The Earth is not always your friend, and the planet upon which we developed may not treat
us gently despite the effort with which we have colonized so much of its surface.
In this account, we move beyond familiar floods, tornados and earthquakes to discover the really
weird ways that an active and sometimes badly behaved planet can create a real but strange
threat to your safety.
Learn, and be safe; looking out not only for wild animals, but approaching the planet itself
with care as you walk its surface.
The Earth is defined by interactions between the rocks, the atmosphere and water.
And when that interaction involves the accumulation of frozen water in the form of snow in places
where there are trees, an extraordinary level of danger may form.
It is not only a crevice that may threaten skiers.
A much more common and sometimes worse danger comes from tree wells.
Tree wells are an everpresent risk on mountainsides that suffocate many unwary snow sports enthusiasts
when they fall into a gaping hole in the snow where a tree stands, concealing the snowy
well around its trunk.
When a large conifer tree stands on a mountain, snowfall may pile up to a depth of many feet.
Yet around the tree trunk and within the curtilage of the tree’s branches, snow is likely to
The result is the presence of a diabolically well concealed hole or “well” around the
Upon beginning to pass a tree at too close a range, a skier or snowboarder may pitch
forward into a tree well and be stuck, often headfirst.
As a result, suffocation may occur from the fine snow material while limbs may be trapped
in the snow.
Giving trees a wide berth is the best defence against the actual issue of falling in, while
skiing with a partner affords a far greater chance of being seen and rescued.
We all know the danger of drowning in a lake, but surprisingly, the most dangerous lakes
in the world are not those in which one could drown, but rather, create the effect of oxygen
deprivation while the victims are still on land.
When seismic activity, organic decomposition and toxic gas combine together in the gas
lake phenomenon, the results are both horrifically eerie and costly in human lives.
Lake Nyos in Cameroon is the most notorious gas-releasing lake, having killed 1,746 people
when stored carbon dioxide was released en masse, annihilating nearby villages.
On August 21, 1986, the eerie looking lake, surrounded by dark hills and containing settled
areas in its curtilage, released a massive cloud of carbon dioxide totalling 1.2 cubic
kilometers in volume.
As a result, the vast majority of those who encountered the cloud suffocated to death,
unable to access oxygen as the cloud hugged the ground and spread throughout the village
of Nyos and other nearby settled areas including Cha, Kam and Subum.
Countless animals were lost along with human lives, while the extinguishment of candles
indicated the arrival of the deadly cloud.
Those resting close to the ground or first encountering the gas represented many fatalities,
while some still standing survived as the gas remained closer to the ground.
Now, equipment is in place to release gas to prevent another deadly buildup.
Large Hailstone Catastrophes
Frozen rain may sting slightly, but truly monstrous hailstones, sometimes weighing over
a pound and measuring several inches in diameter, have been responsible for a disturbing range
of fatalities throughout world history.
Being struck on the head by falling ice is no laughing matter, particularly when that
ice is formed into a rock-hard ball and is falling at maximum velocity.
In the United States, a number of deaths, injuries and cases of extreme property damage
have resulted from hailstones of substantial size and weight.
Giant hail the size of a baseball may fall at speeds at around 100 mph.
Hail 2.75 inches in diameter may smash windshields, while larger hail, up to 4.5 inches may punch
a hole through a roof.
Injuries can be horrific.
In one case, a runner was covered in welts and bruises, while a hail strike on a pizza
delivery person in Fort Worth, Texas in 2000 was fatal.
Previously, Fort Worth had hosted an ill-fated Mayfest gathering in May 1995 when hail pummeled
a crowd of 10,000, injuring 400 people.
A total of 60 people had to be sent to hospital.
In 1988, 246 individuals in India lost their lives during a tragically fatal hail onslaught.
While falling ice from the sky naturally poses extreme dangers, it is worth remembering that
certain storms are better met with a riot shield than an umbrella.
Better yet, just stay indoors if there is any indication of hail, as you don’t know
how big the stones may get.
Wishing the ground might open up and swallow one alive may be a clichéd expression, but
in fact sinkholes, sometimes in urban areas, can cause untold devastation and shake our
confidence in the Earth to the core.
In some cases, sinkholes can kill as they swallow individuals, roads, and even entire
buildings at depths of over 250 feet.
In places around the world, the ground below the surface may be pockmarked with cavities
and also less than solid.
In certain cases, a thin layer of the uppermost portions of the Earth’s crust may conceal
gaping holes capable of swallowing buildings, buses and pretty much anything else unfortunate
enough to be in the way; that is, on top of such a hidden cavity when the inevitable collapse
Sometimes triggered by an earthquake, sometimes by a sudden increase in pressure (as in certain
construction projects), or as the result of flash flooding or the accumulation of slow-acting,
groundwater-based erosion, sinkholes may result in catastrophic injuries, deaths and property
While even moderately sized sinkholes may be fatal, enormous sinkholes that bend the
bounds of imagination have included such horrors as the monster sinkhole that opened in Guatamala
City in 2010, spurred by tropical storm induced floodwater action.
The hole measures around 60 feet wide and is estimated to be in the range of 30 stories
in depth as judged by University of Kentucky hydrogeologist James Currens.
Geysers and hot springs may look fun, but they also present the risk of simply steaming
or boiling careless viewers and adventurers alive.
After all, erupting magma is obviously extremely dangerous, and most people will stay away
from an erupting volcano, but many explorers are less aware of the danger of an encounter
with what could turn out to be a killer geyser or a hot spring from hell.
When viewing geysers or examining hot springs, don’t get too close, and in an uncharted
walk in geyser country, be prepared to run for your life.
Geysers in popular places such as Yellowstone National Park have killed a disturbing number
of visitors, adding up to more than 20 documented deaths.
The most recent fatality to take place was in 2016, when a young man walked over 200
yards into the Norris Geyser Basin, only to die in a hot spring that boiled him to death.
Many people visiting Yellowstone have been burned either by spraying geysers or by breaking
through the thin layer of rock into boiling water underneath.
In other cases, individuals have died when attempting to navigate over or around chasms
or pools of boiling water, only to fall in and get fatally scalded.
The moral of the story?
Avoid stepping off marked paths and be sure to resist the temptation to pioneer, as the
unknown is also the most unsafe when it comes to natural areas full of boiling water.
Lava Haze Encounter
It’s not just the liquid magma of volcanoes that presents a threat.
Just as a lake filled with carbon dioxide can pose a great risk, volcanic activity can
create highly dangerous situations where those in the vicinity of the action may be deprived
of oxygen, exposed to toxic fumes and possibly risk loss of life.
Unnervingly, grisly deaths have occurred from lava haze, where hot gases have accumulated
and subsequently suffocated and burned the lungs of those explorers who engage in geo-tourism
or attempt to study volcanoes.
The ground may look safe and walkable near a volcanically active zone in certain cases,
but accumulating gases may suddenly make such an area uninhabitable, with no air left to
As volcanic activity occurs, a plethora of chemicals are released, which may accumulate
undetected, be suddenly let forth with little warning, or be greatly compounded through
chemical reactions with solutions and compounds already present on the Earth.
The lava haze capable of causing death can contain extremely dangerous chemicals resulting
from the mixing of hot volcanic products with seawater.
The deadly vapors can not only limit access to oxygen, but cause nasty, potentially fatal
chemical burns and lung damage.
The makeup of volcanically produced haze can include hydrochloric acid caused by the reaction
of lava with seawater, sulfuric compounds, and carbon compounds.
While less visible than lava, lava haze is another reason to keep your distance when
the Earth is agitated!
Pyroclastic Bomb Drop
More than just air raids present the risk of being smitten from above.
Nature does its best to rain down not only frozen hazards in the form of hail, but freshly
launched weaponry in the form of pyroclastic bombs hurled forth as the result of intense
Extreme dangers are presented not only by flowing magma when a volcano erupts, but by
the presence of flying pyroclastic bombs.
These pyroclastic bombs are little less than natural weapons of mass destruction if encountered.
The objects are one of the worst ways to get clobbered to death by rocks as angry volcanos
not only spew molten magma, but launch the pre-hardened, bomb-shaped stones at incredible
velocities to great distances.
Unfortunately, the desire of some amateur volcanologists to collect the bombs may create
an even greater risk of being hit.
If small, the objects may inflict bullet-like wounds.
If large, the impact may cause immediate death through the force of impact.
While extremely hot, lava bombs are not molten on the outside.
The largest specimens may blast entire sections of a mountainside into the air when they land,
and could easily demolish a car, tree, or house.
However, the lava bombs present highly useful research opportunities as freshly ejected
specimens of volcanic material from deep below the surface.
Researchers may forget due caution as they put themselves within a volcanic bomb volley’s
striking distance just to gather a specimen.
Volcanic areas do not just present the risk of eruption; a risk comparable to a sinkhole
from falling into open lava tubes makes walking near volcanically active areas a recipe for
disaster in many cases.
While a sinkhole may lead to crushing or falling injuries, a lava tube fall may result in more
than just injury from a fall or limb entrapment.
Lava tubes that are more open and accessible are sometimes explored by the intrepid who
visit volcanos, but the areas are frequently fraught with danger.
Further risks are presented by the presence of either hot lava, steam, or toxic gases.
The physical structure of areas near to volcanic activity can be unpredictable and hard to
clearly define and navigate.
Accidentally falling into a treacherous lava tube poses the greatest threat, as one does
not know what may lie at the bottom or how far or hard one may fall.
Lava tubes can be incredibly deep, with serious threats facing anyone who explores out of
bounds and ends up falling into the tube.
In one case, a 15-year-old boy fell a full 25 feet down into a lava tube while carelessly
exploring after climbing a fence.
Fortunately, the victim was able to be rescued, but the results of a mishap involving a lava
tube can have a far more serious end.
The presence of lava tubes goes to confirm why volcanically active areas must be treated
with great caution, whether or not there appears to be active magma present.
Not a tsunami, a rogue wave may appear at any point on the ocean, causing death by sweeping
people out to sea who are near the coast, even if a little ways inland.
Rogue waves at sea present further immediate threats to ships, which may be swamped, hit
by debris or capsized.
As a result of the risk posed to the public by rogue waves, signs indicating the dangers
of standing near the open sea have frequently been posted to discourage careless beach combing.
Turning one’s back on the water is especially risky, while even facing the water is not
advisable in rocky areas where being caught up in a sudden avalanche of water comes with
the added risk of being dashed against the rocks.
Once believed to be mere tall tales told by overly imaginative sailors, rogue waves have
been discovered to be real life events backed by physics through exploration of accounts
and theoretical analysis.
Rogue waves can not only be reported both on the high seas and when the strike near
the shore, but statistical and physical analysis shows how certain waves at intervals may gain
great power and size.
In certain cases, ships have been downed by absolutely enormous waves, exceeding 80 feet
in certain cases.
The ocean is a massive water body, and where whirlpools form at sea, the results can be
Immortalized in Norwegian culture as the Maelstrom and described as a phenomenon in Sicily under
the name Charybdis, the oceanic whirlpool is a force to be both feared and avoided,
and also difficult to study for obvious reasons.
In the Scandinavian regions, the exceedingly powerful Moskstraumen Maelstrom formed where
the sea is actually very shallow, between 131 and 197 feet in depth.
The resulting tidal movements of the water, exacerbated by the action of the moon led
to grand legends forming of enormous whirlpools capable of bringing ships down to the ocean
While such a maelstrom indeed would be dangerous in many craft, the reports have certainly
been, shall we say, bolstered by popular mythology.