Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Learn English - Sentences: Relative Clauses (1 - 'that' & 'who')

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Hello this video is about 'that' and 'who' in these kind of sentences.

Like, I'll just write it here 'the man who came to dinner' or the 'mouse that roared'

and a few variations.

Hope you enjoy it.

Looking at 'that' and 'who' in relative clauses so first of all here's a pair of sentences.

I've got two pairs.

'Snow White is a story' that's the first sentence and the second one in this first pair 'the

story has always been popular' now I can make these two sentences into one sentence by taking

the second half of the second sentence.

There we are, moving it up there, and putting in the word 'that' in order to complete a


'Snow White is a story that has always been popular' 'A story that'.

'A story' is the thing.

And it goes with 'that' now here's my next pair of sentences

'I met a man' and the other one.

Second one 'the man speaks six languages' hmm.

Wish I did!

Now exactly the same as above I can join these two sentences together by taking the second

half of the second sentence like that and grabbing it and moving it up there, and putting

in the word 'who' because it is the man 'who' a person goes with the word 'who' but it's

more complicated than that as you will find out soon.

Here's the next little scene with a picture of a woman who's rather happy because she's

doing a job she likes.

She's looking after a baby in hospital; she's a doctor and so I can write underneath:

'A woman who wants to be (notice a 'woman who') who wants to be happy, must find a job

that (a job that) a job that satisfies her, there we go.

So just like before weve got a woman underlined in blue; a person goes with who and a job,

which is a thing, goes with 'that' - so a woman who and a job that.

And here's another example of the same thing.

Heres a man with cats, he doesn't really like the cats and the cats don't like him

So what can I write?

I knew a man who was scared of cats - 'A man who' or was it the cats that were scared of


So I'll just underline quickly there 'man who' and 'cats that'.

But it's a bit more complicated than that as you will see now in scene 2.

I'll just take all that text and move it down a bit because we can use a person woman or

a man, with who or that so I'm going to write in the other option there: 'A woman that wants

to be happy.'

(I'll put a bracket) and a man that was scared of cats.

You can use that or who with people I'll just put a little blue arrow there to

show that it goes with both; ‘a woman thator 'a woman who' and 'a man that' or 'a man


With things you can only use that.

Now I can describe 'that' in a different way with a diagram, so I'm going to put a little

diagram at the bottom here.

'That' for things and 'who' for people.

But it's also true that 'that' is for people - Imagine that this is as railway line and

we're just joining the two tracks together.

So 'that' is for both things and people andwhois only for people.

And again I havent left myself enough room so I'll move it down so I can write in the


I call this 'the switch', 'the Switch'.

Now if you want to read more about the switch, we have a website called

And go to forward-slash articles and you'll find something else about the switch.

Right let's move on to the next scene.

Here are 2 young men talking about the job which one of them has and he's not happy and

his friend says 'do you' (woops sorry) 'do you hate this job?'

- 'do you hate this job?'

And the other one says 'well, it's not the job, it's not the job that I hate' (woops)

'That I hate', 'its not the job that I hate dot dot dot'

I'm going to put that in brackets because there's a new subject 'I' so we don't have

to use that you can sayit's not the job I hateinstead of sayingit's not the

job that I hatewhich is ok, you can sayit's not the job I hate’, its something

and here it is someone, not something.

And this is his boss he's not comfortable with him so here's what he is saying dot dot


'Its the man who' (or that, because it's a person) 'it's the man who they appointed

as my manager' 'It's the man they appointed as my manager'.

I'm going to put 'who' and 'that' in brackets because you don't have to use 'who' or 'that'

you can just say 'It's the man they appointed as my manager'.

Now the reason is there's a new subject in both cases.

So if you look on the left there you'll see there's a new subject 'I', just underline

the word 'I'there.

If you look on the right there's a new subject 'they' I'll just underline that.

So if there's a new subject you don't have to use the relative pronounwhoor 'that'.

Now to finish I'm going to put up four sentences, here they are.

And I'm going to put up 4 alternative ways of filling the gaps, each sentence is different

and each gap fill will have to be different.

So first of all I'm going write out the four alternatives here they are, you can guess

what they're going to be.

'That' is the first one, then the next one Ill write here is 'who or that' because

they are always alternative then Im going to put the same thing again but in brackets

so Ill write 'that' in brackets and finally the last one I'll writewho/thatin


Before I fill in the answers, you might want to pause the video and think about the sentences

for a minute.

The first one 'Karim is a man'; a man is a person so Ill just underline 'man'.

Thats a person, thats your first hint, and the second hint is 'likes' is the verb

there is no new subject so you can guess what the answer is going to be it's going to be

'who or that' not in brackets, there we go.

'Karim is a man who likes coffee and conversation' or 'is a man that likes coffee and conversation'

Now the next one, 'the train' is a thing so that gives us the first clue it can't be 'who'

and the second clue is after the gap we have a new subject 'you', so that tells us 'that'

it's going to be that it's going to be in brackets.

So Ill just go up grab that put it down there we are: 'the train that you should catch

leaves at 4.25', or if you like, 'the train you should catch leaves at 4.25'.

Now the next one 'I'll smile at everyone', 'everyone' is a person so that gives me a

clue it's going to be 'who' or 'that' and the second clue is the 'I' which is a new

subject so it's going to be 'who or that' in brackets.

Ill just go up and grab that, pull it down, 'who/that' in brackets: 'Ill smile at everyone

I meet today'.

And the last sentence 'thing' that gives us a clue and there's no new subject just the

verb and anyway there's only one option left but just to be sure you understand the reason

why, those are the reasons.

So we put 'that' there, those are the four sentences complete.

Thats the end of the first video on relative clauses which we're making and theres more

to come.

That's all for today, bye for now!

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