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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Two decades after peace pact, reconciliation still lags in Northern Ireland

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>> Sreenivasan: 20 YEARS AGO

THIS WEEK, AN EXTRAORDINARY

PEACE PACT WAS SIGNED.

NORTHERN IRELAND'S "GOOD FRIDAY

AGREEMENT" BROUGHT AN END TO

THREE DECADES OF VIOLENT

CONFLICT BETWEEN CATHOLIC AND

PROTESTANT FACTIONS, AND IT

MAINTAINED NORTHERN IRELAND AS A

PART OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.

FOR MANY, THOUGH, IT REMAINS AN

UNEASY PEACE.

NEWSHOUR WEEKEND SPECIAL

CORRESPONDENT KIRA KAY BEGINS

HER REPORT IN LONDONDERRY.

>> Reporter: ONCE A MONTH, A

CIVICS CLASS IN NORTHERN IRELAND

BREAKS NEW GROUND.

VISITING STUDENTS ARE BUSSED

ACROSS TOWN FROM ST. MARY'S AND

ST. CECILIA'S, WHICH ARE

CATHOLIC SCHOOLS.

THE HOST SCHOOL, LISNEAL, HAS A

PREDOMINANTLY PROTESTANT STUDENT

BODY.

>> WHAT'S THIS?

>> OH, THAT'S IRISH, ISN'T IT?

>> Reporter: THIS TWO-HOUR

SESSION USES RELIGIOUS, CULTURAL

AND POLITICAL SYMBOLS TO

CHALLENGE THESE STUDENTS FROM

DIFFERENT BACKGROUNDS TO FIND

COMMON INTERESTS.

>> RUGBY IS A BRILLIANT ONE FOR

THE BOTH BECAUSE IRELAND HAVE

ONE TEAM, YOU KNOW NORTHERN

IRELAND AND THE SOUTH OF

IRELAND, EVERYBODY SUPPORTS

IRELAND.

SO GOOD, WELL DONE.

>> Reporter: THE SCHOOLS ARE IN

THE CITY OFFICIALLY KNOWN AS

LONDONDERRY, BUT CALLED JUST

"DERRY" BY CATHOLICS.

NORTHERN IRELAND'S CONFLICT,

KNOWN AS THE TROUBLES, EXPLODED

HERE 50 YEARS AGO AS CATHOLIC

CIVIL RIGHTS PROTESTS SPIRALED

INTO VIOLENCE ACROSS THE REGION

AND THE BRITISH ARMY RESPONDED

WITH FORCE.

THE CONFLICT ULTIMATELY BECAME A

STRUGGLE OVER KEEPING NORTHERN

IRELAND WITHIN THE UNITED

KINGDOM OR UNIFYING IT WITH

IRELAND.

SOCIETY WAS SPLIT BETWEEN

PROTESTANT, PRO-UNITED KINGDOM

LOYALISTS AND PARAMILITARIES ON

THE ONE HAND AND CATHOLIC PRO-

IRISH NATIONALISTS AND THEIR

ARMED GROUPS ON THE OTHER.

THIS INCLUDED THE PROVISIONAL

IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY, OR I.R.A.

BETWEEN 1969 AND 1998, MORE THAN

3,500 PEOPLE WERE KILLED.

TODAY, LONDONDERRY'S STARK

MURALS MEMORIALIZE THAT HISTORY

AND THE FOYLE RIVER STILL

DIVIDES THE CITY'S CATHOLICS

FROM PROTESTANTS.

>> INITIALLY AT THE START, WE

HAD PEOPLE, WE HAD PARENTS WHO

WERE WORRIED.

>> Reporter: MARTINE MULHERN,

PRINCIPAL OF CATHOLIC ST.

CECILIA'S, SAYS 90% OF NORTHERN

IRELAND'S STUDENTS STUDY

EXCLUSIVELY WITH MEMBERS OF

THEIR OWN COMMUNITY.

>> IT IS POSSIBLE TO GROW UP ON

THE WEST BANK OF THE CITY, AND

NOT MEET A PROTESTANT, OR NOT

HAVE A PROTESTANT IN THE STREET.

AND IF THEY HAVE BEEN GROWING UP

IN A HOUSE WHERE PEOPLE HAVE

SPOKEN ABOUT PROTESTANTS OR

OTHER FAITHS IN A PARTICULAR

WAY, THEN THEY MAY HAVE

DEVELOPED A PERCEPTION OF THAT

COMMUNITY.

THAT IS WHERE THE SHARED

EDUCATION PROGRAM COMES INTO ITS

OWN.

>> Reporter: MICHAEL ALLEN,

PRINCIPAL OF PROTESTANT LISNEAL,

ADMITS HE DIDN'T ALWAYS SUPPORT

SHARED EDUCATION.

>> THERE IS A FEAR THAT CULTURE,

PARTICULARLY WITHIN UNIONIST AND

PROTESTANT CULTURE THAT IT'S

BEING DIMINISHED OVER A PERIOD

OF TIME.

BUT I COULD SEE HOW THE CHILDREN

WORKED WITH ONE ANOTHER, HOW

THEY INTERACTED.

THAT TO ME SHOWED THAT THEY HAD

NO FEAR, SO REALLY WE SHOULDN'T

HAVE ANY FEAR OF IT EITHER.

>> Reporter: ORIGINALLY

SUPPORTED BY AN AMERICAN

FOUNDATION, THIS PROGRAM IS NOW

BEING ADMINISTERED BY THE

GOVERNMENT, WHICH PLANS TO

REPLICATE IT IN MORE THAN HALF

OF NORTHERN IRELAND'S SCHOOLS BY

2021.

THESE 7th GRADERS ARE EMBRACING

THE PROGRAM AND THEIR NEW

CLASSMATES.

>> THEY HAVE SISTERS, THEY HAVE

BROTHERS, THEY HAVE PETS.

THEY HAVE THE SAME LIFE AS US

BASICALLY.

>> DIFFERENCE IS GOOD.

YOU DON'T NEED TO BE LIKE NOT BE

THEIR FRIEND BECAUSE THEY ARE

THAT DIFFERENT RELIGION AS LONG

AS YOU TWO GET ALONG.

>> Reporter: PROGRAMS LIKE THIS

ARE ONLY POSSIBLE BECAUSE OF THE

PEACE AGREEMENT THAT ENDED

NORTHERN IRELAND'S CONFLICT,

SIGNED 20 YEARS AGO THIS WEEK.

SOCIETY HAD BECOME WEARY OF

VIOLENCE, AND A CEASE-FIRE

ALLOWED NEGOTIATORS TO COME TO

THE TABLE.

>> AT A LEADERSHIP LEVEL THERE

WAS AN APPRECIATION THAT NEITHER

SIDE COULD BE DEFEATED AND

NEITHER SIDE COULD WIN.

>> Reporter: LORD JOHN ALDERDICE

REPRESENTED A NON-SECTARIAN

PARTY AT THE PEACE TALKS.

INCLUDED IN THE DISCUSSION WAS

SINN FEIN, THE IRISH NATIONALIST

PARTY ASSOCIATED WITH THE I.R.A.

THE UNITED KINGDOM CONSIDERED

THE I.R.A. A TERRORIST

ORGANIZATION.

>> IT WAS AGAINST THE WIDESPREAD

INTERNATIONAL VIEW THAT YOU

DON'T NEGOTIATE WITH TERRORISTS.

AND THERE WAS A HUGE SENSE HERE

FOR MANY PEOPLE THAT THE I.R.A.

ON THE ONE HAND AND LOYALIST

PARAMILITARIES ON THE OTHER

HAND, MANY PEOPLE HAD SUFFERED,

AND DIED, AND HAD INJURIES, AND

FAMILIES DESTROYED AND SO ON BY

THESE VERY PEOPLE AND THEIR

COLLEAGUES.

AND SO IT WAS A HUGE STEP FOR

ALL OF US.

>> Reporter: THE PEACE AGREEMENT

MAINTAINED NORTHERN IRELAND AS

PART OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, BUT

BROUGHT SINN FEIN INTO

GOVERNMENT WITH ITS FORMER

ENEMIES, THE PROTESTANT

LOYALISTS.

IT WAS A POWER-SHARING

ARRANGEMENT THAT WAS ONCE

UNIMAGINABLE.

AND FOR 20 YEARS THAT PEACE HAS

HELD.

THE DOWNTOWN OF NORTHERN

IRELAND'S CAPITAL BELFAST WAS

ONCE CORDONED OFF BY SECURITY

FENCES AND ARMY CHECKPOINTS BUT

NOW HOSTS BUSTLING STREETS AND

CAFES, AND A GROWING TOURIST

INDUSTRY.

A POPULAR MUSEUM ABOUT THE

TITANIC, BUILT IN BELFAST,

OPENED IN 2012.

BUT TRUE RECONCILIATION LAGS,

SAYS LORD ALDERDICE.

>> EVEN 20 YEARS LATER, WHEN

WE'VE DONE ALL THESE DIFFERENT

THINGS, INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE,

CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE,

ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE, NEW

POLICING, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC

DEVELOPMENT, ALL OF THESE KINDS

OF THINGS YOU STILL HAVE A

PROBLEM OF ATTITUDES NOT HAVING

CHANGED.

>> Reporter: THIS IS MOST

EVIDENT IN THE PATCHWORK QUILT

OF CATHOLIC AND PROTESTANT

NEIGHBORHOODS THAT ALTERNATE

EVERY FEW BLOCKS IN BELFAST,

SOMETIMES DRAMATICALLY SEPARATED

BY WHAT ARE CALLED PEACE WALLS.

MOST WERE BUILT DURING THE

TROUBLES BUT SOME HAVE GONE UP

EVEN SINCE THE PEACE AGREEMENT.

IT IS UNLIKELY THE GOVERNMENT

WILL MEET ITS GOAL OF REMOVING

THEM BY 2023.

COMMUNITY ACTIVIST ALAN WAITE

SAYS BELFAST'S DIVISIONS COMBINE

MOST STARKLY WITH OTHER SOCIAL

ILLS IN THE CITY'S PUBLIC

HOUSING COMPLEXES ON BOTH SIDES

OF THESE WALLS.

>> THE ISSUES YOUNG PEOPLE FACE

IN THIS AREA IS ISSUES LIKE YOU

KNOW UNEMPLOYMENT, DRUGS,

ALCOHOL, IN FACT WHERE WE STAND

NOW IS ONE OF THE MOST

UNDERACHIEVING AREAS IN ALL OF

THE COUNTRY.

>> Reporter: SEVERAL OF THESE

NEIGHBORHOODS ARE STILL

CONTROLLED BY LOCAL

PARAMILITARIES, SOME THE VERY

SAME GROUPS CREATED DURING THE

TROUBLES.

THEY NO LONGER FIGHT EACH OTHER

BUT VICTIMIZE THEIR OWN

COMMUNITIES WITH SO-CALLED

PUNISHMENT ATTACKS ON YOUNG

RESIDENTS THEY ACCUSE OF CRIMES

LIKE DEALING DRUGS.

THESE ATTACKS HAVE SURGED IN

RECENT YEARS.

>> THEY'RE TAKING THE POWER INTO

THEIR OWN HANDS AND IN A

ROUNDABOUT WAY THEY'RE TRYING TO

TAKE OVER THE ROLE OF THE POLICE

WITHIN THEIR OWN COMMUNITIES BY

LAYING DOWN THEIR LAW, WHICH IS

NOT THE WAY FORWARD.

>> Reporter: THE GOVERNMENT IS

UPGRADING SOME PUBLIC HOUSING

AND THEY ARE TURNING A HANDFUL

OF THESE SITES INTO EFFORTS AT

INTEGRATION TOO.

FIVE MIXED COMMUNITY

DEVELOPMENTS ARE OPEN AND

ANOTHER FIVE ARE UNDERWAY.

>> 90% OF SOCIAL HOUSING IS

SINGLE IDENTITY AND INDEED

HOUSING IN GENERAL IS AROUND

70% EITHER ONE COMMUNITY OR THE

OTHER.

>> Reporter: TIM O'MALLEY SAYS

THE 2015 START UP OF THIS

COMMUNITY, CALLED FELDEN, WAS A

CHALLENGE FOR HIS PUBLIC HOUSING

MANAGEMENT COMPANY.

>> PEOPLE WERE SUSPICIOUS ABOUT

WHAT THIS NEW CONCEPT WAS ABOUT.

THEY THOUGHT THERE WAS GOING TO

BE SOMETHING THAT IMPOSED

SOMETHING, AS OPPOSED TO

SOMETHING THAT SUPPORTED PEOPLE

WHO WANTED TO LIVE IN A SHARED

NEIGHBORHOOD.

>> Reporter: THESE DEVELOPMENTS

AIM TO HAVE NO MORE THAN 70% OF

EITHER CATHOLICS OR PROTESTANTS.

NICOLA O'NEILL CAME TO FELDEN

FROM A STAUNCHLY CATHOLIC AREA

DIVIDED BY PEACE WALLS.

>> COMING FROM THE AREA I CAME

FROM, I WANTED A BETTER FUTURE

FOR MY CHILDREN BECAUSE I WANT

THEM TO KNOW THAT EVERYBODY'S

THE SAME, THAT NOBODY'S

DIFFERENT, REGARDLESS RELIGION,

COLOR.

NOW I COULDN'T SEE ME LIVING

ANYWHERE ELSE.

>> Reporter: FELDEN'S MANAGEMENT

COMPANY HAS PUT IN THE EFFORT TO

HARMONIZE THE COMMUNITIES IT

OVERSEES, OFFERING EMPLOYMENT

AND EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND

BRINGING RESIDENTS TOGETHER OVER

SHARED PROJECTS LIKE A COMMUNITY

GARDEN.

>> FELDEN ALONE IS 97 HOMES, YOU

KNOW, A FEW HUNDRED PEOPLE.

IT'S NOT THE SOLUTION, BUT IT

SHOWS PEOPLE THAT IT'S POSSIBLE,

AND I THINK THAT'S THE BIGGEST

STORY THAT WE CAN SHARE.

>> Reporter: BUT SHARED HOUSING

HASN'T WORKED AS SMOOTHLY

EVERYWHERE.

CATHOLIC FAMILIES FLED THIS

COMPLEX LAST FALL FOLLOWING

THREATS FROM A LOCAL PROTESTANT

PARAMILITARY THAT DIDN'T WANT A

SHARED SITE ON ITS STREETS.

POLICE CAME AT MIDNIGHT TO ALERT

THIS RESIDENT THAT THE

PARAMILITARY HAD ISSUED AN

ULTIMATUM.

>> THEY KNOCKED THE DOOR AND

THEY SAID, "I'M SORRY HAVE YOU

ANYWHERE TO GO?

YOU ARE BEING THREATENED BECAUSE

YOU HAVE TO LEAVE THE AREA."

AND I SAYS, "WHY, WHAT DID WE

DO?"

AND HE SAYS IT'S ALL DOWN TO

YOUR RELIGION.

>> Reporter: THE POLICE TOLD YOU

IT WAS BECAUSE OF YOUR RELIGION?

>> RELIGION.

>> Reporter: THEY WERE THAT

CLEAR.

>> YEAH.

THAT'S, THAT'S THE WAY IT WAS

PUT.

IF WE DIDN'T LEAVE THERE THEY

WERE, THERE WAS OTHER PEOPLE

THAT WERE GOING TO DO IT

THEMSELVES.

>> IF YOU'RE ASKING ME IS THIS A

NORMAL CITY, THAT'S NOT NORMAL.

>> Reporter: SINN FEIN

POLITICIAN MAIRTIN O'MUILLEOIR

HELPED RESETTLE THREATENED

RESIDENTS.

>> THIS WAS A FEATURE OF OUR

PAST THAT PEOPLE WERE ORDERED

OUT OF THEIR HOMES BECAUSE OF

THEIR RELIGION AND IT WAS DEEPLY

DEPRESSING AND DISTRESSING FOR

ME TO SEE IT HAPPENING AGAIN IN

2017.

>> Reporter: AS MUCH AS MANY

PEOPLE ARE READY TO MOVE ON,

SOME STILL GRAPPLE WITH THE

LEGACY OF PAST VIOLENCE.

MANY CRIMES BY STATE FORCES AS

WELL AS PARAMILITARIES ON BOTH

SIDES REMAIN UNSOLVED OR

UNPROSECUTED.

IN FEBRUARY, THOUSANDS OF

MARCHERS TOOK TO THE STREETS TO

DEMAND RESOLUTION, INCLUDING

CATHOLIC SINN FEIN POLITICIAN

EMMA ROGAN, WHOSE FATHER WAS

KILLED BY A PROTESTANT

PARAMILITARY.

>> SOME OF THESE FAMILIES ARE

WAITING OVER 46 YEARS FOR AN

INQUEST.

PEOPLE NEED TO KNOW WHAT HAS

HAPPENED TO THEIR LOVED ONES AND

THE CIRCUMSTANCES SURROUNDING

THEIR DEATHS.

I THINK IT'S EASIER FOR THE

BRITISH GOVERNMENT TO DENY AND

DELAY TRUTH FOR FAMILIES THAN IT

IS TO OPEN THE CAN OF WORMS IF

THEY WERE TO DEAL WITH THE

LEGACY OF THE CONFLICT HERE.

>> Reporter: AND THERE ARE

PROTESTANTS WHO FEEL JUST AS

AGGRIEVED.

>> OKAY FOLKS, IT'S ONE OF THE

MOST BOMBED ROADS IN NORTHERN

IRELAND.

>> Reporter: IN RURAL NORTHERN

IRELAND, THIS GROUP ORGANIZES

BUS TOURS TO THE SITES OF

ATTACKS AGAINST MAINLY

PROTESTANT VICTIMS WHO THEY SAY

WERE ETHNICALLY CLEANSED BY THE

I.R.A.

VICTIMS ADVOCATE KENNY DONALDSON

SAYS HAVING FORMER I.R.A.

MEMBERS IN GOVERNMENT IS KEEPING

MORE PEOPLE FROM SEEING JUSTICE.

>> IF THAT'S ONE OF YOUR

PARTNERS IN NORTHERN IRELAND WHO

ARE GOING TO ESTABLISH SO-CALLED

POWER SHARING IN THIS COUNTRY,

THEY'RE NOT GOING TO DIG VERY

DEEPLY INTO THOSE INDIVIDUALS

ARE THEY, TO ACTUALLY HOLD THEM

ACCOUNTABLE FOR WHAT THEY'VE

DONE IN THE PAST.

IT'S ALMOST AS IF JUSTICE IS THE

PRICE TO KEEP THIS PLACE FROM

SPIRALING INTO TERROR ONCE

AGAIN.

>> Reporter: 20 YEARS OF PEACE

HASN'T BEEN ENOUGH TO UNITE

COMMUNITIES, BUT THAT DOESN'T

MEAN THERE'S NO TRUST TO BE

FOUND.

THE BUSTLING R-CITY COFFEE SHOP

SAYS IT PROVIDES A PLACE TO

SOCIALIZE FREE FROM CULTURAL

IDENTITY, AND IT SITS IN A MOST

UNLIKELY LOCATION, RIGHT ON A

NOTORIOUSLY VOLATILE CROSSROADS

BETWEEN CATHOLIC AND PROTESTANT

BELFAST.

IT HAS ONE DOOR ON THE CATHOLIC

SIDE, ANOTHER ON THE PROTESTANT

SIDE.

IT WAS STARTED BY PROTESTANT

COMMUNITY WORKER ALAN WAITE, IN

PARTNERSHIP WITH CATHOLIC

COLLEAGUE THOMAS TURLEY.

>> WE COULD NEVER HAVE DREAMT OR

IMAGINED A UNIQUE LOCATION LIKE

THIS, WHERE YOU CAN ENTER FROM

BOTH SIDES OF THE COMMUNITY.

OUR CLIENTELE ARE GENERAL,

NORMAL, RUN-OF-THE-MILL PEOPLE.

OUR STAFF ARE 50/50%.

HALF PROTESTANT, HALF CATHOLIC.

THE COFFEE'S BRILLIANT, THE FOOD

IS BRILLIANT.

BUT IT'S NOT ABOUT THAT.

IT'S ABOUT HERE.

IT'S ABOUT SITTING IN THIS ROOM

AS BOTH SIDES OF A COMMUNITY WHO

AREN'T MEANT TO COME AND SIT

TOGETHER.

IT'S A SHINING LIGHT, I BELIEVE,

IN ONE OF THE MOST DARKEST

PLACES IN THE COUNTRY.

The Description of Two decades after peace pact, reconciliation still lags in Northern Ireland