Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Lecture 40: Planting Design (Contd.)

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Hi Good morning have you gone through the lists Have you tried to find out different

plants name Have you tried to understand how the names are given Do you find it interesting

In fact I will tell you you will get more excited once you start exploring individual

trees by its name And it is again you know I will take a human analogy It is if somebody

is trying to assess you then the 1st reference is your name and then all your characteristics

or traits Same is for the plants

If you want to if you want plant as an element or component in your landscape to be used

then the 1st thing what you should do is know its name and then try to explore all its characteristics

So so far in the last lecture I discussed about how to rectify the names and trying

to at least get a hint of some distinctive characteristics from the 2nd part of the name

I hope this makes it exciting to you

Next thing what you should know is if suppose you know a name and then you try to know about

its all characteristics all attributes this I will go a little faster because in my 2nd

series of lectures in which I will go into the great detail of all these things but here

I should do justice by at least exposing you to all the kind of attributes that we take

into consideration for our landscape purposes because we are discussing about the basic

fundamentals So here it would be I would say a tip of the iceberg in terms of what you

are learning

In the advanced courses once we (2:02) at that time you will find there are a lots of

things will be discussed against each of them Okay The characteristics or attributes

You refer that particular list in which I said identity or identification spread height

and all that Again I will say all these are not written in terms of its priority but what

are these let me quickly explain Spread Spread you will see with respect to 2 things Spread

is basically diameter on maturity Means if suppose refer to this particular sketch If

suppose there is a tree which has the foliage On maturity this particular diameter is considered

to be the spread So spread means the (dia) the extent the extent the the maximum extent

the foliage reaches at its full maturity

That is a spread After that what happens is after that it grows keeps on growing but this

spread doesnt change much So Im very much concerned about this dimension whenever

Im selecting this particular tree to be located in my landscape So when you are saying

this spread I will also like to draw your attention to one particular point in terms

of 2 forest phenomena one is called ominous other is called adaptation

These 2 I will come to but before that there is one more thing The tree is not necessarily

just merely a kind of trunk and the foliage It has also a root So whenever let me discuss

here itself again if I am going to go to your roots root structure I am also concerned about

when I am thinking about the spread I am also concerned about the spread of the roots How

much extent is going to go through

That thumb rule says I will tell you very there is almost no documents which has (4:13)

substantiated confidence in me saying that okay the roots for this tree is of this spread

I did not find Maybe someday I will find it some research or maybe if anyone of you know

please forward me that particular sources but the result humble We always take it as

a thumb rule that if a tree is fully grown then it is always advisable or safe to take

one third more than the means about say 1 point 3 times

If this is X then take the root spread is 1 point 3 times of the X That means root is

more wider Why this is safe Because you dont know what is going to happen below the ground

You can see this part you can trim it but this new cannot trim You can but the thing

is it is not regular This you can trim and bring it to a shape if it is conflicting with

other functions but here it cannot

So it is only better that if you know the spread of a tree which you can do what you

know just very simple that you take take a team of experts and go and measure the same

species and the same age of the same locality and keep on measuring the spread and then

you take a average of it you will find that this X will be known to you And just as it

humble role take one third more than that as a spread of the roots That is safer

And what is the dominance in adaptation is I will discuss this later in one of my 2nd

series lectures Let me give just introduce it to you It is very important You know the

trees the different plants they have their intrinsic power Okay That particular power

by which it extracts water from the soil it transpires it spreads its branches and it

takes position in the reality Okay

Now if suppose there is a situation where you have suppose there is one tree here and

there is let me draw it this way you have planted a tree which is of this shape actually

another thing let me tell you in general whenever we are trying to the present study we always

represent like a globe or like a circle most often In plant always a circle because we

hardly found any tree which looks like this hardly unless we tame it and deface it Okay

So most often it is this And suppose you have planted 3 trees one after another and the

tree which is likely to grow in its full matured shape is like this This will give you a good

idea about what dominance and adaptation I am talking about If suppose now in this this

is species A and this is species B and this is species A If A is a dominant species over

B by its own intrinsic strength then what will happen you know

A will try to grow to its full maturity spread B will be now restricted or constructed in

terms of growth So what will happen is there will be some bit of you know some bit of adjustments

at this particular point but A will grow to its full mature spread and B will be restricted

to its full not to this and this A will grow to its full mature spread This is the phenomena

which is found in the forest which is called dominance

Now the question is if suppose now this is A and this is all 3 are A This is A this A

and this is A Then what happens Interestingly just like human culture human system they

will be adapting to themselves They will adjust You note will happen There will be a centreline

coming This will be a centreline If you really measure it will be almost centreline and this

tree will grow to its shape like this this tree will now just to this dimension this

tree will adjust to this dimension

Very interesting phenomenona This is what is called adaptation and this is called dominance

This dominance and adaptation these 2 phenomena do not is regard it You be very very sensitive

about it and whenever you are planting different species one after another that this option

is more you plant them independently consider each of the spread as the dimension and keep

some allowances for you now some kind of uncertainty of growth

What I mean to say by that is if suppose this is A which is at this point base and which

is likely to grow to this size then I would say let your B be allowed to grow to its full

mature shape and then another A which is here Now there is no conflict Each one of them

will grow to its full mature spread Not only spread even the height Now in such case and

then additionally you keep some allowances or clearances between these 2

You are safe trees are safe trees are not disfigured This you take note of okay So what

happens is if suppose now I say that what will be the spacing between these 2 And if

this is that means it is the spread of A by 2 spread A by 2 spread B by 2 plus say 1 to

2 meter in between Let us say 1 meter so your spacing between this tree will be SA by 2

plus 1 plus SB by 2 This is the spacing between this and this Is that clear Is that clear

If you do this you will find that you are in safe situation But at the same time let

me tell you FE kind of experimentation we can do I can deliberately create this If I

want that the B to be disfigured then I will deliberately place them in between in a constructed

position so that B is not allowed to go to beyond this level But what happens if it is

reversed A is dominant it is in the centre then the B and the B this also do need to

know

Then what happens is the B will go to its full mature shape and no A will be restricted

This is what is going to happen if suppose B is in the centre That this is B sorry sorry

this is A dominant one this is B and this is B In that situation this is what is going

to be And not only it is here you know what happens is tree always tends to grow up words

Okay In this kind of situation you know what will happen

The spread has been delimited by the dominance factor but the height is free because it is

clear up what So the tree which was supposed to be growing to this height which was supposed

to be growing to this height will now after restriction will become slender because the

height is there So this height they will reach This is how you should always seek this particular

kind of spread So as I said it is going to have a differential variations in spread

So similarly the root spread which I just now discussed So the thing is you take care

of this spread in full maturity and also the root spread in full maturity and then decide

what should be the placement of this tree

Then comes height You know height you should see in this way For a tree take its full matured

height this height take note of this as a full matured height Okay That in full maturity

what is the height This is what is the height you are referring to But there is another

height that you have to take into consideration when you are designing that is this height

This is what is the clear trunk height So this clear trunk height is the height which

is from the root collar to this socket part of it Okay

Now take note of the height as well as the clear trunk height Then comes the form Form

is basically or profile let me call it profile It will be better profile Let us let us change

this We will call this as profile not form

Okay Profile In this basically what is this profile Profile is when you are looking at

a tree against alighted background see tree has lots of different kinds of pictures irregularities

and all that

When you are looking at it from a distance you look at the trunk You see a trunk a stick

and then a globe above Now when you are looking at this against a lighted background you see

there is a dark patch dark image and that is what is the (())(13:51) image of this and

that represents the profile of this There are different kinds of profiles which are

here It can be broad square round fanlike tapering conical columnal umbrella Let me

try to give a very quick idea about it

So if it is something like this it is broad If it is something like a little of this it

is square If it is something like this round If it is something like fan If it is

tapering If you have this and very sharp conical If you have this like columnal If you have

simply which is like this is umbrella Im just trying to generate different forms and

point is what name will you give and what is the kind of profile that you are representing

this that is purely up to you

You can always have your freedom in it There is nothing like that this has to be set in

that form But usually it is representing that okay

Then comes the root structure Root structure you know its a very essential thing which

I just now said It makes a lot of difference in our plantation things There are different

kinds of roots but let me explain to you slightly more in detail because see for other parts

of the plants and all you maybe you are aware but the roots it needs a little little elaborate

discussion quickly Whenever you look at the root of a tree now if I draw one more thing

that will be good

There is a you know if I draw a single line diagram of a tree then it is a single line

diagram This single line diagram we follow and try to understand This is the ground like

soil line This part is called roots Roots and this part is the shoots Of this this part

is the root collar this is the trunk central leader and this one is are the branches stems

then we have a leaf And then we have wherever it is branching from there is a bud

This particular point where it is branching from is called node and the intermediate zone

between 2 nodes is called internode and then the bud from which the stemming really starts

is called axillary bud and then at the end of each of these brands you have a bud called

epical bud or terminal bud and then in this branch you have a leaf and you also have a

lover which is called influorescence And also you have a fruit okay

If you really see this is a very sketchy diagram of any plant any plant of any form So it has

a root it has a shoot it has central leader it has the taproot it has the secondary roots

thats how So now I am bringing back to this root structure Basically there are 3

such roots One is the primary roots and there is secondary roots and tertiary roots What

is it It is this

Let me draw it here If suppose there is a tree and then you have a root which is doing

like this it is a primary root Whatever comes from these edges whichever direction these

are secondary roots And from there again whatever roots is coming is a tertiary roots Tertiary

roots also we will have tertiary roots tertiary roots and tertiary roots okay This is how

you try to view the roots

Now the roots will have different kinds See one is the taproot which goes direct another

is a lateral root which which is primarily going to the sides Then you have the fibrous

roots When the taproot and the secondary roots the primary roots and the secondary roots

or taproots and the lateral roots are almost of the equal strength and equal size then

it becomes fibrous roots Okay And when you find that in some cases when the root is very

much going deep into it then it is the taproot

And then you might find sometimes root is also you know it is coming from here and also

going above the ground As I said the starcoli alata example this is called Barkers roots

I will go a little more detail in this in my next flight And then parasite roots is

basically when it is trying to grow from the other branches they are parasite roots Adventitious

roots are basically they are roots which are it grows in different directions from different

parts of the shoots and all that okay

The storage roots are which one where we have a fleshy or say tuberous kind of thing which

you know slightly voluminous Then contractile roots are bulbs which you know looks very

big but if you press it it almost gets pressed like this So it contracts by this The prop

roots are ones which grows from the stems and ultimately leads to the soil Like Banyan

tree where it is something like it will start from these branches and it will generate from

there and it will fall and ultimately get hooked to the soil This is all the Banyans

treessituation that you have seen

They are all you know prop roots That and that adventitious roots that you will see

that it comes from the stem If you see that even ficus elastica we will have roots If

you look at the tree certainly you realise that the roots are coming from the stems or

the branches They are there And the aerial roots are epiphytes which are growing again

from the stem And then pneumatopherous roots or oxygenators which does not require soil

So all those roots which are in water are this pneumatopherous roots

I will just show you one more picture in this which will give you some idea That in this

case what happens is you have just see with respect to this sketch pay attention to this

one It is numbered See any roots which are going vertically down as the vertical roots

any roots which are going horizontally towards like this is a horizontal roots Okay And this

particular junction of the trunk and the roots at the intersection of the soil is the root

collar

Then number 4 is the trunk this is what is the trunk and the 5 all these are stems Okay

And number 6 this particular part is called the central leader And then these are main

branches and the other ones small are lateral branches So when you look at the entire tree

profile which I tried to give in a very schematic manner in a single line diagram you will find

in this I didnt put all those epical birds and all because it is a too complicated drawing

here already

So now what we find that at the end of this you know this lateral branches there will

be an epical bud Now epical bud is responsible for the trees growth If suppose you want to

impede the growth the growth of this you could be epical buds Means you cut the epical buds

other branches will come there will be epical bud You keep on cutting You know what will

happen The branch you not tree will start getting restricted

That is how through this pruning and all these things are created Okay Now some more

In the primary root system you have these profile Im not going to discuss much on

this because Im putting this on a slide like this but still they are classified something

like this Like if it is taproot like this is a taproot weakly branching that means branches

are very weak Number 2 if you see the deep branching taproot that means taproot comes

quite below and then after that it branches

Number 3 more branching taproot but that means you have the taproot and the secondary roots

almost in the similar nature So if it is more branching taproots this might ultimately turn

out to be fibrous roots Superficial taproot in which this is a taproot but there are many

other secondary routes which are equally strong Superficial tap anchoring roots means this

particular taproot and after that the other secondary roots also will have anchoring here

And then number 6 is superficial anchoring roots in which the taproot almost nonexistent

The secondary roots are very strong And then we have the anchoring Then we have the palmate

roots it looks like palm leaves Like roots are going in the palm nature Then we have

superficial root in which the taproot is almost negligible Superficial taproot with ascending

coralloid roots means here multiple such roots you know as like corals they almost start

going against these roots

Why all these are superficial wherever the taproot is almost missing Okay Now here superficial

root with aerating roots In such case what happens is that secondary roots are very strong

taproot is very weak and then the aerating roots which are popping out of the soil It

is just like banana tree if you see You know that roots and from there the tree grows There

are many such cases and many of the trees like something like say mango tree you know

similar nature where the roots is going to grow from the secondary one and ultimately

becomes a shoot above

And then you can take it out very carefully out and ultimately grow another mango tree

somewhere else And superficial root system with buttress in which the taproot is almost

missing but the roots are going above the ground the buttress the one just now I said

here in this particular issue tap an example okay So these are different our roots

Now lets see about the foliages In foliages we have what you have to check is foliage

is which part I am talking about It is this part of the tree not considering the trunk

part okay This part of the tree Then what are the things be seen in this is the overall

overall foliage then evergreen or deciduous that means it has leaf throughout the season

throughout the year or it sheds its leaves intermediately for different seasons

Then what is the density That what number of leaves within the volume then layering

how are they placed over each other Then distribution Distribution means here note I say that there

could be 2 situations I am just drawing very quickly on this Either the leaves are all

uniform distributed all over or it may be the leaves are all distributed over the surfaces

okay This distribution is very important

It is important in terms of solar interception solar radiation and reception and all that

But however you are trying to know about the foliage Are they uniformly distributed like

Bakul tree in which they are very uniformly distributed And here like this a tree called

samaniya saman in which you have all those as peripheral So how it is distributed over

Are they clumped structure just like you know in which the leaves are crusted clumped together

Are they variable irregular or are the peripheral something like see what I am saying here like

are they peripheral on the surfaces And then comes the leaf pattern Whether it is simple

simple leaf or compound leaf what is the size what is the shape what is the edge and what

is the colour and texture Today I will in this discussion I will just introduce you

to this In my next series I would advise you to join my next series of lectures in which

will be lots of details which I will be discussing about this because if I start discussing the

details in this you will lose the actual path okay

But when we are thinking about the leaf pattern what we are seeing is whether simple or compound

or size what is the size of it what is the shape of it what is the edge colour and texture

I will just give you a few examples quick examples You know the relief profile is this

They have different names scientifically developed and they are unique And any leaf that you

see if you compared with this you definitely can make out that which it is what type okay

Subulate acicular filliform linear oblong elliptic ovate obovate Then we have lanceoalate

oblanceolate spatulate orbicular rhomboidal deltoid and reniform

These are different profiles So each leaf is different type Each leaf means each plants

leaf is of different profile And that will tell you all these profiles together profiles

and the size and the texture and the edge together if you now combine all these attributes

of a leaf that makes the whole foliage So ultimately the attribute of the foliage is

contributed by these So you have to be really you know knowledgeable about it try to know

about it

Some more in terms of profiles Here the profile is definitely explained You know what happens

is just let me explain You should not think that the leaf which is like this is of this

form Always try to see what is the profile of the top part of it and what is the profile

of the bottom part of it And this is where it is explained here So there are different

kinds of nomenclatures for the top parts and the bottom parts okay

See here acute acuminate Aristate cuspidate microlate mucronate obtuse retuse emarginate

If you see the lower part cuneate attenuate obtuse cordate Auriculate saggitate hastate

If you see this obligue now what happens is see why this knowledge is important You might

find a leaf which has the top part as let us say like retuse Top part is like retuse

What is the bottom part

Bottom part maybe cordate Just take this picture follow this picture bottom part maybe cordate

So when I am looking at it what is the actual profile This particular profile does not match

with my this anyway So we have a combination of such profiles in which you know you have

to now know But let me draw your attention to one more information That is you know this

is retuse

This is the retuse part of it This gives rise to another nomenclature of another you know

ficus group that is called ficus retusa Now how do you differentiate between ficus retusa

and ficus religiosa You should know that even if they are ficus but the retuse retusa tree

must have a leaf which is the top part is this And what is the religiosas peepal

tree leaf like Peepal tree leaf if you remember it is like this Is not it

If if this is so then the tape is this than the religiosas top part is aristate and

religiosas bottom part is cordate That is how you should know about the leaf Okay

Let me go forward quickly Also there is certain thing called as edges So leaves when you are

seeing you are also seeing with respect to the edges edges in terms of entire means very

clean clear or it is sinuate slightly curly or crenate is slightly more is regularly curly

or dentate like almost sawtooth tooth like and serrate is like sawtooth like And serrulate

is very sharp sawtooth like and doubly serrate is you know it is a mix of this

If you now start going through all these things when it comes to parted means there are say

papaya leaves if you remember the papaya leaf is something like you know it is this Or maple

leaf is something like this It is parted Okay So every such identity of the leaf of different

plants have something to offer in terms of its visibility in terms of its existence So

when you are seeing this take note of it

Quickly going through the others In terms of branching habit horizontal spreading angular

branching I will just explain what it is very quickly See horizontal branching is basically

if if a tree is growing horizontally this is horizontal branching Angular branching

is if the tree is growing in angle like bone Fanlike is if the branching is of this nature

Arrowhead is if suppose it is it is like you know like this

Okay Umbrella is if the branching is of this nature Weeping is if the branching is like

this nature Contorted is if the branching is absolutely regular If you follow this this

is horizontal spreading this is angular branching this is fanlike this is Arrowhead which is

umbrella this is weeping or grouping and this is contorted So now one thing keep in mind

there is no correlation between the branching pattern and the foliage profile No

There may be a contorted branching pattern with a very regular profile So do not get

disturbed by that Okay

The next few points in terms of growth pattern We take care of the qualitative fast medium

slow growth or quantitative in terms of growth per year or maturity period And in terms of

soil intolerance we check with the physical properties or texture and the structure of

the soil which I have discussed earlier And the chemical properties in terms of acidity

alkalinity salinity or organic compounds because that makes the plants survivability with respect

to the soil chemistry and the soil structure The physical properties like texture structure

is for roots holding and the chemical properties are for essentially nourishments

In terms of light requirements solved came in a different form In terms of white requirements

what is the minimum light requirement and what is the photoperiodism means how much

time of the day it should get the light and the phototropism means if it does not get

the proper light in that direction then it tends to bendtowards that All these I will

discuss in my next lecture because I am just introducing you to this

Temperature tolerance in terms of extreme temperature optimum temperature winter desiccation

That has to be taken into consideration In terms of water requirements absorption coefficients

of this water intake or movement that is in the tree and the transpiration rate And the

relative humidity and transpiration index Okay Relative humidity of the stomatal cavity

That is going to be taken care of

In terms of bark character the texture colour and the utility In terms of cattle proneness

leaves barks or wood what is being attract or attracting the cattle

In terms of susceptibility to wind flow which are discussed already slender and this ratio

proves root (structure) strength and the branch strength In terms of flowering attributes

various things Size shape density colour texture flowering season for flowering duration and

fragrance Wait for my next set of lectures and I will go into each one of them with samples

and examples and explain scientifically what is what Okay It is just the intro basic level

In terms of routing attributes size shape colour texture fruiting season edible or not

or is it hazardous In terms of pollution sensitivity or pollution resistance there are from the

researches or resources I have found out some of the plants name in that list I am not very

sure how substantial it is but still since I have got a published report so I am just

pressing it to you so that you have in your stock that these are the common plants which

we get in our country in India which are pollution sensitive and these are pollution resistant

okay

And then termite resistant plants This data I have got from the Forest Dept Forest Research

Institute in Dehradun and I have noted down and I have found out that they always classify

this as class I class II class III class IV and cost V as termite resistant plants And

they are all common plants under this So if suppose you are going to make a landscape

in an area which is highly termite infested then these are the trees which are very resistant

So your selection will be automatically very easy to take this data into consideration

But always I will say that you search for the best possible resources which I am always

constantly trying and then another thing is utility or applications in terms of these

Whether a shading utility canopy backdrop physical barrier visual barrier separator

guiding view or orientation or accentuation Sorry accentuation came twice Ornamental groundcover

dust or noise interceptor medicinal household or fuel building construction erosion resistance

So when you are looking at the utility or the applications of the plant materials you

are saying with respect to this Wait for my next lectures in this all details will be

shown with examples

This brings me to the end of this series of lectures of the basics and fundamentals I

have just given a very brief bibliography here but I can tell you if you can get hold

of these books and read it through you will be highly benefited Many of my points which

I have brought here they are referred from this particular book but altogether if I really

be frank with you maybe more than 300 books on landscapes and all other aspects drainage

landform and other aspects rendering of landscape all these I have studied

And my research team is constantly working and they are doing PhD under this Okay So

this bibliography is not enough It is just few which are in front of you If you read

this my 1st point is if you read this you get a good amount of idea but be interested

My focus of you know a purpose of giving this particular lecture offering this at the national

level is essentially to make people interested in the landscape and site planning

But I will tell you this is only the tip of the iceberg So what we have learnt is the

basics and fundamentals with respect to this What lies ahead Let me just give that intro

What next in future Most likely I am not very sure but most likely it would be floated in

the month of August If my lectures have created a bit of interest in your mind you share this

with your friends and families make them interested try to learn more through my next level that

is advanced applications in which I am just giving you many of it that what all are likely

to be discussed

We have Plant science and Maintenance In This Plant Science And Maintenance I Am Going To

Discuss Whatever I did not discuss here I kept it for the next level where I will go

deeper into it with all plantation sciences and then the real way how you should handle

in the landscape projects that will come Okay Storm Water Management which I deliberately

kept it in the next section so that you know I can do justice with the detailing engineering

aspects of it

Indoor Landscape Terrace Landscape Residential Landscape Park Planning Avenue Landscape Bonsai

Plantation Desert Landscape And Environmental Control Forest Recreation Landscape And Brownfield

Landscape

If you now go through this you have gone through the 1st set of lectures of 8 weeks if you

now go through the next set of lectures of 12 weeks I am very confident that you have

a very good idea about the entire landscape process on the subject How you imbibe it how

you extend your knowledge beyond this and how you practice it it is up to you but I

will be very happy if suppose people who have registered for this particular course I am

very thankful to them that you have registered and you have taken interest to learn this

particular course

And this is a neverending study So in man next set of lectures in the part 2 in advanced

applications when it will be through from then on I would advise you that you can always

be in touch with me and try to know more and more and more I will be very happy to communicate

with you and you can always shoot a mail to me for any further clarifications Thank you

very much for joining this course All the best Thank you

The Description of Lecture 40: Planting Design (Contd.)