Practice English Speaking&Listening with: Lec-2 Gauges and Permanent Way

Normal
(0)
Difficulty: 0

Dear students, I welcome you all to the lecture series on course material of transportation

engineering two. In the previous lecture we have discussed about the history of Indian

railways and we also seen the administrative set up of the Indian railways. In todays

lecture we will be giving the focus on the different types of the gauges, their associative

features and the permanent way.

In this lecture, we will be discussing gauges, the gauge classification on Indian railways,

the problems of multi gauge system, the uni gauge policy of Indian railways, the specific

gauges and the permanent way. Now, we will be starting with the gauges and its classification

adopted on Indian railways. The gauges as we see in this diagram. This diagram shows

us a rail where in the head of the rail and the foot of the rail has been shown and the

two rails have been placed parallel to each other. The tail distance between the head

of these two rails is defined as gauge. Therefore, definition of the gauge will be- it is the

clear distance between the two parallel rails laid in any track. So, with this definition

we will try to look at what are the different distances or the clear dimensions which have

been provided between the two rail sections of the heads of the rail sections by which

we can classify the various gauges.

When we look at this classification, what we found is that they are different gauges

which are available throughout the world. We have gauges like standard gauges. In the

case of the standard gauges, the clear distance between the two rail sections is 1435 mm and

these standard gauges are available throughout the world in on an average about 62 percent

of the countries of the gauges which have been provided in the world, they are the standard

gauges.

Another category is broad gauge. In the case of the broad gauge, the clear dimensions are

1676 mm or it is 1524 mm. On an average throughout the world the share of broad gauge is 15 percent.

When we look at some of the countries in which the standard gauges have been provided, we

found that they have been provided in United Kingdom, United States of America, Canada,

Turkey and China. These are the major countries in which the standard gauges have been provided,

though, there are some other countries too where these gauges have been provided. In

the case of broad gauge, it is been provided mostly in the Indian sub continent or some

other developing countries like India , Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Argentina and Russia, again

are the major countries in which the broad gauge has been provided.

Other than the standard gauge and the broad gauge, there is another category which is

known as Cape gauge where the dimensions or the clear distance between the rails sections

is 1067 mm and it constitutes around 8 percent of the total gauges which have been provided

throughout the world. Other than the cape gauge there is a meter gauge where the clear

distance between the rail sections remains as 1000 mm and in this case the share of meter

gauge throughout the world, worldwide is 9 percent. We can see it is a very similar to

somewhere around 8 percent of the cape gauge. Other than these four meter gauges which have

been provided throughout the world there are twenty three other gauges which have been

used in different countries of the world.

Again, looking at different countries in which these gauges have been provided we found that

the cape gauge has been provided in Africa, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. The meter

gauge; again in India, France, Argentina, Switzerland and then the number of other countries

in which the other gauges have been provided. So, these are different gauges which are provided

through different countries and what we found is that out of all these gauges, some of the

gauges have been provided in our country, that is, in India.

So, we will try to look at the gauges which have been provided in India. In India, we

have provided broad gauge. The broad gauges have been provided on 63 percent of the route

kilometers and dimensions which have been taken between the rail sections, they are

1676 mm. Normal clear dimensions which is being adopted in some of the countries like

1524 mm is not being adopted in India. Then another gauge which is used in India is meter

gauge. In the case of the meter gauge, the distance between the two rail sections or

clear distance is 1000 mm and this has been provided in 31 percent of the route kilometers

provided throughout the railway network in India. Then there is another gauge which is

termed as narrow gauge. There is a specific gauge which is provided in very specific area

in our country and the clear dimensions in this case, they remain as 762 mm or 610 mm

and it constitutes around 6 percent of the route kilometers.

These narrow gauges as they found, as they have been provided in mostly the hilly areas

where the terrain are such that we cannot go for the bigger gauges like meter gauges

or broad gauges. Now the question comes, how we are going to select the gauge? Whether

we should provide the broad gauge in any area or we should provide a meter gauge or we should

go for a narrow gauge or a hill gauge, that is, 610 mm gauge.

The second factors which needs to be considered, the first factor which needs to be considered

is the cost of construction. Of course, whatever decisions we take the very first factor which

comes into consideration is the cost. The cost of the gauge or the provision of the

gauge needs to be checked in terms of different components. It is to be checked in terms of

the total amount of the area which is to be acquired, it distribute thousand times of

the different other components of the construction or it is to be termed in terms of the earth

work involved in constructing a broad gauge or a meter gauge or a narrow gauge.

Similarly, there is another factor is some specific features which needs to be provided

on any track. One such feature like this is bridges. So we have to look at the cost of

the construction of bridges also. Then there is a cost associated with the buildings, the

cost associated with the plat forms or the physical features which needs to be provided

at a terminal building or a junction building or any intermediate station. There is a cost

which is involved in the controlling features like signals. Then there is a cost associated

with the rolling stock, that is, the things which are moving on the track.

So, when we are looking at different cost of constructions, what we found is that all

the components which we have just discussed now, they are not having the similar effect.

If we are moving from say narrow gauge to meter gauge or we are moving from meter gauge

to broad gauge construction, then what we found is that if we are taking a component

like land or earthwork then there is going to be a proportional increase in the cost

of construction, as we shift from the lower gauge to the higher gauge. Whereas if we are

talking about the bridges, all the similar type of structures then there is a marginal

increase in the cost, it is not proportional. In the case of the buildings of the signals

because these are the, as these are the features which needs to be provided whatever gauge

we are using, therefore, there is no effect of cost of building or signals in terms of

the provision of a narrow gauge or a meter gauge or a broad gauge or changing from narrow

gauge to meter gauge or changing from meter gauge to broad gauge. In the case of a rolling

stock mostly we have to take at independently of the cost of the construction because there

are specific features and specification which are associated with the meter gauge or the

narrow gauge or the broad gauge and therefore that cannot be considered in this component.

Similarly, there is another factor which needs to be considered when we have to discuss about

the provision of the gauge, that is, the physical features of the country. It is another important

feature because we have to look at the capacity; we have to look at the different specifications

which are associated with the constructions of that gauge. If you are looking at the broad

gauge where the wider section has been provided or if you looking at the narrow gauge where

a very narrow section has been provided with respect to the broad gauge . Then the total

amount of specifications or the type of its specification they also remain in the same

context. In that sense if we look at some of the specific features, physical features

of the country like gradients, then we have to look at that whether it is feasible to

provide a broad gauge or it is feasible to provide a narrow gauge so as to traverse arc

gradient which is provided in any hilly mountainous area. Probably that is the reason that we

have provided narrow gauges or heavy gauges in very specific locations like Ooty, Darjeeling

etcetera.

There is another specific feature or physical feature, that is, curves. When rolling stock

is moving on any of the track of any specification may be broad gauge, meter gauge or narrow

gauge. Then we have to look at the ease at which the movement can be made and this movement

is going to be controlled by the total amount of resistances or the total amount of forces

which are acting on that track or the rolling stock. Looking at that aspect, there is again

some limitations with respect to the curves. So it means we have to look at the gradients,

the curves or similarly some other physical features of the country and then on the basis

of that we should decide whether we can go for the construction of a broad gauge or a

meter gauge or a narrow gauge. What we found is that if we are having a steep gradients

or there are very extensive curves, narrow curves have been provided then it is better

to go for narrow gauge, in the state of the broad gauge or the meter gauge, but if the

gradients are quite feasible or the curves are having a large radius, that is, they are

much of flatter curves in that sense we can go for broad gauge constructions. This is

a example which has been given here, this hill railway like from Kalka to Shimla as

you must have seen, you must have heard about or probably some of you have also gone through

that experience of moving from Kalka to Shimla by a train and that is a hill railways.

Similarly, there is another railway which is being provided in the Darjeeling area.

You have to go from Siliguri to Darjeeling and that is another scenic beauty area where

we have the heritage rural section still walking or the locomotive still working. Then, a third

area here it is the Ooty area. So all these are specific area where the hill gauge or

the narrow gauge has been provided with some further specific features, probably we will

be discussing when we taking of the alignments of the rail sections. Then, the next factor

which is there, which controls the selection of the gauge is traffic. What is the total

amount of traffic which is going to traverse, which is going to use that facility? What

is the nature of that traffic?

We have to look at all these aspects. Horizontal we look on all these aspects we cannot decide

whether we can go for a broad gauge construction or a meter gauge construction. If there is

no traffic at all or there is very small traffic available, then if we are incurring cost equivalent

to the broad gauge construction that is going to be something like a useless thing or it

will be extra expenditure which is being incurred in the provision of that facility. So, that

is why there is a judicious requirement of thinking about what type of gauge can be provided

with respect to the traffic which will be there or which will be going to use that facility.

Now in this case if we found that there is a very heavy traffic, a large number of steps

are going to be made by the railways, then we can go for a wider gauge that is the broad

gauge. similarly, the another condition is that is there is a high volume, large amount

of traffic is going to be there , large number of persons are going to use the facility or

there are chances that commodities are going to be varied through the railway system , that

is, the freight transportation has the potential in that area. In that case we again can go

for the broad gauge constructions but if the volumes are low, then we can go for smaller

gauges too.

Another aspect is the speed, in the case of the broad gauge as the size and diameter of

the wheel increases, in that case what happens is that the total circumstantial area distance

which can be moved by that will also increases and therefore the speed of the vehicle will

increase, in the case of a higher gauge. That is why if they are interested in achieving

higher speeds we can go for broad gauges instead of the narrow gauges or the meter gauges.

In this case, again the traction or signaling they are independent things; signaling is

one is that which controls or provides the safety on the track, whatever are the speeds,

is not going to be controlled by the speed. It is going to define the things in terms

of the movements going on any of the track so as to reduce the chances of any accidents

taking place because of the unidirectional traffic or the bi directional traffic.

Similarly, it is the case in traction; traction means the total amount of practical effort

which is available with any locomotive which needs to be provided on the basis of the traffic.

If there is a higher traffic, obviously we are going for the broad gauge construction

and then for those broad gauge constructions we have specific locomotives which can be

used. Similarly, if we are talking about the meter gauge construction then again we have

the specific locomotives which can be used for the meter gauge construction. Therefore,

the things are quite independent as far as the traffic is concerned. Now another aspect

is that if you are going for a wider gauge, it means we can haul large amount of persons

or we can haul a large amount of freight between the horizons of the destination.

In that sense, the total operating cost per tonne kilometer will reduce. So there is another

operational advantage which will be there in case we shift from a lower gauge to a higher

gauge. So in this sense, there are so many factors which are interlinked with each other

and therefore we have to take all of these together into consideration and then only

we can decide that what type of gauge can be provided, it is not a single factor decision

which can be taken as such.

Now, on the basis of all these, a certain classification which has been adopted in variables

regarding all the types of the tracks of the gauges which can be provided. In the case

of the broad gauge track classification, we have different groups like A, B, C, D and

E and for these groups we are selecting features specifications which needs to be complied

with. Now, these further slides, we will be looking at these groups of the broad gauge

class classification and the specific features related to them. Here in this slide, we are

taking the specification related to group A and group B of the broad gauge track classification.

In this case of the broad gauge track classification by this one the speeds are controlled up to

160 kilometers per hour, in the case of A category of broad gauge, whereas in the case

of B category of broad gauge, the speeds are controlled, limited up to 130 kilometers per

hour. Another aspect is the type of the rail section which can be used; this type of the

rail section is defined in terms of the kg weight per meter length of the rail section.

That is the one specific unit which is been adopted in Indian railways or in other railways

too depending on the unit in which they are working. So we have to look at this aspects

and this is defined in terms of the total amount of traffic which can be hauled. In

this case the classification of this total amount of the traffic is being done in three

categories. We have the traffic in less than 10 GMT, and then another category from 10

to 20 GMT and the third category is greater than 20 GMT. For all these categories the

section of the rail has been defined in terms of the weight per meter rail length.

And that is been taken as 60 kg per meter in the case of traffic load which is more

than 20 GMT , for both the cases of category A and category B of the broad gauge track

classification, there it is being taken as 52 kg per meter rail section length in terms

of the two other categories of the traffic that is 10 to 20 GMT and less than 10 GMT,

in both the cases of category A and category B broad gauge track classification.

Further, in the case of another two categories, that is, category C and category D of the

broad gauge track classification, what we look is that the speeds are being restricted

in the case of category C to sub urban railway conditions. These sub urban railway conditions

are synonyms to the rail conditions or the local trains which have been provided in Bombay

or the metro trains being provided in Kolkata or Delhi or another railway which is being

provided in Madras or Chennai.

In the case of the D category of the broad gauge track classification, the speeds are

restricted to 100 kilometers per hour. The type of the rail section again in kg per meter

section weight, it is being defined for the rest of the three categories that is greater

than 20 GMT, 10 to 20 GMT and less than 10 GMT. In this case too, what we found is that

the rail section is being used as 60 kg per meter rail section for the traffic load of

greater than 20 GMT in both the cases of C and D category of broad gauge track classification.

Where as in the rest of the two categories, that is, from 10 to 20 GMT and less than 10

GMT or both the categories of C and D broad gauge track classification conditions, the

type of the rail section used is 52 kg per meter length.

Again, coming back to the A and B category, we look at some other specific specifications

which are associated with these tracks. They are sleeper density; sleeper density is a

term where it is defined as a total number of sleepers which needs to be provided per

kilometer length of the rail section or the track. So, if we have laid one kilometer length

of the track or the rails then how many sleepers we are going to provide below the rail , that

is ,what I termed as sleeper density and this sleeper density in the case of category A

broad gauge track classification is 1660 sleepers. It means 1660 sleepers need to be provided

in one kilometer rail length in the case of the A category of the broad gauge track classification

whereas in the B category of broad gauge track classification, we have either or two conditions,

that is, we can go for 1660 sleeper density or we can go for 1540 number of sleepers per

kilometer length of the track.

Another aspect is the ballast cushion; ballast cushion is defined in terms of the total depth

of the ballast which is provided below the sleepers, so this ballast which is provided

below the sleepers is 300 mm depth in case of A category of broad gauge track classification

whereas in the case of B category of broad gauge track classification it is either 300

mm or 250 mm.

Again coming to C and D category of the broad gauge classifications, we are looking back

on the same aspects of the specification which we have seen for A and B categories just in

the previous slide. Here, what we found is that in the case of the C category which is

related to the sub urban railways or in the case of the D category, we have the similar

conditions of the sleeper density in terms of the total number of the sleepers per kilometer

track length, that is, 1660 or 1540 sleepers per kilometer length. In case of the ballast

cushion, the values are again in the case of C is 300 mm and in the case of D category

it is 300 mm or 250 mm.

Now, coming to the last group in the broad gauge track classification category, that

is, group E. They found that the speeds are less than 100 kilometer per hour. The rail

section in kg per meter in the terms of perfect which is greater than 20 GMT, they are generally

not the cases where the traffic is going to be more than 20 GMT in the case of E category

of broad gauge track classifications. In the category of time to 20 GMT, we are using 52

kg per meter rail section, that is, the length for per meter length of the section, the weight

of the rail section id 52 kg and then in the case of less than 10 GMT, the rail section

which we are using is another specific rail section which is defined as 52 SS section.

The sleeper density again in terms of numbers per kilometer rail length is 1540 to 1310.

These are the two values which can be used in the case of the category E or the broad

gauge track classification and the ballast cushion ranges from 300 mm to 200 mm.

In that sense, what we found is that we are having certain ranges for the speed of the

rail section for the sleeper densities and for the ballast cushion. The speed is changing

from somewhere around from 100 kilometer per hour to 160 kilometers per hour, the rail

sections are varying from 52 SS to 52 to 60 kg per meter. The sleeper density is varying

from 1310 to 1540 to 1640 and ballast cushion is varying from 200 to 250 to 300 mm. So,

this is how the specifications of the broad gauge track are varying for the five categories

which we have seen just now.

Now, further things are that the rails which are to be used for group A to group D they

should to ninety UTS rails. Ninety UTS rails means, this is, UTS is ultimate tensile strength

and the units are kg per mm square. So it means the rail sections which were using for

the categories group A to category group D, they should have ultimate tensile strength

of 90 kg per mm square, that is how they are being defined. There is another category of

rail section which is being used in Indian railways, that is, 72 UTS railway section.

Then the sleepers, they should be general F concrete or there is another category of

rail sleeper which is CST nine sleepers. So, we will be looking at these types of the sleepers;

the concrete sleepers or the CST nine sleepers when the sleepers will be taken up through

the lecture series of transportation engineering two.

Now, here we are going to look at certain tracks which have been defined under the different

groups of broad gauge, that is, group A B C D and E. In the case of group A, there are

5 sections which have been defined under this category. The one section is New Delhi Howrah,

another section is New Delhi to Mumbai central, then another section is the New Delhi to Madras

central , then Howrah to Mumbai V T and the new section which was added sometime back

was Ratnagiri to Sawantwadi that is on Konkan railways ,that is why it is termed as KR here.

Then in the case of group B we have 25 such rail sections. They are Allahabad to Bhusaval

via Jabalpur, Kalyan to Kazipet via Daund Wadi in Pune, Vadodara to Ahmadabad, Mathura

to Ratlam, Sitarampur to Mughalsarai via Patna, Howrah to Barddhaman via Bendel, Kharagpur

to Vijayawada via Waltair, Kiul to Barharwa via Sahibganj.

Delhi to Kalka via Ambala Cantt., Ambala Cantt. to Pathankot via Ludhiana, Ambala Cantt. to

Mughalsarai via Moradabad, Lucknow and Pratapgarh.

Then there is another section from Agra Cantt. to Lalitpur, Lucknow to Kanpur, Virar to Godhara,

Lalitpur to Bina, Khanna to Malda town via Farakka. Wadi to Madras central via Raichur,

Jolarpettai to Bangalore, Arakkonam to Ernakulum via Erode, Coimbatore, New Jalpaiguri to Malda

town that is not frontier railway.

Chennai beach to Dindigul, Chennai beach to Chennai Egmore, Bangalore to Gooty, Ghaziabad

to Saharanpur.

Some more are like Ahmadabad to Delhi via Bandikui, Kanpur to Agra.

So these are the broad gauge track classifications which are there. In the case of the group

C, we have not gone for the group C conditions because they are the sub urban railways as

I have just discussed in the previous slides that they belong to the local trains which

are sub urban railways or local trains moving in Mumbai , Kolkata, Delhi Madras and likewise.

Now we come to the group D. In the case of the group D there are 38 rail sections which

have been classified into this category. Similarly, in group E there are more than 38 rail sections

which have been categorized in this one. I am not going into the details of these rail

sections now because of the lack of time.

Now we move to the meter gauge track classification. In the case of meter gauge track classification,

we have three categories of track classifications; the first classification category is the Q

routes where the speeds are more than 75 kilometers per hour and the traffic density is defined

in terms of more than 2.5 GMT, and in this case some of the examples are the Rewari -Ringus- Phulera, Ratangarh to

Degana, Delhi Sarai Rohilla to Ratangarh, Ajmer to Khandwa.

Then Jaipur to Ajmer, Ahmadabad to Bhavnagar, Agra to Lalkuan via Bhojipura Mathura, Bhojipura

to Lucknow junction.

Villupuram to Thiruchirapalli via Thanjavur, Chennai beach to Villupuram, Dindigul to Madurai,

Jodhpur to Agra east bank via Jaipur, Kathgodam to Bhojipur, Bangalore to Miraj.

All the category in the case of meter gauge track classification is R- routes. In this

case, the tracks have the potential of moving the train at a speed of 75 kilometers per

hour but they are not moving the trains at this speed, but if required that can be done.

In the case of the traffic density it is a little lower than the previous category that

is the Q routes here. It is 1.5 GMT or more. In this case, we have again some categories

like R 1 route, where it is defined as greater than 5 GMT per year and these are the some

of the routes which are there like Hospet to Hubli, Secunderabad to Guntakal, Londa

to Marmagoa, Katihar to New Bangaigaon, Guwahati to Tinsukia, Gandhidham to Palanpur or so

on.

Coming to the next category under R routes is the R 2 routes, where the traffic density

intensity have been defined in terms of 2.5 to 5 GMT per year. Some examples of the routes

here are Guntakal to Hospet, Guntakal to Villupuram Ttiruchirapalli to Manamadurai, Virudhunagar,

Purna, Secunderabad, Jodhpur and Marwar.

Now we look upon another meter gauge track classification. Here, again in the case of

route R category we have the third category: R three routes, where the traffic intensity

is being defined in terms of 1.5 to 2.5 GMT per year and in this case again there are

certain examples which have been given for the tracks; the Madurai Rameswaram section,

Virudhunager Tenkasi section, Dindigul Pollachi, Ratangarh Bikaner Merta road, Muzaffarpur

Narkatiyaganj and Birur Shimoga town.

There are some of the sections of the railways or rail tracks which fall under the R three

route categories. Then there is another category which is termed as S class where all the remaining

meter gauge lines which are rated for below 75 kilometer per hour and or with low traffic

densities, that is, generally below 1.5 GMT per year, they fall under this category. So

they all are meter gauge track classification.

Now coming to the Indian railways track specifications, some of the basis of whatever track we have

seen so far, the very first is specification is permissible degree of curvature, that is,

the amount of the angle which is being fall on the centre of the curve by a specified

length of the curve. In the case of the broad gauge, this is defined as 10 degree, that

is the maximum value of the degree of curvature which can be provided on any broad gauge track.

In the case of the meter gauge it is 16 degrees and in the case of the narrow gauge it is

40 degrees. So, these are permissible values which need to be provided for the Indian railway

tracks.

In the case of the ballast cushion as we have seen previously, it varies from 20 to 30 centimeter

thickness, that is, 200 to 300 mm thickness as we have written or we have seen in the

previous slides. The sleeper density here it is being defined in another notation that

is M plus 7 to M plus 4. Then it is also being defined here in terms of those similar notations

which we have discussed previously under the categories of broad gauge track classifications

moving from category A to category E. In that category categorization, we have seen that

the value of the sleeper density was changing from 1310 per kilometer to 1660 per kilometer

with intermediate value of 1540 per kilometer.

Here, there is a another way of defining the same thing in terms of affecter or value defined

as M plus 7 to M plus 4 where 7 or 4 are the arbitrary values being taken, so it can be

4, 5, 6 or 7 and M is defined as the length of the rail section manufactured at any of

the company. So, if there is a 12 meter rail section, it means it will transform to 12

plus 7 means 19 or 12 plus four means 16. So that is the range in which the sleeper

density can be there for that rail section; if there is a heavier load we go for the more

of the sleepers to be provided within the rail sections ,if there is a lesser of the

load then we go towards the lower value. So both are the ways by which we define generally

a sleeper density. Of course, we will be looking at the suspect of the sleeper density when

we will be discussing sleepers in detail in some of the other lectures.

Then another specification related to the Indian railway track is regarding type of

the sleepers which can be provided; they are prestressed concrete sleepers especially for

group A and group B routes , that is the high speed routes as far as the prevailing conditions

are concerned. Those slowly and slowly they will be moving towards the speeds to as high

as 250 to 300 kilometers per hour and they are trying to find out the feasibility of

providing those things or the changes to be made in the track specifications so that we

can accommodate or provide the operational speed of that much range. In the case of the

standard rails, we have to provide in the case of the broad gauge, the rail sections

has 60 kg or 52 kg and we say 60 kg or 52 kg , it means we are talking in terms of per

meter rail length. Then in the case of the meter gauge, there are three categories of

the standard rail sections which are provided. There are different than the rail section

which we have discussed so far. They are 90 R rail sections, 75 R rail section and 60

R rail section. This 95 R, 75 R and 60 R rail section, they have been borrowed from the

British railway standards.

British were the people who started railways in India and therefore the standards were

also borrowed from them. In this case when we are talking about 90 R means, we are talking

about 90 pound per yard rail length. Similarly, it is for 75 and 60 R rail section. The length

of the rail is either 13 meter in case of the broad gauge or 12 meter in case of the

meter gauge. This is the round off value of the actual length which were manufactured

in different companies, which were manufacturing the rail sections.

Another important thing is the fastening which needs to be provided. Fastening means those

things which are used to connect the different rail sections with each other or the rail

sections with the sleepers. These fastening should be elastic in nature and, that is,

as far as possible, we should use those fastenings where the elasticity is being maintained.

Then, another specific feature of tracks is turn out. Turnout is a condition where we

can change the direction from one track to another track. Of course, we will be taking

out the turnouts again in details in some of the lectures. Here, we are looking at just

the main specification related to turn out. It is defined in terms of one in N value,

where N can be anything like it is 8 and a half in the case of a movement of goods train.

In the case of passenger train it varies from 1 to 12 to 1 in 16. As the value keeps on

increasing, it means we are providing more flatter curve as compared to the sharper curve.

It means there is an ease of turning and there is a comfort being maintained and because

in the case of the passenger movement, more comfort or ease of safety needs to be maintained

and therefore that is why we have 1 in 12 or 1 in 16 sort of turnouts. Again, when we

are going for high speeds as I told you, they are trying to achieve the speeds to as high

as 250 to 300 kilometers per hour. We will be looking at the turn outs which will be

having the values of something like 1 in 20 or 1 in 24. Again, they are under considerations

and as soon as the things will be finalized we will be moving these aspects.

Now we come to another aspect of the provision of the tracks of the gauges; tracks are multi

gauge and what is the problem associated with that multi gauge system? As you have seen

in the case of the Indian railways, we are providing broad gauges, we are providing meter

gauges and then we have narrow gauges up to specifications, that is, 760 and 610 mm. Is

there any problem of providing so many gauges or shifting from one gauge to another gauge?

We can understand this problem when we keep our self into that condition. We assume that

we have to go from say point A to point B and there is an intermediate stop at point

C where the change from one gauge to another gauge has to be done. In that if you are traveling

yourself in that sense then what all the different problems you can foresee or you can experience.

Well we will be looking at this problem which can be there. The very first thing is in convenience

to the passengers; in this case what are the different kinds of inconveniences which can

be there? The one inconvenience is that because the specifications are different, therefore

the tracks are provided at different locations for the meter gauge or for the broad gauge

or for the narrow gauge. So if you are coming by a broad gauge train and you have to take

a narrow gauge train or a meter gauge train, it means you have to go to some other platform

, that is, the change of the platform is necessary. So if you take either thing with you and move

towards that side that means either you have to cross the gauges or climb the gauges. That

is another problem of associated with the change in the gauge. So we have to carry out

with all the luggages with yourself or you have to look for some man power who can

take all your luggage and you can move to the another gauge or the platform. So these

are all types of inconveniences which will be there to any of the passengers when this

type of change over needs to be made or the transfer needs to be made. The hauling of

luggage, the tension regarding catching the link train, that is the important aspect.

You do not know whether you are moving on a right time or you are going to be late and

therefore if there is a link train for that journey, then if you are going at the right

time you can catch that one otherwise you are going to miss it. So that sort of a tension

will always remain with you and the another big aspect is that if you are reaching that

transfer point that is, the station C as we have taken an example, then if it is at the

night time, the transfer at the night time is another very, very important and considerable

thing because that the safety is associated at that point of the time. So that is another

sort of inconvenience to the passengers to stay awake or somebody has to awaken them

and then only they can go and change over.

Another aspect related to the multi gauges; the transshipment of the goods. Again in this

case there can be a number of types of problem which may be associated with it like there

is damage to goods; you have to take the goods from one point to another point there are

always chances that something may get damaged. If you have booked your luggage then it is

to be transferred from one luggagement to other luggagement and during that time again

there are chances getting the things damaged. There are chances of theft also. You are transferring

the things and somehow at some point of the time on a bad day you found that something

is being lost, it is being theft or storage facilities are required in some of the cases.

There is a large shiftment which is going on and that case of the large shiftment when

it is to be transferred there is some other train of another gauge. Then you have to put

that material at some place, you have to store it, so the storage facilities need to be provided

at that transfer point. Delays are caused many of the times. These are another aspects

associated with it.

Mishandling is the another specific case related to goods only , that is, instead of going

to place B the things are going to place D because of just mishandling case. Then there

is inefficient use of rolling stock. The inefficient use of the rolling stock means that whatever

the total amount, total locomotives which are in use we are not using them to the complete

efficiency, complete 100 percent utilization is not there. As we have taken an example

that you are coming up to two point C by the broad gauge and then after that we are probably

going by meter gauge or a narrow gauge. Then in that sense whatever locomotive or the train

or the compartments have come up to two point C on the broad gauge they will remain as such

if they are not going to be moved to some other place. If they are moving to some other

place then it is ok.

Then they are under use and therefore there is no inefficiency involved in the use of

the rolling stock but if they have to stay there and they have to wait for another link

train which comes and then they will be taking back the passenger traffic or the goods traffic

and move back, in that sense, it is the inefficient use of the rolling stock. So in that case

what will happen is that if you are interested in not having inefficient use and we think

that we can transfer our train back to the origin point, then in that case it will be

moving empty. That is another sort of inefficient use of the rolling stock because we are not

handling revenue.

Now another case is that we are having the track which is lying idle for long period

of time because we are waiting for the traffic to come from the link line. If this is the

case then this is also termed as the inefficient use of the rolling stock. Then the transferability

of the equipment is not possible because there are of the different specifications.

So because of this difference in the specification we cannot make use of one thing at some other

location. It has to be used where they are. So it means they will keep lying as such and

we are not in the position to use them efficiently.

Another factor associated with the multi gauge problem is the additional facility which needs

to be provided at stations or in the yards. We have to provide the sheds of different

specifications , we have to provide the yards of different specifications because different

types of rolling stocks is going to be there at that station , then the maintenance equipment

again they are different from different types of the rolling stocks. So we have to have

all those types of the maintenance equipments. Waiting rooms or areas because the different

platforms are associated, therefore they require waiting room on this platform as well as on

the other platform ,that is, called the platform of the broad gauge or a platform for the gauge

other than the broad gauge. The platforms are also of different specifications because

of the size differences of the specification differences in the meter gauge and the broad

gauge or the rolling stock specification differences.

Then there is a factor, that is, hindrance to fast movement of goods and passenger traffic.

You cannot move the things at the faster speeds because it needs to be transferred at intermediate

points. When you are transferring your things at your intermediate points then it means

there will be some time lack which will be associated with that transfer and therefore

that is a hindrance and it is a big problem especially during emergencies. If there is

a emergency and there is a big shiftment which needs to be transferred or transported to

that location and if in between there is transfer associated then that cannot be done at a faster

rate or a speedier rate. The delays associated with those transshipment are on the reason.

Another aspect here is the difficulty in the balanced economic growth. Now this is the

aspect of provision of different type of the gauges in different areas because of the total

resources gets distributed and in the total resources of getting distributed it can become

an hindrance to the different types of the development which can take place in any of

the area; like there is a industrial development there is a heavy industry which is to be placed

in any area then it will be requiring a broad gauge but if the heavy industry is not there

probably we can go for another gauge but in that sense there will be a multi gauge problem,

that you cannot transfer the one thing from one point to the another point and there is

efficiency involved with the industrial processes also. So, it will be lost. The movement between

the points of production and the consumption is another aspect in the case of the economic

conditions. How much time it is going to take to move the things from the point of production

to the place where things are going to be consumed, that is another important aspect.

Now difficulties in the future gauge conversion, this is next aspect that is the problem in

the case of the multi gauge system because if you going to change over from the meter

gauge or the narrow gauge to the broad gauge then again the resources are involved in that

one and when the number resources are involved in that one you have to get all those resources

you have to take out the things, you have to suspend the movements and that is the type

of the difficulty which will be there in that aspect.

Now we come to the related aspect of this one; that is uni gauge policy. Looking at

all those problems which are being faced by the freight movements or the passenger movements

because of multi gauge system the Indian railways and the government of India in 1992 decided

to provide uniform gauges throughout the countries and therefore they came out with the uni-gauge

policy and in this uni-gauge policy there are certain advantages involved which are

just the reverse of the all those problems which we have seen previously, like there

is no transport bottlenecks. In this case there is no need of transshipment because

we are going from point A to point B in the example, which we have taken previously without

stopping at point C or without changing the things at point C. No waiting and delays are

associated here, the elimination of inconveniences because we are not going to come out at point

C with all your luggages and your moving ,handling of luggage is easier because it

is to be placed once and to be taken out once.

There is no transshipment hazard but the safety is involved with the material, there is a

better safety. There is no damage , no theft, no mishandling of luggage because nothing

is going to be transferred from one compartment to the other compartment, one wagon to the

other wagon, one platform to the other platform. There is elimination of unsafe night time

transfers.

Then there is a another better aspect of uni-gauge policy is that we can think of provision of

alternate routes which was not possible in the pervious conditions because all the resources

was ,that in, consumed in the provision of different type of facilities, different type

of gauges throughout the country.

Now we can think of that if there is a wrong route, whether there is a possibility of providing

any alternate route of the same specification, so that, the total load or the traffic can

be diverted between those two points by using the alternate routes or we can develop any

other area and there can be a more of the development in that area; may be a industrial

development or the employment generation likewise. So here we at looking at the pressure on the

existing network will reduce, economic scenario will improve, higher penetration of products

will be there because we are reaching different sections which we should not reach in the

previous conditions and there is a more flexibility of movements because we have the rolling stock

available to us and we can use that rolling stock without changeovers and there is a better

connectivity, that is, because the alternate routes are feasible things.

There is also improved utilization of the track. There is more efficiency associated

here, the higher efficiency will be there. There is a reduction in the operating expenses

because we are not yet stopping at one point. We are achieving the things at higher speeds

and there is the more of the efficiency involved, that is why the operation expenses are going

down. There is lesser or no idling situation.

Better turn around conditions because the rolling stock has not to wait at the intermediate

or the transfer point for the link traffic to come. Therefore, in that sense the things

can just change or take a turn from the next point to the previous point. The higher use

of the equipment will be there in this case, the operational expenses again will reduce,

more operations can be scheduled because we are having a better turn over time, no idling

of the years are involved here, higher benefits to the users because they are getting the

facilities again and agreeing at a lower time periods. There is an optimization of the facilities

because we are not required to provide the facilities at different locations. So you

can optimize the things, locate them centrally or locate them specifically depending on the

situations.

There is better balanced economic growth and in this case we have the regional effects

will reduce because there is a better connectivity from one part of the country to another part

of the country and that is how, that is what we have seen in the independence condition

of the India also, where the railways were provided and they provided the connectivity

to all of the different parts of the country. There is a higher growth of areas otherwise

which are being left unconnected. There is another economic aspect of the uni-gauge policy;

more dispersal of activities will be there because there is no concentration of activities

in one area. We have the greater connectivity, people start thinking of starting the different

activities in different sections, different areas, so that they can achieve better economic

balance growth.

Then the next aspect is then no multiple tracking will be there. In this case the extra facilities

need not to be provided because the specifications are same on all the platforms, on any of the

sections or any of the station. Multiple tracks, yards, equipments of different specifications

again are not required and in this case it is going to cut off the cost which is clear

in terms of the multi gauge conditions.

Better transport infrastructure will come up with the uniform gauge policy, with the

provision of the same gauge throughout the country. Better and efficient movements will

be there, direct connectivity to different areas previously served by only the meter

gauge, higher opportunities to masses and of course this is another important aspect

as far as the economic conditions are concerned.

It will boost the investors confidence, because there is no transshipment of materials,

the long distance movement of the freight will be possible and this is what we are seeing

nowadays in the Indian railways where the Indian railways are earning large amount of

revenues because of the booster investors confidence by the provision of the long distance

high speed freight trains or the container trains.

Now, once we have completed all those aspects the two specific aspects of the gauges we

will be looking at two or three next slides, that is, loading gauge and construction gauge.

Now, here in this diagram loading gauge has been shown. This loading gauge shows the dimensions

in terms of there is a oneLshape angle condition from which there is a suspended

arm or arch. This arch is having certain height at the center as well as at the ends from

the rail section which have been provided here at the bottom. So, this is total amount

of height which can be there at any loaded wagon. Similarly, this is going to be the

total width of the section of the wagon which can be filled with any material, that is mostly

it is going to be use in the case of the freight transportation. This is very important because

we have to look at the different specification which has been provided to the Indian railways

and the wagons have to comply with all those specifications. So therefore the loading gauge

represents the maximum height and width to which a rolling stock may be built or loaded.

Now we can look at the specifications in the case of the broad gauge; the maximum height

is 4140 mm where as the width is 3250 mm. In the case of the meter gauge, though we

are of still continuing with the meter gauge that is why we are looking at this aspect,

the height here is 3455 mm and the width is 2745 mm.

Then, there is a construction gauge. Construction is the gauge which is decided by adding necessary

clearances to the loading gauge so that the vehicle can move safely without infringement.

This is the condition which is to be provided in case of all the bridges or the tunnels

or the pavements or the platforms which needs to be constructed or the shapes of all the

platforms because there are certain clearances which are added to the loading gauge and then

with those clearances this construction gauges is provided.

Now, today what we have discussed so far is the different types of the gauges and the

specific gauges and the problems associated with those gauges and the way out by which

the problems can be nullified. Now in this case what we have seen is that the provision

of uniform gauge policy can bring in the balanced growth in the country, at the same time it

can reduce the inconveniences for the passengers or for the shippers who are going to haul

their freight to from one point to the other point. So, therefore it is going to be a good

condition as far as the Indian railways is concerned. We are going to stop at this point

and in the future lecture we will be looking at the permanent way, the aspects related

to the permanent way, the wheels and the locomotives and the associated features with that one,

that is, the crowning of wheels. So students we stop at this point. Have a nice day. Bye.

The Description of Lec-2 Gauges and Permanent Way