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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Scientists Discuss Space Matter

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>>> BEYOND THE GALAXY IS THE VAST EMPTY VASTNESS OF SPACE.

EMPTY? NOT QUITE.

ACROSS THE MILKY WAY, THE ENORMOUS DISTANCES FROM STAR TO

STAR ARE FILLED WITH MATTER. WHAT IS IT?

FROM WHERE DID IT COME? NEW SAMPLINGS BY NASA's IBEX

SPACECRAFT REVEAL MORE ABOUT THE NATURE OF THIS MATTER, MATTER

THAT IS THE BASIS FOR STARS, PLANETS AND EVEN, US HUMANS.

>>> GOOD AFTERNOON. I'M DWAYNE BROWN WITH THE OFFICE

OF COMMUNICATIONS AND WELCOME TO NASA HEADQUARTERS.

TODAY YOU WILL HEAR AND LEARN ABOUT THE ANATOMY OF ALL

GALACTIC NEIGHBORHOOD. THE INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE ON

THE WEB AT NASA.GOV/IBEX AND ALSO VIA TWITTER, FACEBOOK,

YOUTUBE AND OTHER SOCIAL MEDIA SITES.

WE'LL HAVE BRIEF PRESENTATIONS FROM OUR PRESENTERS AND THEN

OPEN IT UP FOR QUESTIONING STARTING HERE IN WASHINGTON AND

GO TO OUR PHONE LINES. WE HAVE A LOT TO COVER.

LET'S GET STARTED AND LET ME FIRST INTRODUCE YOU TO TODAY'S

SPEAKERS. FIRST UP, DAVE McCOCAS, IBEX,

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR AND ASSISTANT VICE PRESIDENT OF THE

SPACE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DIVISION, SOUTHWEST RESEARCH

INSTITUTE, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. PRISCILLA FRISCH, DEPARTMENT OF

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO.

EBERHARD MÖBIUS, SPACE SCIENCE CENTER AND DEPARTMENT OF

PHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE AND WHO'S CURRENTLY

VISITING PROFESSOR AT THE SPACE SCIENCE AND APPLICATION'S GROUP

LOS ALAMOS LABORATORY. AND SETH REDFIELD, ASSISTANT

PROFESSOR, WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY IN MIDDLETOWN, CONNECTICUT.

WITH THAT, I'LL TOSS IT TO DAVE. >> THANK YOU VERY MUCH, DWAYNE.

WE'RE INCREDIBLY EXCITED TO TELL YOU ABOUT SOME OBSERVATIONS.

SOMETHING THAT DIDN'T COME FROM OUR SUN OR OUR EARTH BUT OTHER

PARTS OF THE GALAXY AND WE'RE MAKING THESE FIRST MEASUREMENTS

WITH THE IBEX INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY MISSION.

THIS MATERIAL, THIS ALIEN INTERSTELLAR MATERIAL IS THE

STUFF THAT STARS AND PLANETS AND PEOPLE AND ALL OF US ARE MADE

OF. SO IT'S VERY IMPORTANT TO BE

MEASURING IT DIRECTLY. A NUMBER OF THESE SPECIES FOR

THE FIRST TIME. ALL OF THESE RESULTS ARE COMING

OUT TODAY IN A SET OF SIX PAPERS IN A SUPPLEMENT TO THE ASTRO

PHYSICAL JOURNAL, TIME TO GO WITH THIS PRESS CONFERENCE AND

BEFORE WE GET INTO THAT, I THINK WE NEED TO GIVE YOU A LITTLE BIT

OF BACKGROUND SO I'LL START WITH THE HELIUS SPHERES.

THE SOLAR WIND IS A MILLION FILE AN HOUR THAT BLOWS FROM THE SUN

IN ALL DIRECTIONS ALL THE TIME AND IT BASICALLY INFLATES A

BUBBLE IN THE LOCAL PART OF THE BUBBLE AND THE HELIAS SPHERES IS

NOTHING MORE THAN THE GREEK WORD FOR SUN AND FEAR SPHERE AND

IRRELEVANT PROTECTS THE INTERSOLAR SYSTEM FROM DANGEROUS

GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS THE MAJORITY OF WHICH WOULD COME

INTO THE PLANETS AND THE INNER PART OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM IF IT

WASN'T FOR THE STRUCTURE OUT THERE ABOUT 100 TIMES FURTHER

OUT THERE THAN THE SUN IS FROM THE EARTH, THE HELIOSPHERIC

BOUNDARIES. SO IT'S ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT

REGION FOR US AS SPACE-FARING PEOPLE BECAUSE WHEN YOU GET AWAY

FROM THE EARTH AND THE PROTECTION OF THE EARTH'S

ATMOSPHERE THESE COSMIC RAYS ARE MORE IMPORTANT AND MORE

DANGEROUS. SO MOVING ON TO THE NEXT MOVIE,

WHAT YOU'LL SEE IS THE IBEX SPACECRAFT LAUNCHED IN 2008,

OCTOBER OF 2008. IT'S ONLY ABOUT THREE FEET

ACROSS. A FOOT AND A HALF HIGH AND IT

WEIGHS ABOUT 200 POUNDS. IT'S A VERY SMALL SPACECRAFT.

IT POINTS AT THE SUN AND THE BLUE PANELS YOU SEE ON THE FRONT

WITH SOLAR LIKE YOU HAVE ON THE ROOF OF SOME HOUSES.

THAT'S WHERE WE GET OUR POWER FROM AND WE LOOK OUT THE TWO

SIDES WITH THESE VERY, VERY SENSITIVE CAMERAS WHICH ARE ABLE

TO DETECT NEUTRAL PARTICLES COMING IN FROM THE FAR, FAR EDGE

OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. AND SO, THAT'S IBEX, PART OF THE

EXPLORER PROGRAM HERE IN THE HELIO PHYSICS DIVISION AND THIS

IS THE LEAST EXPENSIVE MISSION. A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF SCIENCE

WE'RE GETTING OUT OF THIS VERY SMALL SPACECRAFT.

MY NEXT MOVIE, YOU'LL GET AN IDEA OF WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE FROM

THE OUTSIDE OF THE GALAXY. THIS IS AN ARTIST RENDITION BUT

AS WE ZOOM IN YOU'LL SEE US COME IN PAST THE BILLIONS OF STARS

THAT MAKE UP THE GALAXY AND WE'RE ABOUT HALFWAY OUT IN ONE

OF THE SPIRAL ARMS AND YOU CAN SEE OUR HELIOS SPHERES AS IT

MOVES PAST THE WIND. LET'S RIDE ALONG WITH THE

PARTICLES THAT ARE HEADED TOWARDS THE NOSE OF THE HELIOS

SPHERE. WE GET TO IT AND THE BOUNDARY

PUSHES AWAY THE PARTICLES AND THEY'RE LOST BUT THE NEUTRAL

PARTICLES ARE NOT AFFECTED BY THE MAGNETIC FIELD AND THEY CAN

COME DIRECTLY INTO THE SPHERE. SOME FLY IN PAST THE PLANETS AND

MOON TOWARDS THE EARTH AND A VERY FEW COME DIRECTLY INTO THE

SPACECRAFT AND THAT'S AFTER 30 YEARS AND IS 15 BILLION MILE

HOLE IN ONE. WITH THAT, WE'LL MOVE ON AND

PRISCILLA WILL TELL US ABOUT THE LOCAL PART OF THE GALAXY.

>> I'M GOING TO TALK ABOUT INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS.

INNER STELLAR CLOUDS ARE CLOUDS OF BETWEEN STARS.

THE IBEX EXAM MINUTES THE LOW DENSITY TENUOUS CLOUDS SO IT'S

DIFFERENT THAN THE CLOUDS FROM ORION.

SO WE'LL START OUR JOURNEY INTO THE GALACTIC NEIGHBORHOOD FROM

OUR MILKY WAY GALAXY. WE'LL SEE SPIRAL ARMS FULL OF

GIANT, DENSE CLOUDS, MASSES OF STARS AND DUST.

AND NEXT SLIDE, HE'S. ORION NEBULA IS NOTHING LIKE

AROUND THE SUN BUT IN A CLUED LIKE THIS CLOUDS ARE BORN AND

THEY ARE SUPER NOVA. AND YOU SEE THESE BEAUTIFUL ARCS

AND BUBBLES HAVE THAT BEEN BLOWN BY THE WINDS OF BRAND NEW STARS

INSIDE THE ORION NEBULA. THIS IS THE DEBRIS OF A SUPER

NOVA EXPLOSION THAT HAPPENED 1,000 YEARS AGO AND OBSERVED BY

YOUR ANCESTORS AND CALLED THE CRAB SUPER NOVA EXPLOSIONS AND

WHEN THE CRAB EXPLODED IT CASTS MANY OF THE ELEMENTS THAT THE

IBEX OBSERVED INTO SPACE. THE PERIODIC TABLE SHOWS YOU THE

HYDROGEN, HELIUM, OXYGEN AND NEON THAT IBEX IS OBSERVING

RIGHT NOW. THE FIRST DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF

INNER STELLAR MATERIAL MADE WITHOUT A TELESCOPE.

THE ANIMATION, PLEASE? NOW WE'RE GOING TO LEAVE THE

DENSE CLOUDS BEHIND US AND JOURNEY INTO THE VERY TENUOUS

SORT OF FLUFFY INNER STELLAR CLOUDS THAT SURROUND THE SUN

RIGHT NOW. WE'RE ACTUALLY IN A COMPLEX OF

CLOUDS AND THEY HAVE NAMES. SETH HAS NAMED SOME OF THEM.

WE'RE RIGHT AT THE EDGE OF WHAT WE CALL THE LOCAL CLOUD.

THAT'S THE BRIGHT YELLOW DOT IN THE CENTER OF THE FIGURE AND YOU

CAN SEE WE'RE MOVING WITH RESPECT TO THESE CLOUDS.

THE YELLOW ARROW SHOWS THE DIRECTION OF THE SUN'S MOTION.

NOW, BECAUSE OF THIS MOTION, INNER STELLAR GAS AND DEATH ARE

BLOWN THROUGH THE HELIOSPHERES AND DUST AND GAS ARE BLOWN

THROUGH BUT IBEX ONLY MEASURES THE GAS COMPONENT, OF COURSE.

YOU SEE WE'RE AT THE EDGE OF CLOUD AND ONE OF THE REASONS WE

KNOW WE'RE AT THE EDGE OF THE CLOUD IS THE NEXT CLOUD OVER IS

IN FRONT OF THE GALACTIC CENTER CALLED THE G CLOUD AND THE STAR

ALPHA IS BEHIND THE G CLOUD AND WHEN WE LOOK AT ALPHA CENTORI WE

DON'T SEE THE EDGE OF THE LOCAL CLOUD SO WE KNOW WE'RE AT THE

EDGE. PLEASE START THE ANIMATION.

WE CHANGE CLOUDS EVERY 45,000 YEARS AND HAVE BEEN AN A LOCAL

CLOUD FOR 45 YEARS AND THE DATA INDICATES WE'LL LEAVE IT IN THE

NEXT FEW THOUSAND YEARS AND WHEN WE LEAVE IT, THE INSTRUMENT ON

IBEX WILL MEASURE SOMETHING DIFFERENT BUT WE DON'T KNOW

WHAT. SO EBERHARD?

>> LET ME REMIND YOU, THE SOLAR WIND INFLATES THE BUBBLE, HELIS

SPHERE AND WITH THAT, THE DANGEROUS COSMIC RAYS BUT THE

NEUTRALS PUNCH RIGHT THROUGH IT AND THEY MAKE IT ALL THE WAY TO

THE EARTH. HERE, IBEX CATCHES THIS WIND AND

I MUST SAY PERSONALLY, THAT'S WHAT EXCITES ME THE MOST.

THAT'S THE PART OF IBEX THAT I WAS LOOKING FORWARD TO WHEN WE

STARTED IBEX. NOW, TO VIEW THIS, LET'S TAKE

THE NEXT SLIDE AND WE BOUGHT THE ENTERPRISE NOW, WHICH BRINGS US

FAR AWAY FROM THE SUN AND NOW WE SEE THIS AND WHEN WE LOOK UP AND

WE SEE THE INTERSTELLAR WIND AS A BRIGHT SPOTLIGHT BECKONING US

FROM A SCORPIO. DO YOU SEE SAGITARRIUS AND LIBRA

TO THE RIGHT IN A VIEW YOU CAN SEE AROUND MIDNIGHT IN JUNE WHEN

LOOKING SOUTH. LET'S ANIMATE THAT AND WATCH

BACK TO THE EARTH AND THE VIEW OPENS UP TO THE ENTIRE SKY.

AND AT EARTH, OUR IBEX WISER AWAITS THE PARTICLES AND YOU SEE

IT TRANSITIONING TO AN IBEX MAP WHERE THE BRIGHT RED WINDS COMES

NOW FROM LIBRA. WHY HAS IT SHIFTED FROM SCORPIO

TO LIBRA. THE CULPRIT IS THE SUN.

WITH ITS GRAFF TERRIBLE FIELD IT BENDS THE FLOW AROUND LIKE IF

YOU SHOOT UP A SOCCER BALL STRAIGHT INTO THE AIR, IT IS

FORCED TO FALL BACK TO THE GROUND IN THE CURVE.

AND IN THE NEXT VIEW, WE VIEW THAT FROM A VANTAGE POINT HIGH

UP ABOVE THE NORTH POLE, LOOKING DOWN.

YOU SEE THE FLOW TO PROJECTRY IS AWAY AS THEY ARE BENT BY THE

SUN'S GRAVITY. IBEX, AT SOME POINT A SPINNER

CAN ONLY VIEW THESE WHEN THE FLOW COMES RIGHT ALONG THE

EARTH'S ORBIT AND THAT HAPPENS IN EARLY FEBRUARY, ACTUALLY

COMING UP IN A WEEK OR SO, AND WE'RE EXCITED TO SEE THIS ONE

MORE TIME THIS YEAR AND HOW IT HAS CHANGED.

NOW THE FLOW TRAJECTORY, DEPENDING ON THE SPEED, ARE

DIFFERENT. THE DARKER BLUE IS A SLOWER FLOW

THAT GETS BENT MORE THAN THE LIGHTER BLUE, WHICH IS FARTHER

AND SHOOTS BY. NOW IBEX SEES THE LOWER EARLIER

IN THE ORBIT THAN THE FASTER STUFF, SEES THE SLOWER STUFF

EARLIER IN THE ORBIT THAN THE FASTER STUFF.

THIS IS OUR ODOMETER WHICH IS HOW WE NAIL DOWN HOW FAST THE

INTERSTELLAR WIND IS AND THEN RELATING IT TO AN ASTRONOMICAL

OBSERVATION WE CAN TELL WHICH ONE OF THE CLOUDS WHICH ACTUALLY

CALL HOME. THE NEXT VIEW SHOWS THE RESULTS,

THE SPEED UP THE DIRECTION IN LONGITUDE TO THE SIDE.

AND OUR NEW RESULTS TAKEN WITH THE TWO DIFFERENT WAYS OF USING

THIS SPEEDOMETER SHOWS US WHERE WE ARE, COMPARED TO THE OLD

RESULTS IT'S A LITTLE SLOW HER A DIFFERENT DIRECTION.

THAT'S THE BLUE. BUT THIS SOLVED A PUZZLE.

THE OLD RESULTS DIDN'T REALLY PUT US INTO ANY OF THE

NEIGHBORING CLOUDS. BUT WITH THE NEW RESULTS WE'RE

RIGHT IN THE LOCAL CLOUD. ISN'T MOTHER NATURE AMAZING?

TO PROVIDE US WITH A SPEEDOMETER JUST FOR FREE.

AND THIS NEW RESULT HAS SOME INTERESTING CONSEQUENCES.

ALSO, THE PRESSURE ON THE NOSE OF THE HELIS SPHERE IS LESS THAN

WE THOUGHT BEFORE. SETH WILL TAKE THIS UP LATER BUT

BEFORE WE GO THERE, LET'S TURN TO ANOTHER CAPABILITY OF IBEX,

NAMELY, TO ALSO SOUGHT OUT THE ELEMENTS OF THIS FLOW.

AND IBEX HAS SEEN HYDROGEN, OXYGEN AND NEON FOR THE FIRST

TIME, IN ADDITION TO HELIUM, WHICH WE'VE SEEN BEFORE.

THERE'S LESS OXYGEN COMPARED TO NEON IN OUR NEIGHBORHOOD THAN IN

THE SUN AND THE MILKY WAY. THAT LEAVES US WITH A PUZZLE FOR

NOW. COULD IT BE THAT SOME OF THE

OXYGEN WHICH IS SO CRUCIAL FOR LIFE ON EARTH IS LOCKED UP IN

THE COSMIC DUST? OR DOES IT TELL US HOW

DIFFERENT, ACTUALLY, OUR NEIGHBORHOOD IS COMPARED TO THE

SUN'S BIRTH PLACE? ONLY TIME, SOME MORE DATA FROM

IBEX, AND I CAN TELL YOU EARLY EXCITING WORK WILL TELL US.

SETH, WHAT'S YOUR TAKE ON THIS? >> THANK YOU.

MY JOB IS TO PROVIDE A LITTLE PERSPECTIVE FROM SOMEONE OUTSIDE

OF THE IBEX TEAM. AND TO TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT

THE BROADER IMPLICATIONS OF THESE RESULTS.

AND LET ME BEGIN BY SAYING HOW EXCITED IT IS THAT WE KNOW WHERE

THE SUN IS LOCATED, NOW RELATIVE TO THESE INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS.

SO MUCH OF WHAT WE DO AND WE EXPLORE THE COSMOS IS TRY TO PUT

OURSELVES IN CONTEXT, OURSELVES, THE EARTH, THE SUN, AND IBEX HAS

DONE THIS WITH THIS NEW DISCOVERY.

WITH MY FIRST SLIDE, I SHOW TWO IMAGES THAT YOU'VE SEEN BEFORE

ON THE LEFT IS A VIEW THAT PRISCILLA SHOWED AND IT'S A VIEW

OF THIS COLLECTION OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS, RIGHT

AROUND THE SUN. THEY'RE ALL MOVING WITH THEIR

OWN UNIQUE MOTIONS. AND THE TWO NEARER CLOUDS, THE

LOCAL CLOUDS AND G CLOUDS WE'VE KNOWN FOR SOME TIME THAT THERE'S

A DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THE MOTION THAT WE OBSERVED FOR THESE

CLOUDS BY LOOKING AT NEARBY STARS AND THE OLD RESULTS OF

ATOMS STREAMING INTO THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

THERE'S A DISCREPANCY THAT WE COULDN'T EXPLAIN.

THESE NEW IBEX MEASUREMENTS MATCH THE MOTIONS THAT WE

OBSERVED FROM STARS TO A LOCAL CLOUD PERFECTLY AND WHAT IT DOES

IS IT PINPOINTS OUR LOCATION INSIDE THE LOCAL CLOUD.

WE'RE VERY NEAR THE EDGE BUT NOW WE KNOW THAT WE'RE IN THE LOCAL

CLOUD AND LOCATION IS REALLY IMPORTANT, BECAUSE THE HELIOS

SPHERE IS THE OUTWARD SOLAR WIND AND THE COMPRESSION FROM THE GAS

AND DUST THAT SURROUND IT. SO IF YOU'RE IN A DIFFERENT

INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM ENVIRONMENT YOU'RE GOING TO CREATED A

DIFFERENT HELIOSPHERE CONSTRUCTION.

AND IT CHANGES WITH TIME AS IT PASSES INTO A DENSE INTERSTELLAR

CLOUD IT WILL BE COMPRESSED AND VERY SMALL.

AND AS IT MOVES INTO ANOTHER CLOUD, IT WILL EXPAND OUT AGAIN

AND THIS HAS CONSEQUENCES FOR SHIELDING US FROM THESE

DANGEROUS GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS. SO LEARNING ABOUT THE

HELIOSPHERE TODAY HELPS US UNDERSTAND IT AS IT WAS IN THE

PAST AND HOW IT WOULD BE IN THE FUTURE.

NOW WE KNOW WHERE WE ARE AND WHERE WE'RE COMING FROM AND WE

KNOW WHERE WE'RE GOING. THIS COMPRESSION IS SO CHAMPION

THAT WE THINK THAT MOST IF NOT ALL STARS HAVE A STRUCTURE

THAT'S ANALOGOUS TO THE HELIO SPHERE AND THOSE WE CALL ASTRO

SPHERES. AND IN MY NEXT SLIDE I SHOW

SEVERAL EXAMPLES OF THESE. THESE ARE VERY DRAMATIC EXAMPLES

OF STARS MOVING THROUGH A DENSE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OR STARS WE

VERY, VERY STRONG SOLAR WINDS. AND THE IMAGE ON THE BOTTOM IS

PARTICULARLY STRIKING. IT LOOKS LIKE A COMMENT.

THE STAR IS MOVING SO QUICKLY YOU CAN SEE THE WEAK OF ITS

AFTERS SPHERE BEING SPREAD OUT, KIND OF LIKE A JET TRAIL FROM A

JUMBO JET FLYING OVERHEAD. AND BECAUSE OF THE GREAT

DIVERSITY OF STARS AND THE INCREDIBLE DIVERSITY OF

DIFFERENT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM ENVIRONMENTS, THE NUMBER OF

CONFIGURATIONS THAT YOU CAN HAVE IS ENDLESS.

WE'RE GOING TO BE PRESENTED WITH THIS VAST ZOO OF SPHERES AND THE

GOLD STANDARD WITH WHICH WE'RE GOING TO STUDY THESE ASTROSPHERE

SO WE NEED TO EVALUATE THESE OTHER STRUCTURES.

ON FINALLY, ON MY LAST SLIDE I WANTED TO TALK ABOUT THE

IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DISCOVERIES IN THE FUTURE.

AND I SHOW, I ZOOM IN, AGAIN, INTO OUR VERY LOCAL COSMIC

NEIGHBORHOOD, YOU CAN SEE THE LOCAL CLOUD AND THE G-CLOUD

THERE AND I INDICATED THE LOCATION OF KNOWN DETECTED ASTRO

SPHERES. SO UNLIKE THE REALLY DRAMATIC

EXAMPLES I SHOWED IN THE FIRST SLIDE, FINDING ASTROSPHERE IN

THE SUN IS DIFFICULT AND IT'S BEEN IN THE LAST 10 OR 15 YEARS

WE'VE BEEN ABLE TO REFINE THE TECHNIQUES AND FIND THE

INSTRUMENTATION WITH WHICH TO MAKE THESE DISCOVERIES SO IN

THIS VERY LOCAL VOLUME, WHERE THERE ARE ABOUT 100 STARS, WE

KNOW OF ABOUT TEN THAT HAVE ASTROSPHERES.

ALPHA SENTARI, HAS AN ASTRO SPHERE AROUND IT AND WE'RE

DISCOVERING THESE PLANETS AND A INDICATED THE LOCATION OF STARS

THAT HAVE HAD PLANETS DISCOVERED AROUND THEM.

AND WE KNOW OF AT LEAST TWO CASES WHERE WE DISCOVERED BOTH A

PLANETARY SYSTEM AND AN ASTROSPHERE AROUND IT AND THESE

ARE THE TRUE ANALOGS TO OUR SOLAR SYSTEM AWHERE WE HAVE A

HELIOSPHERE THAT PROTECTS US FROM GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS ON

EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS. WHILE WE HAVE ANOTHER EXAMPLE

WHERE THAT STAR WITH ITS OWN ASTROSPHERE IS PROTECTING THE

PLANETARY SYSTEM AROUND THAT PARTICULAR STAR.

AND IN THE NEXT TEN YEARS OR SO, I THINK WE'LL OPENING UP NEW

RESEARCH AREAS AND WE'LL HAVE NEW QUESTIONS THAT WE COULD WANT

HAVE ADDRESSED 10 OR 15 YEARS AGO.

ALL THESE THINGS ARE COMING TOGETHER.

WE'RE FIND PLAQUE NETS AND WE'RE FINDING ASTROSPHERE AND

UNDERSTANDING ALL OF THIS SO I THINK WE'LL BE ATTING HOW THIS

AND HOW THIS IMPACTS HOW THINGS HAPPEN ON PLANETS AND IN

PARTICULAR, COULD AFFECT THE HABITABILITY OF THESE PLANETS.

SO WITH THAT I'LL PASS IT BACK TO DAVE.

>> THANK YOU, SETH. TODAY WE'RE AMOUNTSING THESE

FIRST OBSERVATIONS OF THE DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF INTERSTELLAR

MATERIAL, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN AND NEON, QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS

OF THOSE TO JOIN PREVIOUS MEASUREMENTS MADE BEFORE OF

HELIUM AND THESE ARE IMPORTANT ELEMENTS TO KNOW QUANTITATIVELY.

THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF STARS, PLANETS AND PEOPLE SO IT'S VERY

IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT HIM. WE DISCOVERED THIS BIG PUZZLE

THAT THE MATTER OUTSIDE OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM DOESN'T LOOK LIKE

THE MATERIAL INSIDE -- FROM THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM OR

ACROSS THE GALAXY ON AVERAGE AS FAR AS WE KNOW.

AND IT SEEMS TO BE DEFICIENT IN OXYGEN COMPARED TO NEON WHICH

LEAVES US WITH THE BIG QUESTION, THE PUZZLE.

IS IT REALLY SUCH A DIFFERENT REGION THAT WE HAPPEN TO BE IN

RIGHT NOW, UNREPRESENTATIVE IN SOME WAY?

VERY DIFFERENT FROM WHERE THE SUN WAS FORMED?

OR IS THAT LIFE-GIVING OXYGEN LOCKED UP IN OTHER THINGS?

LOCKED UP, PERHAPS, IN DUST OR ICES?

THAT FLOAT AROUND THROUGH THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM?

AND FINALLY, WE'VE CAUGHT THIS INTERSTELLAR WIND AND MEASURED

THE SPEED AND IT'S NOT AS FAST AS WE THOUGHT IT WAS GOING ANDS

THAT HAS A VERY IMPORTANT LOW INDICATION BECAUSE THE PRESSURE

IS LESS. THE HELIOSPHERE IS MORE

DOMINATED BY THE EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD AND LESS BY THE

FLOWING IN MATERIAL THAN WE EXPECTED.

THAT HAS IMPORTANT IMPLICATIONS FOR WHAT THE HELIOSPHERE

STRUCTURE IS LIKE AND FOR ANSWERING QUESTIONS ABOUT HOW

EXACTLY THE HELIOSPHERE DOES THIS CRITICAL SHIELDING OF

COSMIC RADIATION. AND I GUESS I'D ADD ON A

PERSONAL NOTE I'M DELIGHTED THAT WE WERE ABLE TO DO THISSY ONE OF

THE SMALLEST, FASTEST AND LEAST-EXPENSIVE THINGS NASA

DOES, THE SMALL EXPLORER AND WITH THAT, DWAYNE, WE'D LOVE TO

TAKE SOME QUESTIONS. >> CONGRATULATIONS TO THE TEAM

AND EBERHARD, I REALLY ENJOYED THE ENTERPRISE TEST YOU PUT IN

HERE. FOR THE QUESTION AND ANSWER

PERIOD, WE'RE GOING TO START HERE IN WASHINGTON AND IF YOU

CAN WAIT FOR THE MIC AND GIVE YOUR NAME AND AFFILIATION AND

POSE YOUR QUESTION. >> MY NAME IS ABDULLAH AND I'M

FROM -- MY QUESTION IS FOR ANYONE THAT WOULD LIKE TO GIVE

THEIR INSIGHT. OF ALL THE DISCOVERIES, IF YOU

WERE TO POINT OUT ONE DISCOVERY THAT WOULD HAVE THE MOST IMPACT

ON SCIENCE IN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS, WHAT WOULD THAT BE?

THANK YOU. >> THAT'S A GREAT QUESTION.

I THINK WE'LL PROBABLY ANSWER IT WITH TWO OR THREE DIFFERENT

ANSWERS BECAUSE WE MAY FEEL INDIVIDUALLY THAT YOU KNOW,

DIFFERENT ONE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ONE.

SETH, WHAT'S YOUR TAKE ON THAT? >> I THINK THE DISCOVERY OF

OTHER PLANETS COUPLED WITH OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE IMPACT

THESE GALACTIC COULD HAVE ON PLANETS THEMSELVES OR EVEN THE

EMERGENCE OF LIFE OR EVOLUTION OF SUBLIFE, IS REALLY

FASCINATING. AND I'M REALLY EXCITED BY THESE

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THINGS HERE IN OUR WORLD, ON PLANET EARTH.

THINGS THAT ARE HAPPENING WITH THE FLOW OF GAS AND DUST.

WHAT IT'S DOING TO OUR GALAXY. THERE ARE CONNECTIONS THIS THAT

WE HAVEN'T EXPLORED FULLY. AND NOW, WITH THESE RESULTS FROM

IBEX AND THESE OTHER DISCOVERIES, THEY'RE ALL COMING

TOGETHER INTO A REALLY INTERESTING TOPIC.

>> I WOULD LIKE TO ADD, THAT THERE MUST BE BASICALLY AROUND

EVERY STAR IN THIS GALAXY, THERE MUST BE PLANETS, SO THERE'S NO

EVIDENCE -- THERE'S NEW EVIDENCE FOR THAT.

SO IF YOU PUT THAT OUT THERE, THAT HAS TO BE OTHER LIFE OUT

THERE, NOT LOOKING LIKE US -- IN ""STAR TREK"" THEY -- THEY LOOK

LIKE US BUT THERE MUST BE INTELLIGENT LIFE OUT THERE AND

MAYBE WE CAN COMMUNICATE BUT WITH THIS LONG DISTANCE IT'S A

LONG, DROWN-OUT DISCUSSION. AND I THINK THAT'S REALLY

PROFOUND NOT TO HAVE JUST THE OF LIFE ON EARTH, BECAUSE

SPECIES -- IT'S LIFE AS WE KNOW IT HERE AND WHO KNOWS WHAT IS

ALL OUT THERE? >> I GUESS I WOULD HAVE TO SAY,

I'M NOT SURE THERE IS LIFE OUT THERE, I DON'T KNOW ONE WAY OR

THE OTHER BUT I KNOW THESE ASTROSPHERES WILL PROVIDE A VERY

IMPORTANT PART OF THE PROCESS IF THERE IS LIFE FOR THE FORMATION

OF LIFE BECAUSE THEY PROVIDE THIS CRITICAL SHIELDING AND

THAT'S THE PART THAT WE'VE REALLY BEEN STUDYING AND WE'RE

ABLE TO DO QUANTITATIVELY NOW WITH MEASUREMENTS FROM IBEX.

PRISCILLA? >> I THINK UNDERSTANDING OUR

GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT INCLUDING THE HELIOSPHERE AND ASTRO

SPHERES ARE PROBABLY THE MOST EXCITING THING IBEX IS DOING BUT

I THINK THE ONE THAT WILL HAVE THE WIDEST IMMY OCCASION

SCIENTIFICALLY IS THE NEON TO OXYGEN RATIO.

THE NEON TO OXYGEN RATIO IS DIRECTLY TELLING US ABOUT ONE OF

THE MOST MYSTERIOUS ELEMENTS IN OUR NEIGHBORHOOD OF THE GALAXY

WHICH IS OXYGEN. WHEN WE LOOK AT THE STARS WE

DON'T SEE ENOUGH OXYGEN AND SO WE ASSUMED THAT THAT OXYGEN IS

ON INTERSTELLAR -- BUT WE CAN'T OBSERVE IT ON INTERSTELLAR DUST

GRAINS. SOME GRAINS HAVE WATER ICE ON

THEM BUT NOT HAVE MANY SO THE MYSTERY IS -- WHERE IS THE

OXYGEN? AND THE IBEX MEASUREMENT ARE

GIVING US THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN INTERSTELLAR CLOUD WHERE WE

PROBABLY, HOPEFULLY SOON, WILL HAVE THE BEST SET OF INFORMATION

THAT WE CAN HAVE ON ANY INTERSTELLAR CLOUD SO AS FAR AS

SCIENTIFIC IMPLICATIONS THE NEON TO OXYGEN RATIO WHICH IS TELLING

US ABOUT THE INTERSTELLAR DUST IS GOING TO ASSESS A HUGE RANGE

OF ASTRONOMERS. SO MANY ASTRONOMICAL QUESTIONS

HINGE ON THINGS LIKE THAT. >> SO THERE YOU GO.

THAT'S OUR ONE-PERSON TAKE ON THAT.

>> ERIC? >> I GUESS MY QUESTION IS FOR

DAVE. WE HAVE THESE TWO PIECES OF

NEWS. ONE, THE HELIUM -- SORRY, THE

NEON AND OXYGEN RATIOS BUT ALSO, IT SEEMS YOU'RE SAYING THAT

THESE RESULTS ARE AFFECTING OUR PICTURE OF NOT ONLY WHERE WE ARE

IN THE LOCAL CLOUD BUT THE SHAPE OF THE HELIOSPHERE AND I WAS

HOPING YOU COULD PUT UP THE SLIDE AGAIN WHICH HAS ME

PERPLEXED AND EXPLAIN WHAT IT IS THAT YOU MEASURED AND HOW IT'S

AFFECTING OUR PICTURE OF WHERE WE ARE IN THE LOCAL CLOUD AND

WHAT THE CHANGES ARE? >> SURE.

>> THE NEW PICTURE OF WHAT THE HELIOSPHERE LOOKS LIKE?

>> GREAT QUESTION, ERIC, THANKS. GO BACK TO THAT GRAPHIC AND I

SEE THEY HAVE IT UP ALREADY. THIS IS THE STRUCTURE AS WE'VE

TRIED TO UNDERSTAND IT OVER THE LAST FIVE OR TEN YEARS OR SO.

AND WE KNOW ABOUT THE TERMINATION SHOT BECAUSE THE

VOYAGER SPACECRAFT CROSSED THE TERMINATION AND THEY'RE BEYOND

THE TERMINATION SHOCK WHICH IS BASICALLY THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN

THE SOLAR MATERIAL ON THE INSIDE AND THE GALACTIC MATERIAL ON THE

OUTSIDE. WHAT WE'VE LEARNED IS THIS

INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM YOU SEE ON THE RIGHT FLOWING IN, IS

ACTUALLY MOVING ENOUGH SLOWER THAT THAT PRESSURE IS ABOUT 20

TO 25% LESS THAN WE THOUGHT IT WAS BEFORE.

AND ONE OF THE THINGS WE LEARNED EARLIER FROM IBEX WITH THE IBEX

RIBBON WAS THE IMPORTANCE OF THE EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD.

AND WE THOUGHT, WELL, ALMOST EVERYTHING IS DRIVEN BY THIS

FLOWING PRESSURE AND THEN WE LEARNED WITH THE EARLIER RESULTS

FROM IBEX KNOW THAT'S IMPORTANT BUT ALSO IMPORTANT IS THIS

EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD AND NOW WE KNOW THE FLOW IS EVEN LESS,

25% LESS PRESSURE WHICH MAKES THE EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD

COMPONENTS EVEN MORE IMPORTANT SO MY PICTURE OF THE HELIO

SPHERE IS THAT IT'S EVEN MORE COMPRESSED BY THE EXTERNAL FIELD

AND LESS DRIVEN BY THE IN-FLOWING PRESSURE AND I'M NOT

SURE TODAY THAT SHOCKS THAT WE'VE BEEN DRAWING IN FOR

DECADES, EXISTS AT ALL. EVEN THOSE FLOW PRINTS.

>> IN MY MIND, THROWING MATERIAL IS ALSO A COMPRESSING SORT OF

THING, ALONG WITH -- WHY ARE YOU SAYING THAT'S OUR -- THAT'S AN

EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD WITH LESSER INFLOW.

>> THERE ARE TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF PRESSURE.

PRESSURE FROM MOVING MATERIAL. WHEN YOU DRIVE YOUR CAR DOWN THE

STREET, YOU PUSH THROUGH AIR AND THE FASTER YOU GO THE MORE

PRESSURE IT PUTS BACK ON YOU. THAT'S THE PRESSURE FROM THE

INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM. THERE'S ALSO PRESSURE FROM

MAGNETIC FIELD LINES WHICH ARE LIKE BUNGEE CORDS.

THINK OF HAVING A -- PULLING A BEACH BALL THROUGH A ROOM FILLED

WITH BUNGEE CORDS FROM FLOOR TO CEILING AND HAVE IT SQUEEZE THE

BEACH BALL AS YOU PULL IT THROUGH.

BOTH OF THOSE TYPES OF PRESSURE OCCUR ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE

HELIOSPHERE BUT WHAT WE'VE LEARNED NOW IS THAT FLOWING

PRESSURE FROM THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IS MUCH LESS SIGNIFICANT

THAN WE THOUGHT IT WAS BEFORE. AND THAT MEANS THAT BALANCE

BETWEEN THE TWO IS DIFFERENT AND THAT COULD HAVE PRETTY

SIGNIFICANT IMPLICATIONS FOR HOW THE EXTERIOR STRUCTURE OF THAT

INTERACTION REALLY WORKS. >> SO WHAT IS ITS SHAPE, THEN?

>> THAT'S A GOOD QUESTION BECAUSE WE DON'T EXACTLY TAKE A

PICTURE OF THE SHAPE. BUT IT'S PROBABLY A LOT MORE

COMPRESSED ALONG THE FIELD AND NOT AS BLUNT AS WE THOUGHT.

THE TAIL ON THE BACKSIDE IS PROBABLY OFFSET.

NOT EXACTLY IN THE ANTI-FLOW DIRECTION BUT PULL MORE DOWN

TOWARDS THE DIRECTION OF THE EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD AND THAT

SORT OF THING. >> ALL RIGHT, WE'RE GOING TO NOW

GO TO THE PHONE LINES. AND FIRST UP, DENISE CHILD,

SPACE.COM, DENISE? >> Caller: HI, THANKS FOR TAKING

MY QUESTION. I THINK THIS IS PROBABLY FOR

DAVE. I'M WONDERING AS WE'RE GOING

INTO AN INCREASED PHASE OF SOLAR ACTIVITY HOW YOU THINK THAT WILL

AFFECT THIS REGION AND THE OBSERVATIONS THAT WE'LL BE ABLE

TO MAKE? ARE YOU EXPECTING TO SEE MORE

DYNAMIC CHANGES? >> YEAH.

THAT'S A GREAT QUESTION. THANK YOU.

SO AS I SAID AT THE START OF THIS, THE HELIOSPHERE IS

ACTUALLY INFLATED BY THIS MILLION-MILE-AN-HOUR SOLAR WIND

THAT FLOWS OUT ALL DIRECTIONS IN SPACE ALL THE TIME FROM THE SUN

AND THIS BALANCE CREATING THE OUTER HELIO SPHERIC INTERACTION

IS A FUNCTION OF BOTH OF WHAT'S COMING IN FROM THE OUTSIDE WHICH

IS WHAT WE TALKED ABOUT TODAY THAT WE HAVE A LOT OF NEW

INFORMATION ON THAT WE DIDN'T HAVE BEFORE TODAY, AND WHAT'S

PUSHING OUT FROM THE INSIDE WHICH IS THE SOLAR WIND, SO THE

INCREASING DYNAMIC PRESSURE AND THE MORE VARIABLE IN THE SOLAR

WIND WILL TRY TO INFLATE THE HELIOSPHERE A LITTLE MORE,

NORTHEAST TEMPORARILY AND THE VARIABILITY MEANS THE WHOLE

HELIOSPHERE IS LIKELY TO SORT OF BREATHE AND VARY AS WE HEAD

INTO SOLAR MAXIMUM. SO IT WILL BE A DIFFERENT

INTERAX. THAT'S PRETTY INTERESTING FOR

US, TOO, AND SOMETHING ELSE THAT WE DIDN'T MENTION BUT IBEX WAS

MOVED INTO A VERY LONG-TERM STABLE ORBIT LAST SUMMER AND NOW

IS IN A POSITION WHERE WE HAVE CONSUMABLE HYDROGEN GAS AND LOW

RADIATION ENVIRONMENT WHERE WE HOPE THAT IBEX WILL LAST FOR

ANOTHER DECADE OR MORE. SO WE'LL ACTUALLY SEE A SOLAR

CYCLE VARIATION IN THE INFLATION PRESSURE FROM THE INSIDE.

EBERHARD? >> I WOULD LIKE TO ADD THE THAT

THAT THE SOLAR CYCLE HAS A PROFOUND INFLUENCE ON THIS

INTERSTELLAR WIND THAT COMES IN. IT COMES IN NEUTRAL BUT THE SUN,

WITH ITS ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION, IONIZES PART OF THE WIND SO IT

ROBS THE ATOMS OF ELECTRONS AND THEN THE SOLAR WIND SWEEPS THE

CHARGED PARTICLES AWAY. AND THAT IS DIFFERENT FOR THE

DIFFERENT ELEMENTS AND PRISCILLA MENTIONED THAT THE SHIELD

BETWEEN OXYGEN AND NEON IS REALLY KEY MEASUREMENT.

WE CAN TAKE THAT MEASUREMENT MORE FOR SIZE IF WE CAN REALLY

HONE IN ON THIS LOT ON THE WAY. IF YOU FOLLOW THAT OVER THE

SOLAR CYCLE IT GIVES YOU A MUCH MORE PRECISE MEASUREMENT TO DO

THAT. >> OKAY, WE'RE GOING TO COME

BACK HERE. ANY OTHER QUESTIONS FROM THE

AUDIENCE? >> ONE LAST QUESTION FROM ONE OF

OUR MUSEUM'S ON THE NETWORK HERE AND THEN THIS IS FOR EVERYONE.

SO GET YOUR THINKING CAPS ON HERE.

IT'S SORT OF A VISIONARY TYPE OF QUESTION.

THE IMPORTANCE INDIVIDUALLY THAT YOU ALL FEEL OF STUDYING, THIS

TYPE OF SCIENCE. HELIO SCIENCE AND THE SCIENCE

THAT A IBEX IS DOING AND AS A HUMAN RACE, SOCIETY, WHY SHOULD

WE CARE AND HOW WILL IT AFFECT US?

DAVE, I'LL START WITH YOU. >> I'LL BE HAPPY TO START.

HELIO PHYSICS IS AN INCREDIBLY INTERESTING FIELD.

IT TIES TOGETHER WHAT'S HAPPENING ON THE SUN WITH THE

SPACE THAT SURROUNDS OUR EARTH AND AFFECTS OUR EARTH AND

TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE ON EARTH. AND EXTENDS ALL THE WAY OUT TO

THIS OUTER BOUNDARIES OF THE HELIOSPHERE.

HUNDREDS OF TIMES FURTHER AWAY FROM THE SUN.

SO IT TELLS US THINGS ABOUT THE PART OF SPACE THAT WE LIVE IN

AND THE INTERACTION OF THAT PART OF SPACE WITH THE REST OF THE

GALAXY BUT IT TELLS US USEFUL AND HELPFUL THINGS BECAUSE THESE

INTERACTIONS CAN HAVE AN EFFECT ON OUR TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS.

LARGE STORMS HAVE BEEN EFFECT ON OUR GPS AND OTHER SATELLITES.

THE GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS FROM THE OUTSIDE HAVE AN EFFECT ON

ASTRONAUTS TO GO ON LONG-DURATION SPACE MISSIONS AND

HOPEFULLY, GO TO MARS AND BEYOND IN THE LONG RUN.

SO IT'S A VERY INTERESTING FIELD OF REALLY CORE FUNDAMENTAL

SCIENCE THAT ALSO AFFECTS US PERSONALLY.

FOR ME, IT'S AN INCREDIBLY EXCITING FIELD.

THAT'S MY TAKE. PRISCILLA?

>> WELL, IT'S ALL VERY EXCITING. I THINK ONE OF THE MOST

INTERESTING, POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS IS THAT AS THE SUN

MOVES THROUGH SPACE AND MOVES IN AND OUT OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS,

THE COSMIC RAYS FROM THE EARTH CHANGES AND THAT'S RECORDED IN

THE RADIO ISOTOPE RECORD THAT GEOSCIENTISTS ARE MEASURING.

AND SOME DAY MAYBE WE'LL BE ABLE TO LINK THE SUN'S MOTION THROUGH

INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS WITH THE GEOLOGICAL RECORD THAT'S TRACING

THE GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF OUR EARTH.

I THINK THAT WOULD BE REALLY EXCITED IF WE COULD EVER DO

THAT. >> EBERHARD?

>> I FIND IT EXCITING THAT RIGHT AT OUR FRONT DOORSTEP WE CAN

TAKE A SAMPLE OF THIS INTERSTELLAR MATTER AROUND US.

AND IF YOU THINK BACK ALL THE WAY TO THE BIG BANG, THERE WAS

ONLY HYDROGEN AND HELIUM AND THEN STARS AND SUPER NOVAS.

AND THEN THE HEAVY ELEMENTS. SO IF YOU IMAGINE THAT WE ARE

MADE OUT OF MATERIAL THAT HAS COME FROM THE SUPER NOVA AND

THAT'S CONTINUING. SO 4.5 BILLION YEARS AGO, THE

SUN FORMED OUT OF A SIMILAR NEBULA AND AT THAT TIME,

SPRINKLED WITH HEAVY ELEMENTS AND THAT'S CONTINUING AND NOW

WE'RE SAMPLING PART OF THE MILKY WAY AS IT IT IS TODAY.

SO WE HAVE THREE NICE POINTS FROM THE BIG BANG, THE SUN'S

FORMATION TO WHAT IS OUR ENVIRONMENT.

AND THEN MODELERS CAN GO ON AND TRACE HOW MATERIAL HAS EVOLVED

OVER TIME IN THE COSMOS. I FIND THAT FASCINATING.

>> WELL, I THINK HUMANITY HAS BEEN ASKING, YOU KNOW, THESE

FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS SINCE THE BEGINNING, TRYING TO PUT

OURSELVES MY THIS CONTACT IN THE COSMOS THAT PROVIDED AN

OPPORTUNITY TO DO THAT. THESE NEW DISCOVERIES ARE GOING

TO HELP US ADDRESS, YOU KNOW, HOW UNIQUE OR HOW SPECIAL OUR

HELIOSPHERE. OTHER CONFIGURATIONS SIMILAR OR

DIFFERENT. HOW DO THEY INTERACT WITH THE

PLANETS AROUND KNOWS STARS AND THAT SORT OF THING.

AND ANOTHER NOTE THAT I THINK IS REALLY NEAT IN THIS ATTEMPT TO

PUT OURSELVES IN THIS COSMIC CONTEXT IS DESPITE HOW CLOSE

THESE THINGS ARE, THESE CLOSEST INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS AND THE

HELIOSPHERE, IT'S REALLY PARTICULARLY DIFFICULT TO STUDY

THEM AND IT'S A REAL ACHIEVEMENT TO MEASURE THESE INTERSTELLAR

CLOUDS. TO MEASURE THE HELIOSPHERE IN

THIS SORT OF DETAIL WHEN WE'RE USED TO THINKING THAT THE

FARTHER AWAY SOMETHING IS, THE HARDER IT IS.

AND, YOU KNOW, THAT'S TRUE TO SOME EXTENT BUT THESE ARE REALLY

DIFFICULT MEASUREMENTS AND SO IT'S REALLY EXCITING TO SEE

THESE RESULTS TODAY. >> THANK YOU ALL.

AND WITH THAT, WE'LL CLOSE OUT AND, AGAIN, YOU'VE HEARD THE

ANATOMY OF OUR GALACTIC NEIGHBORHOOD.

AND, AGAIN, YOU CAN FIND ALL THIS INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET

AT NASA.GOV/IBEX OR VIA TWITTER, FACEBOOK, YOUTUBE AND OTHER

SOCIAL MEDIA SITES. THANKS FOR JOINING US.

SCIENCE NEVER SLEEPS!

The Description of Scientists Discuss Space Matter