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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Diane Pecorari Plagiarism and academic literacy October 2019

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jiae's time once we've asked today's

presenter I'll just give you a little

bit of background

Diane is professor of English and the

head of department at City University

Hong Kong her research investigates

aspects of English for academic purposes

and second language writing including

source use and plagiarism and the

widespread and growing phenomenon of

English medium as a medium of

instruction she's designed and taught

professional skills development courses

for university teachers addressing

questions such as how to work against

plagiarism how to promote students

writing skills and how to teach

effectively in the English medium

classroom her publications include

teaching to avoid plagiarism that's Open

University Press and student plagiarism

in higher education society for research

into higher education and ravaged with

Phillip Shaw so I'll just unmute your

mic down and it's over to you thank you


thank you very much Simon for the

introduction and thanks to everybody for

joining us here so there's something

paradoxical about plagiarism and that's

sort of my starting point today it's a

legitimate source of concern in

universities and therefore it has to be

something that EAP teachers think about

as we prepare our students to engage in

academic tasks I'm just having a little

bit of difficulty with my slides which

don't want to advanced just click

anywhere on it and then you can talk

through have done there we go right

sorry about that

right so universities are doing more and

investing more resources to combat

plagiarism in 2000 I published a survey

of university plagiarism policies and at

that point it wasn't unusual to find

that some had no particular policy apart

from telling students not to do it

that's much less likely to be the case

today there are policies and procedures

and we also increasingly spend money and

spend time on text matching tools

products that call themselves plagiarism

detection tools now some people would

say that universities need to do this

because there's been an increase in the

prevalence of plagiarism it's not clear

that this is the case there is only a

limited amount of evidence and what

there is doesn't point with certainty to

an increase but the Curtis and Vardhan

agha article on the slide presents a

really interesting perspective on this

if it's a question that interests you

it's worth a read but whether or not

plagiarism is increasing we can agree

that it hasn't disappeared so this is

the paradox if we've done so much over

the past couple of decades to combat

plagiarism why is it still around so how

do we explain that paradox plagiarism

has a number of causes one is that there

will always be some students who want to

do the wrong thing who choose to do the

wrong thing but there are other

explanations as well there is an

important distinction supported by a

large body of research between

plagiarism which happens because the

student decided to do the wrong thing

and plagiarism which has some other

cause so and now I'm going to engage in

some very broad generalizations some

students don't understand what's

expected of them they can produce work

without realizing that their teacher is

likely to call it plagiarism and some

may understand that their writing

strategies are not ideal but are

challenged to produce work which meets

their teachers expectations and because

many teachers pause

most but definitely not all recognize

that there are at least two distinct

types of plagiarism there's a wealth of

terminology in the research literature

to make that distinction

now I've used the term prototypical

plagiarism for cases when the student

meant to cheat this is the deceptive

kind deliberate wrongdoing and some

people think that that's the only kind

of behavior that deserves the name

plagiarism so alternative labels have

been put forward and they include

transgressive intertextuality textual

borrowing and a particularly powerful

and widely used one is the notion of

patch writing which was first used by

Rebecca Howard and she uses this as a

label for the kind of writing which

students do when they're first learning

the language of academia and they're

trying to mimic it

so patch writing is something that

happens when writers don't set out on


to plagiarize but nevertheless the

writing they produce looks like

plagiarism so why is it so hard to avoid

that a lot of teachers are prepared to

accept that some students depending on

their background may not understand what

plagiarism is or why they shouldn't do

it but I've heard teachers say right

once we've told a student what

plagiarism is once we've told that

student not to do it it's their

responsibility and for some teachers

suggesting that there are other

explanations can sound a lot like making

excuses for bad behavior now we don't

want to do that some people cheat some


by plagiarizing and that's not okay and

so it's perfectly reasonable to spend

time and energy warning students not to

plagiarize and trying to detect it if

they do and penalizing it them for it

but to go back to the starting point

today informing and warning detecting

and punishing we're doing a lot of that

we're doing more of it than we were 20

years ago and yet we haven't even come

close to eliminating plagiarism and

there's a reason for that that's because

the warned detect and punish approach is

only relevant to prototypical plagiarism

the cheating kind for the others

prevention depends on supporting writers

to overcome their challenges in using

sources to do academic writing so what

are those challenges well they're really

quite significant as this summary will

show first of all to do academic writing

students must engage with sources that's

something that they can't avoid because

virtually all academic genres are to

some extent built upon already existing

work so academic writing isn't like

producing a poem or a short story

something that's supposed to come out of

the writers own imagination and nowhere


academic writing virtually all academic

genres are to some extent build upon

already existing work so academic

writers don't have the option of staying

away from other texts and relying

entirely on the contents of their own

heads they have to learn how to work

with sources and use them appropriately

in order to do that here are some of the

skills they need they need to be able to

find relevant academic sources so in

other words they need good information

searching and library skills and then

they need to be able to read their

sources and understand them so that

means things like being able to

negotiate difficult academic vocabulary

complex grammatical structures being

able to read navigate less familiar

genres and most academic writing is

based not on one single source but on

multiple sources so writers need to be

able to synthesize the information

they're gathering information which is

typically partially overlapping

partially an agreement and partially

contradictory and then there's the task

of retelling the parts that are relevant

to the new text we've all seen students

try to include a summary of everything

they've read but good academic writing

is selective about what it reuses from

its sources and then of course there's

the job of citing the sources and this

alone is quite complex I've tried to

encapsulate that complexity in these

three umbrella criteria transparently

effectively and conventionally so first

academic writers need to be transparent

about how they've used their sources

usually by means of giving citations

I've discussed the notion of

transparency at length elsewhere but in

a nutshell what it means is the writer

has to help the reader to understand

what sources have been used and how

they've been used beyond transparency

references should be effective in

supporting the new

so we've all come across students for

whom everything is according to or

so-and-so said and that's not as

effective as using a range of reporting

verbs well and finally a source use like

many other things is heavily dependent

on discipline specific conventions so

for example we often tell students that

if they use words from their source they

should use quotation marks but in fact

in the Natural Sciences quotations

aren't commonly used at all so a student

who takes that advice might avoid being

accused of plagiarism but she wouldn't

get a very good grade so in short and I

think this is if anything of a highly

condensed version of what writers need

to do in order to write effectively

using sources students need good

academic literacy skills and that's

where EAP teachers come in so in the

rest of this talk I'm going to exemplify

how academic literacy skills are

important and how we can work with them

by offering examples of activities three

activities which address different

source use skills they're aimed at

different levels and each one can be

further adapted to students at a higher

or a lower level so one way that we

learn about doing academic writing is

through our reading by reading the work

of people in our field we come to

understand what the field prizes in

terms of academic writing this activity

encourages students to notice what other

writers are doing and it encourages them

to make this noticing a conscious

practice it also raises awareness of the

signals that writers use

to indicate how they view sources and of

the fact that readers are very much

dependent on writers using those signals

effectively so in this activity students

are given a short a very short text or

rather an extract from one and the

simple instruction is to try to

understand how the writer of that text

has used sources the same text is used

by the way for the first two activities

I'm going to show and it's invented now

of course there are some people who feel

very strongly that authentic examples

are always better but I find that for

this purpose an exception is in order

and invented examples work better

because they keep students from focusing

on the content of the source and that

frees up their attention for the way the

content is reported so we have a rather

silly hopefully mildly entertaining

example that's been invented but it's

absolutely possible if you feel very

strongly about authentic examples it's

certainly possible to adapt these

activities to use in principle any

source text so here is the short text

extract and I'll just pause here and

give you a minute to read it

in this short extract we have four

citations which would tend to signal

that work from other writers is being

used here and now there are some

specific questions for students about it

and the first is well I should say all

of the questions are about who is given

responsibility or who takes

responsibility for various propositions

and the first is the proposition that

the moon is made of green cheese and the

answer to that is the author called

cheddar is being given responsibility

for this proposition and the next

question is who is it who says that

shutters work has been very significant

and the answer of course is that its

Stilton who says that Stilton called

this the centuries greatest contribution

to astrophysics the next question is who

is it who says that shatters findings

might not be true for all of the moon

and that of course is attributed to brie

who challenges the validity of the

findings for the dark side of the Moon

and finally for the first half of this

activity who is it who is given

responsibility for saying that more

research on this question is needed and

the answer to that is Gouda or Howard F

if you prefer so the point of this

activity is that academic writers merge

the voices of various sources and the

reader needs to know whose voice is


so this activity draws attention to that

need and to the way writers address it

now so far this task has been fairly

straightforward because each of the

ideas that the questions asked about

have a citation nearby to a single

source so it's really quite easy for

students to to understand this linkage

between an idea and the author who's

being given responsibility for it the

next few questions asked about something

which in my experience and perhaps

somewhat paradoxically students find

rather more difficult so the question

here is still who is given or takes

responsibility for these three ideas

that humans have been curious about the

moon for a long time that cheddar study

was the first to produce this finding

and that researchers don't agree about

Cheddar's work and the answer of course

is that the writer of this example text

is taking responsibility for those ideas

based on his or her own understanding of

the research literature now unlike in

the earlier cases there is no citation

to signal that and so this brings us to

another important point not only to

academic writers merge the voices of

their different sources they also merge

their sources voices with their own so

on short ahdre referred to this as

Averell and attribution so when we give

credit to a source for an idea we're a


it but when an idea is our own we're

offering it citations indicate

attribution when a sources voice is

speaking but when the writers own ideas

are coming through when we averse

something there's no signal for that

because that's sort of the default

setting we give credit for ideas that

are not our own and if we don't give

credit to someone else

we're claiming the credit for ourselves

as as the writer of the text so this

activity helps writers distinguish

amongst voices and become attuned to the

signals that authors use to do this the

second exercise is based on the same

text and it looks at something slightly

different it looks at the specific

forums of attributing information to a

source and in particular it looks at the

variation in reporting language that

that writers can draw upon and how that

makes a difference in conveying meaning

and this is important for several

reasons as academic readers students

need to understand the evaluation

implicit in reporting language and that

so that they can fully understand what

they're reading and in their own writing

some students have a tendency to stick

with a few very neutral reporting verbs

and that has an unfortunate effect on

their texts others on the other hand may

try to vary the use of reporting verbs

and they need to know that there's more

at stake than just variety that it's not

sort of a question of randomly choosing

this reporting verb or that one so

we have the same text cheder

says that the moon is made of green

cheese and the first question is does

the writer the the person who wrote this

sample text that we're working with does

that person agree with cheddar that the

moon is made of green cheese or does

that person disagree or is the writer

neutral with respect to that proposition

and what we can see is the cheddar

demonstrated that the moon is made of

green cheese or is said to have

demonstrated and therefore we can assume

that the writer agrees with it

demonstrates strongly suggests that so

the next question then is what if it

said suggested cheddar suggested that

the moon consists of high-quality green

tinge cheese if it said suggested we

would probably think that the writer is

a little less certain that shadow was

right what if it said claimed cheddar

claimed that the moon consists of well

in that case we would probably strongly

suspect that the writer is about to go

on and show that cheddar was wrong

cheddar claimed that the moon was made

of green cheese but in a later study

this was proven to be false so that's

the expectation that claim as a

reporting verb would raise while

demonstrate creates the expectation that

the writer agrees with that idea now

we also have further down in the text

shudders work has come in for criticism

for example by Bree 2007 who challenges

the validity of the findings for the

Dark Side of the Moon so the question

the next question is does Bree agree

with cheddar or disagree and the fact

that Bree challenges the validity of the

findings suggests that Bree does not

agree what if instead of challenged it

was suggested limitations on well we'd

probably understand in that case that

Bree is not in complete agreement but

the criticisms are likely to be more

limited now what these two examples

demonstrate is that through reporting

verbs writers shape the reader is

thinking in two ways in the first two

questions question one in question two

by picking up on demonstrate or suggest

or claim the choice of reporting verb

there provides the writers evaluation of

Cheddar's idea was it correct or was it

incorrect in the second example shown by

questions three and four something

different is happening the writer is not

evaluating the truth of the proposition

but rather the writer is setting two

different researchers in relation to

each other so there's a sense in which

the writer is putting words into the

mouth of Stilton and Bree

the writer is telling us what Stilton

thinks of cheddar and what breathing's

of cheddar so these relatively small

words are quite powerful and they they

pack a lot of media meaning so it's

really quite important that academic

writers learn to use them with nuance

and a delicacy so these first two

activities have first brought the

students attention on how

we actually distinguish whose voice is

speaking in a text and then how

reporting verbs can be used to convey a

lot of meaning about what those voices

are saying the third activity goes to

the question of what parts of the source

should be reported

so novice academic writers sometimes

report a great deal of content from

their sources any reference to a source

can be accompanied by either a loan

quotation or a long paraphrase or

summary that looks like they're trying

to get everything that they read and

understood into their own text

in fact sometimes inexperienced academic

writers say that they feel as if it

wouldn't be honest to be selective but

in fact proficient academic writers are

very selective about what they repeat

from a source now obviously we shouldn't

leave out information that would distort

or change the sources message but we

should include the points that help us

advance our story and exclude the points

that are less relevant to it and that

means of course that what we include

depends on what story were telling so

here's an example to concretize that

this activity is based on a figure and

again these numbers are invented but

they're purporting to show drink

consumption so how much how many sugary

drinks and how much fruit juice do

people drink and as you can see there

are several variables in addition to the

type of drink we have data for adults

and data for children and they're

provided for several years so the

information in this chart could be

useful for a number of different

purposes and the point of this activity

is the the to raise awareness of the

important fact that which information is

useful depends on

purpose of the text so here is the task

we give the figure to students and we

tell them that they're going to be shown

the beginning of two newspaper articles

and then they should use the information

in the chart to add to the articles and

as we'll see each article has a

different focus so this article is about

a trend to consume fewer beverages with

added sugar and it starts with a claim

that this is the case according to a new

survey by the healthy life foundation

our habits have improved when it comes

to what we choose to drink so this is a

claim about a trend in overall sugar

consumption and drinks so here's one

example of what a good response to this

task might look like beyond between 1990

and 2015 the proportion of people

reporting that they drank soft drinks

without add sugar on a daily basis

decreased steadily so the point is that

among all the different kinds of facts

all the different facts and information

in the figure this task asks the writer

to decide which information is relevant

is avoiding this point and which is I

wouldn't say irrelevant but less

directly relevant on the other hand if

the article starts with this claim

children lead the way in improving

beverage habits children are decreasing

the amount of sugar they drink faster

than adults are then a good completion

to the task might look like this

pointing out that there's been a bigger

decrease in the numbers of children

saying they drink sweet drinks than

adults so

the point once again is to force writers

to be selective about the information

from their source that they call upon

and to base that selectivity on the the

direct relevance the extent to which a

piece of information is effective in

supporting a claim there's another

benefit to to working with data figures

tables charts as well and that is that

it forces students to find their own

words so I think we're all familiar with

the idea that if we give students a

source to practice referring to sources

from the tendency will be to depend on

the language of that source in

proportion to the degree which they do

or don't feel comfortable finding their

own language but if you use a graphic

source like this then there's no option

the students will have to find their own

language for reporting the information

from the source so yes

facts ideas interpretations from sources

are brought in for a reason and that

reason is closely related to the purpose

of the text and again it's important to

be clear that in being selective we

can't distort facts if there are facts

that disprove the point we're making we

need to acknowledge that but we should

have a point to make and the things we

write and the information that we report

from sources is the information that

speaks directly to that point and that

is something that students frequently

need to have reinforced so to wrap up

what are sort of the overarching points

to take away from this there are

different kinds of plagiarism and

plagiarism is in inverted commas because

as I said toward the beginning there are

some people who would say that only the

deceptive cheating kind actually should

be called plagiarism

warned detect and punish approaches only

work to the extent they work at all they

only work with prototypical plagiarism

they don't address the cases of students

who don't know how to write from sources

in an appropriate and conventional way

so much of what looks like plagiarism

what teachers might diagnose as

plagiarism cannot be prevented and the

students have the academic literacy

skills to replace it so teaching

academic literacy skills can prevent

plagiarism so I guess the overarching

message from this is yes telling

students about plagiarism trying to

catch students who deceive during the

assessment process and penalizing them

those are fair activities but the

biggest role that EAP teachers can have

in preventing plagiarism comes simply

through raising these important academic

literacy skills now that's pretty much

all I had my references are on this

slide if they're if they're of interest

to anybody and apart from that I just

like to say thank you this has been a

little bit monologic so far so I hope

there are some questions lovely thank

you very much thanks sir thanks a lot

for that

yeah please write any questions you have

we've had a few in the questions box but

please answer any questions you'd like

me to put it down and I'll try and do a

few in the time that we have remaining

I've just seen a really good one there

so can you plagiarize yourself to

previous what does it say as in if you

use materials you had previously written

for some other assignment it is

acceptable to use again yeah that that

actually this question of self

plagiarism is perhaps one of one of the

most contentious ones and plagiarism is

a topic that there's a lot of

disagreement but perhaps especially when

it comes to self plagiarism I think

there there

just there isn't a single answer to that

but there are a couple of principles we

can intend to

so is it acceptable well that depends on

the terms of engagement right and I

think most teachers would say if you're

if you're writing if you've written an

essay for one class and you're thinking

can I hand it in for another one what's

the purpose of the essay the purpose is

to help the teacher assess whether you

have actually mastered the learning

objectives in that class and I say that

you wrote for another class wouldn't do


so that wouldn't be acceptable to me on

the other hand I'd say that as teachers

we have a responsibility to be as

creative in our assessments as we hope

our students will be and answering them

so if a teacher is giving an essay

assignment that can be used in two

different courses I kind of say well

those teachers should perhaps up their

game mm-hmm great thank you could you so

at one point here could somebody's

asking what well I asked you the next

question could you show that the

references slide again absolutely at

least I will try to there we go yeah

showing your doesn't matter I think you

can see most you probably see most of

that there yeah another question here is

and this is maybe a cultural one there's

a few different points around students

just not having the skills and not

knowing it is that a cultural thing do

some students come to class not even

knowing that plagiarism is an issue yeah

so those are actually two slightly

different questions they're definitely

in in some classrooms in some contexts

students some students come to

university might even be starting a

postgraduate course not knowing the

plagiarism is even a thing now is that

cultural a lot of people have asserted

that it is a lot of of other people with

a great deal of expertise have responded

with respect to given cultures and then

said no it's it's it's nonsense to think

culture explains this educational

experience explains its skills what's

been taught in school the school

explains it i i'm very persuaded by some

of the things that have been written by

people who challenge the cultural

explanation there's a very good art

paper written by a young yandi and john

flowered you in a book that Philip Shaw

and I have recently co-edited student

plagiarism in higher education and they

take on this question of the idea that's

often repeated that Chinese students are

particularly likely to plagiarize and

they produce a lot of evidence that

really calls that into question

regardless of whether that's true or not


I think we have to be really cautious

about accepting the cultural explanation

for this reason if we start believing

that students from country X don't know

about plagiarism and that's why they

write in ways that repeat their sources

the temptation is to say right I'll tell

them what plagiarism is and then if they

do it again that must mean that they

intended to cheat in fact going back to

the main message if a student hasn't

been alerted to what plagiarism is and

how not to do it that student probably

also has not developed the academic

literacy skills that are necessary to be

able to avoid it okay good there was

another point I've got a few questions

there's a lot of coming in this is good

if I can find it again it's about

students basically having too much to

learn already when they arrive maybe in

a pre-professional year when their

language level is really low and maybe

all of this is is just too much for them

I don't know if you had anything to

comment on about that well absolutely

it's definitely the case around the

world that students are being put into

English medium instruction English

language classrooms when their level of

English is is not right not not there

yet and we see that you know in places

around the world where English medium

instruction is spreading we see it when

international students go to to the UK

and to Australia and to the US and

Canada and so on and the the the skills

that are required to write academic

texts are just very high level and very

complex so as long as we have students

studying through the medium of English

when their language skills are are not

yet at the point where they can

undertake academic activity in English

as long as we have students like that we

will have plagiarism so is there


another question is about the lower

levels you know what sorts of levels

should these techniques be taught up but

is there any anything we can do for the

lower level students for these lower

level students right so if you if you in

the position of preparing students this

semester to go into the the mainstream

classroom next semester what you can do

is so teach these ideas because they

need to know it and you can adapt the

the sample texts and you can adapt the

questions and you can adapt the

vocabulary to to make it accessible to

them so if students are in the EAP

classroom they need to be learning these

things and because they will be held

responsible for for their knowledge of

them or not and so then it just becomes

a question in using the vocabulary the

structures the texts that sort of thing

to make them accessible the point here

from Peter Aegis says is making quite a

good point that have you found that this

problem has execute exclusively limited

to speakers of English as a second

language given that nobody's first

language is academic discourse this is

only a problem for native speakers as


yeah yes so that that quotation from boy

do is entirely opposite writing academic

discourse is nobody's mother tongue and

this is a this is a problem for

absolutely everybody Shelley on Julia

Carter wrote a brilliant book and I

think two thousand set in the South

African context and one of the things

she showed was that first and second

language users of English at a South

African university used the same

strategy has had the same issues but it

didn't get detected in the work of the

first language users because they were

able to their teachers were more likely

to believe that the Polish language was

authentically there's there's also been

work done to suggest that if we think

about sort of this active patch writing

the idea there is Howard described it

the idea that you take you know a

sentence from here in a sentence from

there and you stitch them together in

into both sort of patchwork quilt

there's evidence to suggest that the

more proficient second language users

and first language users borrow shorter

strings so there is a developmental

trajectory that absolutely you know is

there for everybody and of course it's

important to say that this is not only a

problem for English we the the research

is on the topic is predominantly in

English because of the status English

house as the world's language but this

is a problem for everybody learning

academic discourse regardless of the

language they're working in excellent

just another two quick ones I think

because that's all we've got time for

thank you people everybody for the

questions that we've got coming through

and how is plagiarism punished there was

a few questions around this and what

what what the universities do is in

individual basis is there a an own way

of dealing with poacher ISM with

students yeah

there's a great deal of diversity and

practice across universities around the

world the UK is possibly coming the

closest to standardizing there's a

movement for universities to to create

penalty tariffs and I think also an

informal movement to to align those

across universities but there's huge

variety in practice and it can be any

and in policy as well and it can be

anything from a reducing a grade or

giving zero marks for the assignment a

failure for the course suspension

expulsion in extreme cases it's

important to say that a lot of how

plagiarism is handled is informally

because a lot of teachers find that it's

really very bothersome and you know

indeed sometimes anguishing to report

cases of plagiarism so how do

universities handle it well

their policies and their procedures and

then there's a whole lot of informal

handling going on in the classroom that

sort of doesn't get onto onto the radar

thank you just squeezing it on anything

just sort of on that has written

normally up to 15 percent similarity is

accepted within writing texts do you

agree with this percentage or what kind

of threshold might there might there be

oh I so don't want to be disagreeable

but I have to know I don't agree with

that percentage and I don't agree with

any percentage and it is it is a huge

mistake to take any number whatever it

is as a boundary between the acceptable

and the unacceptable and in fact if if

you read the the sort of fine print on

instructions from Turnitin and kundunese

other products they will always tell you

that although busy teachers who want an

objective frame of reference it's a

natural impulse to reach for a threat

figure like that but there is no such

thing as a good threshold and it's very

very dangerous for reasons we don't have

time to go into now it's a really bad

idea to

try and apply some sort of threshold

figure excellent thank you I'll just do

one more hope you don't mind so we're

keeping you talking here but I mean

basically the question from a lot of

people is how can we find a way to stop

plagiarism from the Internet

and what's the role of the teacher here

this is a big question yeah so internet

plagiarism comes in a number of

varieties and at one level it's no

different from any other kind of

plagiarism if you have students who are

sort of at a loss for how they can start

their writing assignment and they go

online and they find something and they

say well this person wrote it so much

better than I ever could we we have to

teach our way out of that kind of

problem so that means doing things like

giving it giving assessments that they

can't be copied the working with a

writing process so that students are

given structured scaffolded steps to go

through and enabling them to do their

own writing and helping them to

understand that the objective isn't the

text the objective is the the the

process that helps them learn on the way

to producing the text so in in that

sense yes we have the internet now but

before there was an Internet students

who didn't know how to get started on

their writing assessment we're going to

the library and taking books off shelves

and and doing precisely the same thing

there there that that's an issue that

deserves a better answer than this very

fast one but in my book teaching to

avoid plagiarism I do spend quite a lot

of time on that one of the really

troubling issues is contract cheating

and again that's not you but the

Internet has made it so much easier for

a student to pay somebody else in some

other part of the world to write their

assess work for them and that is

incredibly difficult to catch text

comparison tools like turn it in can't

catch that but there is work being done

on sort of

how we stop the the the people who are

doing this and what the characteristics

of the organizations are that doing and

also some work on detecting contract

cheating literally I think we'll leave

it there thank you very much that down

that was a really good very interesting

actually lots of good


The Description of Diane Pecorari Plagiarism and academic literacy October 2019