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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Sentence Diagramming 10: The Relative Clause

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I want to show you now how to diagram

relative clauses that is clauses of that

function as adjectives so we need a

sentence to start out with and let's try

men forget the era when trains were

special

men forget the era when trains were

special so we start with okay men is our

subject let's get a baseline here men

what do they do they forget and we have

a direct object what is forgotten and

era okay era which era the era so that's

an adjective

now the era when train when trains were

special when trains were special now

that is a relative clause it's answering

the question which era the era when

trains were special that's which era so

when trains were special functions as an

adjective clause which is to say it's a

relative clause so what we need to do is

have another baseline let's it doesn't

we can make it really anywhere below the

base of the main baseline so let's let's

put it let's put it right down here the

era when trains were special well the

subject in when trains were special is

trains and the verb is worth and we have

a subjective compliment special okay

when trains were special now where's the

wind go well when is called a relative

adverb and that is to say it's it's

answering an adverb question namely when

when when

that's when and we will put it in an act

the adverb place when it's called a

relative adverb because it's beginning a

relative clause so now what we do we

have this one and now we draw a dotted

line between the relative adverb and the

noun that the whole Clause is modified

which is zero which era the era when

trains were special so this is how we

would diagram this this relative clause

that is a clause beginning with a

relative adverb now relative clauses can

also begin with relative pronouns so

let's figure out one of those let's

modify men not just men forget the era

when trains were special but men who

lose their hats that kind of men with

that kind of man which which men would

which which men forget men who lose

their hats so now we need another

baseline now we don't have this one

beginning with a relative adverb but

with a relative pronoun so who lose

their hats

well the verb is certainly lose and what

is lost hats this time we have a direct

object its which hats their hats the men

so we've got this who left over and what

is it doing well it's filling the funky

function of a subject so it goes here in

the subject place men who lose their

hats well now we don't have a relative

adverb as over here we've got a relative

pronoun and so we draw a dotted line

between the relative pronoun and once

again

now that's being modified by the

relative clauses and relative clauses

modify nothing but nouns that's their

whole job so now we have men who lose

their hats forget the era when trains

were special and we couldn't just to

spice it up a little bit we could now

modify a trains and say if it were

trains that ran on time that ran on time

so now we've got will make another

baseline again below the noun that's

being modified and we have a verb just

ran and how did they run they ran on

time so that's a prepositional phrase

modifying ran and now with the relative

pronoun isn't who's what that trains

that ran on time and we need another

dotted line go through this have a

collision there so we have a list

what a mess but anyway transit so now

what we've got that man on time is

modifying trains which trains the ones

that ran on time so the whole sentence

that we've got now is men who lose their

hats forget the era when trains that ran

on time were special and that's how you

diagram relative clauses

The Description of Sentence Diagramming 10: The Relative Clause