

>> How I'm talking.

>> A boy.

>> A boy, I have boy talk.

>> Yes.

>> How do girls talk by the way?

>> Girly talk.


>> I know, girly talk.

Yep, they do girly talk, that is really bad.

What's girly talk, like what do

they do what do they say for girls?

[class laughs]

It's kinda weird huh?

Okay, I'll tell you what, you kinda know some things.

This person back there, he's gonna stand.

That person is gonna stand up, where are they?

Where is that person?

[class laughs]

Okay, stand up person.

Is that a boy, or just kinda half way up not all the way,

boy or a girl?

>> A boy.

>> How do you know that's a boy?

>> I can tell by the hair.

[laughter and applause]

>> See that's why asked, see you know what I'm talking about.

Okay, how, how about her.

Raise your hand, hand, person, how about this person.

Boy or girl, right here Andrew, boy or girl?

>> Girl.

>> How do you know?

>> I just did.

[class laughs]

>> Okay, how did you know that was a boy

cause what about his hair?

It's just the boy hair?

>> Yeah.

>> Do boys have certain hairs?

>> Yes.

>> And do girls?

What do girls have?

What is that thing?

Here let's set it right here.


>> I'll show, ooo which hand, okay we'll do that in a minute.

[class laughs]

Yeah, okay lets try it right now theory of mind here we go.

Okay ready?

Which hand is it behind?


You did it, now you get to keep, okay now you do it for me.

>> Which hand?

>> Which hand?

[class laughs]

Well you have to bring it out so I can see.

Ooo, ahhh, um I'm not sure wait let me see.

Let me see, I bet it's, I bet it's that one.

Did I get it?


[Andrew laughs]

Yeah I didn't do it huh?

Lets try maybe it's a littler thing.

Oh no I can't do it.

Hold on we don't need to use a potato chip right now.

>> Potato chip.

>> Yeah this is a funny class, you set that right here.

Alright, by the way sometimes this

gender identity sets in around age four

but if you could find some boys with long hair

and they go oh that's a girl.

Or if a girl was to cut her hair

very shortly she could be turned into a boy.

Now by four,

[class laughs]

do you agree with that?

You don't even know what I said.

By the age of four, this tends to get,

gender identity tends to get stuck in there.

Lets try another easy question.

Are you ready for an easy one?

Yes, alright lets do this.

Close your eyes, now let me ask you this question.

Keep em closed, oop, keep em closed.

Okay, can I see you?

Well let me ask you this, can you see me?

Keep your eyes, can you see me?

Now can I see you?

[class laughs]

Wait, okay close your eyes.

Close your eyes one more time.

Can you see me?

No you can't see me, can I see you?

>> No. Oh yeah.


Can I see you?

>> Yes you can.

>> Yeah, about three and a half or four

you'll also find that children will develop this

kind of sense that even if I close my eyes

around three they will say oh you can't see me either.

My eyes are closed you can't see me.

So what Piaget did by the way,

was begin to look at things called egocentrism.

He would ask certain questions

like why certain things happen.

Andrew is it warm outside or cold today?

>> Warm.

>> Warm, why is it so warm out there do you know why?

>> Cause it's summer.

>> Yeah cause it's summer.


Yep, little kind of an edge there,

you know have you noticed that just a little?

Cause it's summer hello.

Do you know why is it so warm in the summer?

Do you have any idea?

>> Cause summer is hot days.

>> Yeah why is it so hot?

>> Cause summer's supposed to.

>> Yeah, that's right, do you love it when it rains?

Do you like the rain?

Or do you remember what that is?

>> Yeah cause it just helps flowers grow.

>> Class: Awwww.

>> That's why it rains, yeah, it really...

Don't encourage him, hello.

[class laughs]

So what Piaget would do is he'd begin

this process of asking them questions.

Because flowers grow, why else do you think it rains?

Have you ever been in the snow before?

Yeah do you like the snow?

Why do you think it snows?

>> Because you could be hot.

>> You could be really hot, and the snow helps what?

>> Get you cold.

>> It helps get you cold a little bit.

Some egocentric kids will say things like this,

it snows so I can play in it.

That would be egocentrism,

this kind of notion that things revolve around you.

It's hot because it helps me,

or it rains so I can have puddles to play in.

That's an egocentric thought that

tends to go away by the time you're 20.

[class laughs]

Not always, but most of the time.

Okay lets try this, I have some really fun questions.

Do you have a brother or a sister?

>> A brother.

>> What's your brother's name?

>> Conner.

>> Conner, that's a cool name.

Does Conner have a brother?

>> No!

[class laughs]

>> See it's again, egocentrism, you get it?

Do you see that, I mean that's a fascinating answer.

And Piaget went, well that's a weird thing to say.

He doesn't have any brothers, that's weird.

>> No it's just because they, they don't,

Conner doesn't met them anymore

because they live in a different state.

>> Yeah, okay that's right.

[class laughs]

We don't know what you just said.

>> They live in a different city!

>> Oh, what state do you live in?

>> We live in the state we already in.

>> Yeah what is that one, do you now happen to know

what that one's called I never remember?

>> That ones was called Florida.

>> Oh Florida, I love that state.

That's a cool one, probably a lot better than...

Okay, let's try this one.

[class laughs]

You're really fun and this is cool.

Now lets try one more theory of mind, ready.

I'm gonna ask you this question,

and would somebody do me a favor?

Would you do me a favor and just

leave the room for a second.

Wait tell me your name.

Oh yeah Judy, yeah leave the room.

She's gonna leave now and we'll come get her

in about two minutes she's gonna stand right there.

Andrew, I've gotta ask you this question.

What do you think is inside of this can?

>> Potato chips.


>> Potato chips, you're a smart kid, ready?

What's inside of there?

>> It's candy.

>> It's candy, that's so cool.

I love this, this is a great game.

Okay we're going to bring Judy in, she doesn't know.

Okay Judy come on in, okay Judy stand over there.

We're gonna ask Judy what's inside of here.

What do you think she's going to say is in here?

What do you think she's gonna say?

What is she gonna say?

>> Potato chips.

>> You think she's gonna say potato chips?

>> That's a good answer, it means at around four

that he is now developing this theory of mind why?

Can you think about it for a minute?

Why does that assign that he's developed

a sense of a theory of mind?

Because Judy by all rightful purposes,

when I show her this she should say what's in here?

Potato chips, and he said Judy's

going to say that what's in here?

>> Potato, candy!


>> See they go back and forth a lot too,

sometimes they get it.

Now, she's gonna think there's what in here?

What is she gonna say?

>> I know it's candy.

>> You know it's candy, what is she gonna say?

What is she gonna say is in here?

Judy what do you think is in here?

>> Judy: Pringles?

>> Pringles, she actually thought there are potato chips.

You got it right kid, okay you can sit down.

The point is this, did you get it?

He now has a good theory of mind that she's gonna say this.

For three year olds they'll say this,

oh she's gonna say candy,

cause that's what he just experienced.

Okay, does that make sense?

It's a cool thing.

Alright lets try what's called conservation.

This is a good one, alright.

Now I'm gonna put two, this is Coke, do you like Coke?

Do your parents, do you getta drink Coke?

Yeah, you want, eh no.

Okay, now look at these two things, there are two beakers.

And these two beakers have Cokes in them,

and I poured the same amount ready?

So, Andrew, does this one have more

or does this one have more or are they the same?

Well lets switch em around here

cause we'll try and make em the same.

Which one has more or are they the--

That one has more, it's not suppose to.

Let me see if I can fix it [grunts].

Okay, we'll take that off.

I'll pour a little bit in here okay

and that way they'll have he same.

Do they have the same now?

>> They do have the same.

>> Yes, awesome, now they have the same.

Now ready, I'm gonna hold this up

like this and they have the same right?

Now watch, I want you to point to the one,

they're the same now watch.

Okay now, which one has more or are they the same?

>> This one has more.

>> Really, this one has the most, why is that?

>> Because you tipped it over.


>> Hello!

Cause you tipped it over and this one has more.

If you were really thirsty which one would you drink?

Cause if you want a lot of Coke,

you are really really thirsty and you want

a lot a lot of Coke which one would you drink?

>> You would drink that one.

>> Yeah because it has more huh?

Now which one has more, or are they the same?

They're the same probably if you look at em,

or that one have a little bit more?

>> That one has more.

>> Yeah a little bit more.

That is an example of a theory of conservation,

and what did Piaget--

[Andrew moans into microphone]


Alright, stop it over there child.

Did you like these things?

You know I'd let you drink out of them,

but I don't know what was in there before

and we'll get you a drink are you thirsty?

I'm sorry I don't have anything.

Okay, do you understand conservation?

A little bit, you can see for you and I

we would go like this good night.

Even though, for Piaget what he found out

for these children, is in conservation

two principles are occurring.

I'll put his back up in just a minute on your slides.

But there are two key variables for Andrew at this stage

what' called centration and irreversibility.

Andrew is focusing on the central aspect of this problem.

What's the central aspect of this problem?

What's he focusing in on?

He's looking at the height of this liquid right?

This one now has more because it's taller.

And what he's not showing is this thing

called irreversibility, this ability to go

oh just do this and they're back to the same.

And this therefore should also be the same

and so there's two things the centration issue

and an irreversibility issue and that's how

this thing works for children of this age.

Can you see over, or I'll tell you what.

Lets try something over here.

Now, in the center.

Hey look behind you and I'll show you something really cool.

See back there that picture, can you see it alright?

Okay, it's kind of uncomfortable but now watch.

Which row has more of coins or are they the same?

So I'm gonna give you this thing.

Well no, yeah, this row can you see

that little red dot up there?

>> Yes. >> Which one has more?

This row, or this row on the left, or are they the same?

If these were coins, they look about the same?

>> They are.

>> They are?

Okay, hold that up and talk.

So they're the same huh?

Now watch this, now which one has more?

Watch up there, watch this.

Now which row has more coins,

this row or this row or are they the same?

>> That one.

>> This one has more?

>> No the other one.

>> This one has more, ah.

So this one has more, this one doesn't.

Usually, often times kids will say

this one's spread out more so it has more.

So he's beginning this idea of

what Piaget called conservation.

He probably won't catch it until around six,

five and a half and sometimes even seven.

Even this will take till about then

before they figure that out.

And so it's this idea that volume changes,

or volume doesn't change but let say

it's spread out more or turned this way.

It will often times show up as having more,

and so it's the same thing with a piece of paper.

Which one is taller, this one or this one,

or are they the same?

>> Uh the second's the shortest.

>> Okay he said the first, if we had these lined up

they look about the same now kinda?

Now watch, is one bigger or have more?

This one has more?

So, it's the same kind of thing you and I know

just because it simply moves it doesn't change.

You could test this, you can also

learn from it by splitting a Coke with a child

and giving them a real tall skinny glass

and you take a big fat one for yourself.


Okay, lets try one more thing related to...

Good not so good, not ready?

Cathy you wanna come up and sit up for a minute?

No you don't have to you can sit there and watch.

Here's the other thing that Piaget began to do.

Can I give you another question?

Alright this one's related to some

thinking like this in moral thinking.

Andrew here's what happened.

One day, guess what, where's Judy we'll start with Judy.

One day Judy, you know what she did?

Her mom told her, Judy do not climb up

on the counter and get the cookies.

Okay, that was her rule.

Do you have any rules like that,

what you're not suppose to do at the house?

What are some of your rules?

>> Mom never asks that.

>> She doesn't have any rules like that?

>> Yeah.

>> Yeah, no, sounds like a good mom.

>> Yeah.


>> Good deal, well you sound like

a pretty easy kid so guess what Judy did.

Her mom told her don't climb up on the counter

and you know what she did?

She climbed up on the counter before dinner

and she broke a glass, it fell over and broke.

[class laughs]

Can you believe she did that?

>> Oh yeah.

[class laughs]

>> Well, guess what Drew did one time.

One time Drew came running in the house

and he was so excited,

and his mommy was carrying eight eight glasses.

She had em all on a tray and he ran in

and he accidentally bumped into her

and she knocked all eight of em over

on accident and broke them.

Can you believe he did that?

Who should be in more trouble,

Drew because it was an accident and he broke eight,

or Judy because she climbed up

and broke one when she disobeyed her mommy.

Who should get in bigger trouble?

>> Well the bigger glass one.

>> The bigger glass one, Drew.

You think he should get in trouble,

why should he get in trouble more?

>> It's just because the cookies fell

down on the floor with the glass.

[class laughs]

And they coulda made a mess.

>> Yeah, that really wasn't part of the story.

[class laughs]

That was just like an element that maybe you threw in there.

But really, see what happened is

she just broke one glass that's all

when she climbed up there.

He broke eight on accident.

So the bigger glasses should get in trouble huh?

By the way, moral development for a kid this age

often times revolves around outcomes

and that is eight glasses even though it was an accident

that will be morally for them

they'll go ooo that should be bigger trouble.

Does that make sense?

One girl that disobeyed, oh it's just one glass.

And he'll pick this up as we all know

and recognize that if kids were out playing.

Okay ready, do you like to play sports

or do you play soccer or baseball yet?

>> No not yet.

>> Not yet.

You seem like a pretty smart kid are ya?

You doin pretty good in school

and do you obey your parents pretty good?

Do you watch T.V. somewhat?

What's your favorite show on T.V?

Do you ever getta watch cartoons?

>> Yeah I do.


>> What's your favorite cartoon?


>> Oh yeah.


>> What else, do you like VeggieTales?

You ever heard of that?

>> I never, no.

[class laughs]

>> Probably pretty much say anything right now.

Well in the capacity of this, this knowledge of if

kids were out running around

playing and trampling something.

Let's say they're playing football

and they tore up all the flowerbeds.

A child like this would say oftentimes

in this stage of morality they would think

to themselves well they should

get spankings and never play football again.

That would be a fairly common thing verses

oh they should go out and just replant the flowers

right fix em up.

And so we won't go through that,

but that's kind of some examples here.

Do you have any questions by the way before I go on?

Does this make sense with the way

Piaget attempted to do this?

Some of the stages of cognitive development?

Any questions you have of Andrew or yeah?


Yeah she asked about the question

about the rouge test in the mirror.

Yeah it has, the question is,

you're saying if they didn't have

any exposure to the mirror until a certain time.

Yeah for them it's not a time thing necessarily as it is

they believe more of a developmental thing.

A feature of the brain, it simply begins to

really understand something that I exist

and this is just evidence of this reflection.

Yeah, an older child almost immediately

would go [squish] that's that.

Even if they'd never seen a mirror before,

now they would have to catch their reflection.

But lets say a four year old that'd never seen a mirror

before they would catch it pretty

quickly that that reflection is theirs.

It's a good great question.

You having fun so far?

Yeah, should we see if there's any other questions?

I'll see if there's any other questions.

Anything else you have out there?

Real quickly with Andrew,

well in fact Andrew you've been so good guess what.

You finished, you did good up here.

>> Okay. >> Alright.

[audience cheers]

>> Anything you wanna say, anything you wanna say now

as far as, you wanna sing a song or anything?

Do you sing any songs?

I love this face he's like.

[class laughs]

Any songs you sing?

You wanna do a dance?

>> No!

>> No way, whoa!

[class laughs loudly]

I've seen that before many times.


Okay Andrew, well I'll tell you what, give me this thing.

Give me your hand, give me a five.

You did a good job come on down alright.

[audience cheering]

There are some very fascinating things that of course occur.

We're not going to be able to study

all of them related to the next age group.

I hope you caught a sense of what

a preoperational child is like.

The way Piaget and others attempt to go ahead

as developmental psychologists to explore

some of these cognitive changes in the brain.

There are huge changes that continue

to occur throughout life.

Let me just show you real fast,

what I want you to look at when it comes to adolescence

and moral development see Lawrence Kohlberg

he's got what's called this moral ladder.

And that is how people develop and grow morally,

and I want you to pay attention to that.

There are no questions on adulthood out of the exam,

or out of Chapter Four for the exam.

So you can read up to and through

adolesense and then begin to read adulthood.

We just don't have time to cover it.

[upbeat music]

>> Female Narrator: We hope you enjoyed this message.

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The Description of [PSYC 200] 8. Developmental Psychology: The Newborn