Practice English Speaking&Listening with: ACADEMIA: Brain and Culture, Lecture 1 [English subtitles] [Raw Translation]

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Aleksandrov, Yuriy Iosifovich - a professor, a doctor of psychology,

the head of the Laboratory of the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (), which seven times in a row became the winner of supported by leading scientific schools of the Russian Federation competition,

Ex President of the Interregional Association of Cognitive Studies (),

Co-chairman of the Psychophysiology Section of the Russian Psychological Society (), a laureate of The State Prize of the Russian Federation in the field of education.

Good day, in my lecture today I'll be telling you about different people which are different even inside one culture, even more different in different cultures

and about their brains, which neurons are in those people brains and how at all those neurons and the culture tied each to other.

Even if it seems to happen long time ago... I want to begin with that - many, many years ago my teacher Vyacheslav Borisovich Shvyrkov... ( )

...I'll show you the photo today during my report...

...He told me such things which I considered as 'overdo' at that time.

He told me next thing: "Do you know, Yuriy, in general the exploring of our subjective world with objective methods is the main thing the human must do

because even if it seems weird but when we'll understand how our subjective world organized

it will be possible to resolve our rest problems -

(the problems of) politics, economics, sociology of course, i.e. at all the problems which human faces, the key to resolve them is the cognition of the subjective world.

Well, at that time I was interested in neurons, I was in general a more interested in some more narrow things person

and I thought that it is an obvious overdo.

The lecture I'll be reading today is about this.

It is about how my teacher was right.

It is about how the cognition of the subjective world with the objective methods can

be tied and, if you want, can influence on such things like politics, economics and the life in societies in general and relations among the people in those societies.

If to take the main points of my lecture I'll be talking about then we'll talk about the specialization of neurons

what neurons can do and what determines their learning ...roughly speaking,

and about the specialization of individuums (individuals) in society -

what those people can do, what determines their specialization.

and then I'll try to bind these two things.

Why do I do this? Is not this a mixing of too different levels things?

It would be if I reduce the social, cultural phenomenons to adhesions.

But actually we will not be doing that.

Actually if you take a look at the picture in front of you

then you'll see that picture reflects the consistent pattern -

the very different sciences which you see written here - psychology, molecular biology,

culturology, sociology -

they describe from different sides the different links (of single chain) ...if you want... of the single cycle.

This cycle which binds the structure of culture, the structure of genome,

the neuron specializations, the subjective experience, the structure of society and the structure of culture.

And this scheme significantly simplified

because actually pedagogics, economics, jurisprudence, political science exist there as well.

which actually study the same cycle even if people do not realize that.

And if you with the help of different methods... By the way why are those sciences different?

Why do so many sciences exist?

Of course from one side it is because of regularities of development of the science itself, but from the other side

as wonderfully marked the Britain philosopher Mary Midgley:

In our society as many sciences as many needs our society has.

So actually the society needs exist and those needs form the view and searching of aspects of the single reality you see in front of you

and that reality determines people specialization and in fact our science and our society maintain the people specialization very well.

It maintains the high specialization in the field of narrow view on the problem. It is practically profitable. ...For the society.

But from the other side the view which called the painting... in the english literature it called "The Big Picture" profitable for the society as well.

In the other words to understand how these things tied -

people, cultures, neurons, genes, you must have the general picture.

Desirable that general picture should be systemic, but if you do not have the systemic logics and the systemic language then you will be reducing the data of one science to the data of the another one ('reduce' like in mathematics)

and you will be telling: "The social phenomenons are the such neuron activity." - or something like that, or: "The psychological processes are the activity of such and such neuron."

this reduction can give some advantages from the point of view of practice, but from the point of view of theoretical, fundamental science this is absolutely the wrong way.

We will try to avoid such way.

I ask to excuse me - as an exception, there are the english terms on this slide. I just like this picture because this is the author's picture

and it shows well the difference between the Standard Evolutionary Theory and the Extended Evolutionary Theory.

What is the Standard Evolutionary Theory which you all know and in every book... even without any book you know it.

There is an environment which at some moment influences the population which has some genetic pool.

This environment changes the genetic pool in some way, due to genetic inheritance you get on the next stage a new genetic pool.

And the next environment influences that new pool, selection happens again and so on, and such stages environment-pool-inheritance, environment-pool-inheritance.

What does the Extended Evolutionary Theory or the GeneCulture Coevolution and Niche-construction Theory include?

It includes the simple idea which is so obvious that I don't even know if I need to rationale it.

We create the environment, at least it is clear and obvious for human - human builds the environment, he... his environment influences are such that it is the time to fight them.

And there are the special methods to fight our influence on the environment

So we construct our niches - we build houses, we build trains, but not only humans do it, animals do it - beavers build dams, ants build anthills, and then revealed that genetic pool is not only influenced by physical environment itself but by the environment which was build, roughly speaking, by the genome (as well),

i.e. in the other words there is such regularity -

niche selects the appropriate pools, those pools construct... reconstruct the niche, reconstructed niche favors appropriate pools and so on,

i.e. in the other words that Extended Evolutionary Theory includes environmental or ecological inheritance - our influence on the environment and the genetic (inheritance) as the Standard theory does.

And some authors think that idea about Niche-construction and GeneCulture Coevolution is one of the most important achievements of the Evolutionary Theory of 20th century.

How does... How does the genome and the cultural environment coevolution manifest? Coevolution of the genome and the culture?

There are many works where it was explored, I'll show you two as I think very bright examples.

One of that examples relates to dairy farming and the other one relates to some methods which people use in agriculture.

The example number 1: it is the most well known in the the GeneCulture Coevolution Theory

Here you can see in the picture the dependence of frequency of gene alleles providing resistance to raw milk for adults.

It turns out that not everyone can drink raw milk and some people intolerant to it and can drink only processed milk and it is known.

Known as well that all children can drink raw milk and later adults loose this possibility but not everyone.

In some cultures it doesn't disappear and many people are tolerant to the raw, unprocessed milk. Which cultures? The cultures with the dairy farming.

Which is the first?

Do they have such farming because the have such genes or they have such genes because they have (such) farms... (such farming)?

But in general such question statement looks a little bit weird because we talking about the coevolution, they move together,

i.e. if such farming established then the particular genes are selectioned.

but still some explorations show that if we take the Early Neolithic europeans genome then (we see) they have a low amount of the milk tolerance gene alleles or (the gene) absences at all,

i.e. in the other words seems like the dairy farming appeared first and the selection after,

the selection of those alleles and those populations which can handle that milk in the cultures which drink that milk unprocessed.

I think this is an more bright example because it relates... it relates to the single group of people.

To so called "kwa-speaking people" in West Africa.

Those kwa-speaking people are interesting because they use different types of agricultural methods.

One group replaces the forests and ...cuts down ...and use the agricultural methods which lead to water accumulating, and mosquitoes appear with that water, and mosquitoes appearing leads to the malaria.

And next? And next in that population of kwa-speaking people the population with higher frequency of gene alleles providing malaria resistance are selected.

If you take the other group of kwa-speaking people which do not have such agricultural methods then they have reliably lower frequency of allele providing malaria resistance.

Do you understand what is about?

i.e. in the other words with introduction those agricultural methods people create the niche. It favors to particular forms of selection.

This is a structural description of what I was talking about.

Here you can see the structure of the culture from one side and from the other side the systemic structure of individual experience and individual development.

What is the most important we must remark here? The most important we must remark is that the forming of these systems and structure of individual experience happens in some culture.

I'll show you later and talk it - any of our behavior is culture-dependent and forming in the culture.

How is the behavior formed in the culture? It is formed through the neuron specialization, i.e. we create some neurons which can do something special.

We'll talk about this verbosely and specifically. How can we form the neuron with the appropriate specialization?

We must change the genetic activity, i.e. in the other words that cycle I shew you in the first picture looks here like that -

system genesis in the culture through the genome activation, neuron specialization, forming of the subjective, individual experience structure of individuums, ollective action, forming of the culture, learning in the culture and so on.

We'll go through that chain.

You have seen already that... You have seen already that

it is clear from the picture that those structures like the same, they are very similar.

And really - in those structures of the culture and of the individual experience have many strong analogies (parallels).

Analogy number one:

all structures, and the structure of experience and the structure of the culture based on the principles of the selection

i.e. everywhere we have a origin diversity and everywhere the learning selects some neurons to make them specialized and if we talk about the culture then in the culture many different elements are produced and then along the process of the culture development some of those elements are selected, separated and some of them are removed.

The second analogy is the development of the culture, individual experience and systemic structures from the most global to the most differentiated forms related to details.

This is the second similarity. And finally the third similarity, it is very important and I'll be telling about it specifically -

The newly created elements of the culture and of our experience do not discard previously created ones

but layering on them, i.e. when something happens... We'll talk about the experience. ...but in the culture it is very important for those who plan to do something at all to know that when you introduce some innovation to the culture this innovation must fit to the things the culture had already because what it had not replaced.

It is a important principle.

Now I want to show you that thing - the dynamics of the culture, first in the one classic example from social dynamics of Mole.

This is the dynamics of dress length and width changing over the centuries. Look how beautiful it changed and by the way not fastly.

And this is again the data related to the dynamics of the culture, which refer to a period of serious changes in our country. As you can see since the year 1994... from the beginning of the "Perestroika" till almost these days.

Those data relate to our evaluation of a smart man. We all evaluate people - smart, stupid, not very smart, but most of us do not have strict criterias of this evaluation, it is just obvious for us - that person is stupid and that one is smart.

That's it, what to evaluate? It is obvious already.

But there are the means and methods in experimental psychology, social psychology which allow to identify those variables you do not realize and you use to classify the people.

And when you will make such evaluation you see that in russian population, in the population of Russia... People... Such important factors like 'culture of thinking' and 'social and ethical' factor indentified. The culture of thinking is a thechnical factor, i.e. how the man resolve the problem - succesfully or not?

And the second factor, the social-and-ethical is about that man attitude to the people around, is about his ethics: Is he kind? Does he help to the people or not? Strangely enough, it does matter for the man intellect evaluation.

If you will take the other culture, for example, the american one then social-and-ethical factor are not identified there.

The culture of thinking dominates there.

Now after I gave you that valuation look at what happened to us. This is the year 1994 - we have both factors, maybe social-and-ethical factor slightly bigger. Then year 2004 - the powerfull changes in the country, the powerfull influence on the country.

What do we have? We have something we conventionally called "the westernization", the value of the culture of thinking factor for the man intellect evaluation increases dramatically after ten years.

But notice - social-and-ethical factor still there, it remains, i.e. we do not become the americans.

The weight of the... let's call it conventionally in quotes ..."west" factor really increases but in the same time the "our" factor remains.

Six years have passed, what do we see? We see the rollback, we see the rebound, in the other words our social-and-ethical factor raises hardly again, the culture of thinking factor is pressed down and we back to the initial state with overdo,

i.e. in the other words those ethical ideas which form the core of social ideas does not disappear, they remain even if we change and something can happen to us.

Right now I told you about the work which allows to find out our attitude toward the smart man and now we have found out it and I shew you that dynamics, but for what reason the exploration of brain is necessary at all?

If we now, for example ...and we are going to do this ...if we compare people of different professions, people with different political beliefs, people which live in different culture,

Can we use only the traditional methods of the politon sciences, sociology and psychology?

The answer is - of course we can and in general it is how we handle it, but it is not effective enough.

Here in this picture shown the results of relatively new work where the authors compared the people which belong to the Democrats and to the Republicans,

and those people actively work in these parties and have appropriate political beliefs.

And you see the columns in the picture and those columns reflect the difference in behavior... in decision making by these people while resolving the problems related to risk.

What do we see? No differencies in behavior, i.e. the republicans and the democrats externally behave identically, we would say these people are equal and they resolve the problem in the same way and then we get into the brain.

And we look with the help of brain mapping how they resolve that problem.

And we see... Here we have two structures, we will not step aside for them, it would take too much time, but you see that the democrats and the liberals have opposite activities of those structures.

If democrats have more active one structure and liberals have this structure a little bit active and vise versa for other structure, i.e.

the different pictures of brain activity here, in the other words those people resolve the problem externally equally but they use different methods for that and even possibly different cognitive methods are involved.

Next example of the same type:

Individualists and collectivists exist. For example, the japanese and americans are two types of cultures.

It is obvious that in these cultures people differently evaluate themselves and attitude to them from the society side.

It is more important for the collectivists - how they see you. For the individualists their own evaluation is more important.

So, they get the tasks... I'll not go deep into the tasks essence. ...and they - the collectivists and individualists, begin to solve those tasks, they evaluate my opinion... their opinion about them .

view on them and how the other man see me, and the view of people of two cultures are compared. What is seen? There is no difference, i.e. in the other words collectivists and individualists resolve that task equally.

And we should say yes - they are the collectivists and individualists but here they act some how equally.

Look at the brain and what do we see?

We see that the individualists have more activity of particular zone of the brain - of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), when they resolve the task of self interpretation - 'how I see myself?'.

But the collectivists have more activaty of the same structure, those columns at the bottom show it clearly, when those collectivists resolve the 'how the other person evaluates me?' task.

Do you understand?

I.e. in the other words externally the same behaviour of those people can't be differentiated one from another, (but) while analysing the brain revealed that almost opposite mechanisms (envolved)... at least different mechanisms provide that evaluation.

Why do the brain activity turns out to be such a sensitive indicator of such differences? Apparently it depends on the properties of the cells that make up the brain - the neurons.

You can see them here.

These are the brain cells which exchange... we'll need it... exchange with action potentials, adhesions, you will see these adhesions and even hear them. I'll show you that thing.

And... in general to understand how neurons became specialized for one or another behavior we will reference to theories which called 'Selective Learning Theories'.

There are two items, first item is selection, i.e. the neurons are not the homogeneous elements between whose only synapse link weights changing.

how some people think,

but neurons are different.

This is weird, simple, and obvious... they are different.

And when we meet... how do they became different is the separate question, unfortunately we have no time for this...

...and when we deal with one or another situation, roughly speaking, this situation searches in our brain those cells which features maximally fit to this situation resolving.

Ant then they used and became specialized.

How looks this specialization I'll show later. The process of specialization.

I am showing you two authors which made much in this area, one of them is The Nobel laureate Edelman and the second is my teacher Shvyrkov about whom I told you at the most beginning of the lecture.

Relative to what are neurons specialized? They are specialized relative to the systems forming on the consecutive stages of individual development.

We develop, we constantly form the systems and relative to these systems neural specialization establishes.

What do we have inside us in our subjective world as a result of such specialization? We have a Napoleon (cake).

I.e. layered cake or if you want are the tree rings but the ring is not when a year past but when a learning past

and you have a new specialization.

And when you form a new specialization, that new red system, it doesn't replace those blue which were but layers on them.

And this cake you grow during whole life.

And this cake and the most complex links between the separate layers if this cake determines the containment, dynamics of your subjective experience -

the way you live, the way you see, the way you communicate,

i.e. your learnings forge the structure of your subjective world.

How do they reveal? How do we see the neurons are specialized?

We see it because of their activations, how they form the adhesions of their behaviors, those I told about.

In this figure these adhesions marked with dots, do you see the strokes and dots? Every dot is an adhesion and every stroke is a pedal push.

Every time an animal pushes the pedal a particular neuron became activated, let's call it a 'pedal-specific' (neuron).

It it activated... If a another pedal is pushed it has no activation.

It provides... but for you there is no difference if one or another pedal... for the animal, for this individuum those are different pedals because they provide the ways to different feeders,

and some neurons turn specialized relative to the one pedal, the others relative to the another pedal, these are two different pieces of this animal subjective experience.

How are these specializations formed?

They are formed, in particular, by activating the genetic apparatus of cells.

The genetic apparatus of cells activation represented in this figure by dots. Do you see there are many dots in square?

Every dot with the help of immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods shows that particular cell gene is activated, and these genes activation leads to other genes activation and morphological rebuilding of the cells. We will get to this point soon. I.e. the morphology changes too, not only activity.

And you see in this figure than where are many specialized neurons, where during the learning process many cells specialize... do you see 28%? ...the expression is big, in structure where are less specialized neurons the expression is less.

I.e. this expression provides the stages of neurons specialization.

If you are specialized, if your neurons are, then it is for a long time, seems it is forever.

Here shown the excellent experiment made by Thompson and Best for a long time ago. Why it is excellent? Bacause usually we register the neurons activity during short time period, they registered the activity of one neuron for 152 days.

For me... I as a person related to this admire such possibilities.

They registered for 152 days, it is a big part of animal life, about 1/3, 1/4.

Do you see the first day of registration? This neuron activates in the 6th sleeve of labyrinth only.

It is selective with respect to the run to the sixth sleeve of the labyrinth only, not (selective) to the first. 152 days past, it is not only 152 days, it is life

At this time the animal learns many different acts, including defend behaviour.

You take this neuron, look - it activated in the sixth sleeve and it still activates in the sixth sleeve.

But in the first not.

As I told already the learning changes not only functionality but the brain morphology as well.

And this is detected not only for animals but for the people too, for people of different cultures and we'll talk about this later.

This is how the morphology change looks in analysis. Here you see how with the help of special methods we can see a dendron (dendrite) (branch of a neuron) of an alive learning animal, and those white things on the dendrone are the spines which provide the contacts between the different neurons.

And look, you see the picture before the learning and after. What does happen after? The new spines appeared, i.e. the morphology of that cell changed as a result of learning

and the authors bind these new spines forming during the learning with the lifetime memory storing.

I'm showing the excellent citation of Prigozhin, maybe many of you know him - he is one of the creators of the synergetics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. He said that irreversibility is a mechanism that creates the order and the organization.

And with such irreversibility we deal in all evolutionary processes including the process of individual developing and cultural development.

One step is made - next differentiation is made, one step is made - next differentiation (is made), impossible to step back.

Step back never happens, special artificial methods are necessary for "dedifferentiation" in quotes.

irreversibility doesn't mean immutability, doesn't mean that if you created something in some stage of ontogenesis then it remains with you unchanged for all life. No.

The experiments of our and other laboratories show that when you form new elements of experience ...shown here in red have two processes,

the process number one: this is forming of neurons specialization relative to the newly formed act,

the process number two not less important: this is reorganization of earlier formed - the adjustment of the earlier formed to the newly forming behaviour,

in the other words every new learning is a rebuilding of the experience structure in general, not only adding of one brick to the brickwork.

Do you anderstand the idea?

This is the full featured rebuilding, it is a very important thing.

I'll will show the variants of specializations, how it at all looks in life.

Here I'm showing a neuron and that's how look... these sticks are the neuron action potential, this is an indicator that it is activated.

This is I'm showing a neuron of reed bunting which is activated when it listens particular song and when it sings this song,

i.e. in the other words this neuron's specialization is this song and the other neurons handle the other song.

Do you understand? I.e. it specialized relatively to ecologically important event - this song performance with the help of which it attracts a female or do something else.

And now I'll show one more very interesting neuron, it is so called nest neurons.

What it means? Animals including mice build nest. To build the nest there must be a object of such form.

If you will take and change the form - it will be convex upwards then it will be not a nest, it will be impossible to build a nest from it. Understandable, It must be concave.

And exist the neurons which active only when the animal meets the concave object.

Look at this figure and in the same time listen how sounds the neurons activity when we register them in a real experiment.

And now I'll show another figure, it is even more convincing. Here it (mouse) first get closer and sniff a cup with a bottom turned upwards.

It is not a nest, it is impossible to build a nest from it. Neuron keeps silence.

Then the experimenter will stretch out his hand and turn it over and the same object become a nest and you'll see what happen.

This is a neuron of ecologically important behavior - searching a object for nest building behavior.

We can form a niche of individuum (individual). In general we do... in culture we do it constantly. This is a part of my niche - a computer I'm working with now.

We can create a niche for this animal within its ecological capacities,

and we get specialized neurons depending on what we create, i.e. we can create to it those sets we want. Repeat - within its ecological capacities.

It is visible in this figure that when we teach it to pull the ring and it get food with this pulling then we create a ring-specific neuron

which handle this act - retrieving it from the memory and the ring pulling.

We will teach it to pull a pedal and we get a pedal-specific neuron.

You will have in head what you teach, appropriate specializations will be in head, and as you have understood already for a long time if not forever.

The culture does similar thing to us. In the same time the culture, and the evolutionists know that perfectly, it uses ancient systems which earlier served for something else.

There are the structures which are activated when we experience the physical pain, marked here in red. There are the structures which are activated strictly when we feel the joy, for example, when we eat chocolate. It is hard to image more joy, right?

Now, what does culture do? Suppose a person envies someone and the envy as stronger as closer to his professional area,

i.e. if in the (professional) field he sees a person which does something much better then he then he begins to envy very much.

Which structures are activated by such envy? Those which are responsible for the physical pain.

This person feels the pain when he sees someone doing something very well, much better then he.

Now. The person which do something better fails. What is activated? The chocolate.

It is so good, it is so pleasant to see how that person got bad grade.

And this figure at right shows that the more envy he has, the more pleasure he got... structures responsible for the pleasure are more active towards the envied person fail.

A little step aside here. In their time academic Anokhin ( ..) and academic Bekhtereva ( ..), Anokhin theorethicaly, but Bekhtereva, let's say, directly formilized

the picture of 'error detection'. We have some special mechanisms, she said, in brain and it is possible to detect them electrobiologically, which get activate when we made a mistake.

And here marked a structure - the cingulate cortex which... it is already revealed by the modern authors, potentials are marked with red ...which related to the error detection.

What does the socium do?

And why this detection is needed? To make us learning.

We do something and made a mistake, something wrong. Aha - error detection, behaviour correction, do something else.

Mistaken - behaviour correction. This errors detector serves to make us learning and for better adopt to environment.

And what does the socium do? It uses this mechanism to make us conformable,

to make our point of view consistent with the point of view of the surrounding people, bringing us closer to the socium.

Let's say if you want, maybe it is very rough, it slightly 'deindividualizes' us.

How it is done? There was a beautiful task - a beautiful girl are shown to a testing person and the person asked to rate how beautiful she is on a N-point scale, he evaluates.

And then he shown the same girl and said that european society (it is not true) gave that girl N points and this value differs from his own rating.

And when the testing person sees this difference the cingulate cortex (related to the errors detections) get activated and later during retesting he shifts his rating closer to the european society.

Do you understand? I.e. In the other words this error detection... the socium uses it to make us agreed to the people around.

To make us conformable.

By the way, it looks slightly differently in different cultures... the degree of conformance.

And now I want to show... want to show a specialized neuron in a human brain, already not in animal's one.

And it is our specific experience, for example the experience with video sequences, with films.

And now you will see a patient who has a registered neuron activity and this activity is specific toward The Simpsons.

He shown very different things and the neuron almost keeps silence, then he shown The Simpsons and this neuron works exclusively during The Simpsons showing.

Then will be a next part nonstop, where he begins to remember and he remembers the New York first - neuron is silent, then he remembers something else, I forget what - neuron is silent, but then he says: "The Simpsons...", - and there will be 'Laughting' word and he is laughting

and at this moment the neuron is working, i.e. this specialized neuron related to this piece of the experience supplies the viewing of this event and replaying of it from the memory as well. It is an expert in this area. Watch how it looks like.


You have seen how human neuron behaves and this is a link with some pieces of his personal experience.

Now attention. I want to emphasize that the neurons, as in the human brain and as well in the animal brain, are specialized not relatively to geometry or some features, they are specialized... and not towards human words ...they are specialized relatively to internal and external actions of the human,

relatively to achievements made by this human.

Here you see a neuron, columns in the bottom in this case show the neuron activity - when the activity is sufficiently pronounced.

And this is a specific neuron related to the actress Berry. He likes this actress, remembers her well.

And this neuron will be activated every time in different situations regardless how you show this Berry.

There is a row on the top, look how these pictures are different, clearly it is not related to different colors, geometry, etc.

This is the idea, the conception of the actress Berry and even if on the screen "Berry" is written then the same neuron related to this conception is activated.

It handles a particular piece of the subjective experience regardless from the which side you came to this piece.

And it is very important.

Very important that our neurons are not the physical devices. What do I mean?

Look at spectrum analyzer, the spectrum analyzer doesn't care which spectrum it analyze - ''God, Save the Tsar" (anthem of the Russian Empire) or "Arise ye workers from your slumbers" (The International - anthem of the Communist International and the first Soviet Union anthem).

What the difference? The spectrum is here and (the spectrum is) there. If I will take a simple metaphor then the metaphor will be like that:

If our neurons are analyzers then there would be one analyzer for the "Arise ye workers from your slumbers" and another one for the "God, Save the Tsar", i.e. in the other words they would be song and idea specific.

Let's see how it looks like.

This is a figure from our work as well. Here an animal behaves externally equally, on the top and bottom.

One behaviour is food-getting, it pushes... already familiar for you behaviour ...a pedal and gets the food from the feeder, and its activity is very variable so think there are unspecialized neurons in this situations,

and then it pushes the same pedal, gets in the same feeder but gets here the alcohol.

This rabbit is a chronic alcoholic, it needs the alcohol.

What does it get...? You see a powerful activity in this circle and those sticks represent activity, it get activated, it, if you want, alcohol-getting-specific.

In the same time for you externally is the same behaviour but it is different pieces of its experience.

This is alhogol-getting, this is food-getting, we have different cells for them - specific.

If we take the human brain then here we have one important thing - it learns very different actions. They schematically marked here.

These actions projected on his brain, not on one brain structure, although they spread irregularly in the brain, but it is always the general brain activity.

And all these skills, specializations of the neurons related to things learned in culture and as you understand in different cultures it learns different things.

That's why you will get in different cultures people with different sets of specializations.

And what I will be telling in the next part of the lecture is the consequencies we have inside the culture and in the intercultural analyzis related to the fact that different people have the different sets of specializations.

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The Description of ACADEMIA: Brain and Culture, Lecture 1 [English subtitles] [Raw Translation]