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Practice English Speaking&Listening with: How to Talk About the Environment in English - Spoken English Lesson

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Hi, Im Gina.

Welcome to Oxford Online English!

In this lesson, you can learn how to talk about environmental issues in English.

Whats the air quality like in your city?

Do you worry about climate change, or how your food is produced?

Youll learn how to talk about these, and other topics in this class.

To see more free English lessons, visit our website: Oxford Online English dot com.

You can also book English classes with our fully-qualified teachers, who can help you

with your English speaking, writing, IELTS preparation, or whatever else you need.

Now, lets look at our first topic.

Wow!

Its such a beautiful day!

The sky is so blue.

I guess...

Its been nice all summer, so I dont notice it as much.

Maybe Im getting spoiled!

I wasnt expecting it to be like this.

My Dad came here a few years ago and he said the air quality was really bad.

Hes not wrong.

It used to be terrible.

In summer, youd often get thick smog covering the whole city, but its improved greatly

in the last decade or so.

What changed?

I think it was driven by peoples attitudes.

Ten years ago, no one was interested in environmental issues, but nowadays theres much more awareness

of things like air quality and how it can affect your health.

Sure, but that cant be the only reason.

Well, no.

The local government also brought in new laws and regulations.

They introduced restrictions on driving in the city centre, made it illegal to use wood

or coal fires for heating, and moved a lot of heavy industry away from the city.

Plus, there are much tighter regulations nationally, too, like with car emissions: compared to

even ten years ago, cars are much cleaner.

Its impressive that they could make such a big change in a short time.

Ten years isnt long for these things.

True, but theres still more to do.

It can still get hazy in winter.

Theyre investing in public transport infrastructure, though, so I think itll carry on getting

better.

In your hometown, is the air quality good, or do you have problems?

Can you remember any of the phrases you heard in the dialogue to talk about air pollution?

You heard: ‘The air quality was really bad.’

Youd often get thick smog covering the

whole city.’

It can still get hazy in winter.’

Smogis a thick fog, caused by air pollution.

If the air is a little dirty, so that you cant see far, you might describe it as

hazy.’

'Air quality' is a useful phrase for this topic.

You can use it with different adjectives.

For example: 'The air quality is terrible'.

'The air quality is better than it was ten years ago'.

'The air quality is great for such a large city'.

Heres a question: what do you think the government, companies or individuals can do

to minimise air pollution?

In the dialogue, you heard several possible solutions, such as: ‘The government brought

in new laws and regulations.’

They introduced restrictions on driving in the city centre.’

They made it illegal to use wood or coal fires for heating.’

They moved a lot of heavy industry away from the city.’

Restrictions on drivingcould mean different things.

For example, London has a congestion charge, meaning that drivers have to pay every time

they enter the city centre.

Some cities have banned vehicles with diesel engines, while others have created large pedestrian

zones.

Lets practise!

Here are three questions for you.

One: whats the air quality like in your city?

Two: what is your local or national government doing to improve air quality where you live?

Three: what do you think is the best way to reduce air pollution?

Pause the video, think about your answers, and write them down or say them out loud.

If you need more help, review the dialogue and this section.

There are many words and phrases you can use.

Ready?

Lets move on to our next point.

Whoa!

What are you doing?

What do you mean?

You cant throw that in there!

Why not?

Its garbage.

Yeah, but its recyclable.

It goes in the blue bin.

You mean, I have to put all recyclable stuff in the blue bin?

Not all.

Plastics go in the blue bin, paper and card in the brown bin, and bio-waste in the green

one.

Bio-waste?’

You know, food waste and stuff like that.

Is that it?

The black bucket is for glass and tins.

Do you not recycle?

In my hometown you can recycle a few things, like glass, but we dont sort our garbage

like this.

It seems very complicated!

Then what, all of your rubbish just goes into landfill?

I guess

Ive never thought about it.

I just throw stuff away and forget about it.

It was the same here not so long ago, but now weve got used to sorting our rubbish

and recycling as much as possible.

Its much more environmentally friendly.

Im sure youre right.

In the dialogue, we mentioned several different types of garbage.

Quick question: can you remember three of them?

By the way, the wordsgarbage’, ‘rubbishandtrashall have a similar meaning:

they all mean the stuff which you throw away.

If there is recycling in your city, you might need to sort your recyclable garbage, meaning

you put different things in different bins.

Generally, you can sort garbage into recyclables and non-recyclables.

Recyclable garbage might include glass, tins, cans, paper, card, plastic, and bio-waste.

Waste which is not recycled is often sent to landfill.

This means the waste is buried in a big hole in the ground.

Sometimes, waste might end up in a dump.

A dump is like a landfill, but it isnt buried, so its just a big pile of garbage

on the ground somewhere.

Now its time for you to practise.

Here are another three questions for you:

In your city, do you sort your garbage?

If so, how?

What waste is commonly recycled in your country?

What happens to non-recyclable waste?

As before, pause the video and make your answers.

Practise them a few times before you continue.

Lets look at our next topic.

That book looks interesting.

Whats it about?

This?

Its by a Japanese writer.

Its about farming and how we could make farming more sustainable.

OK

Youre a graphic designer.

Why are you reading about farming?

Its interesting!

Farming produces the food you eat.

Its not like it doesnt affect you.

Whats his idea?

Hes basically saying that modern farming methods can produce more in the short term,

but in the long term they degrade the land and end up costing more.

Mmm

One thing he talks about is pesticide use.

If farmers use pesticides and herbicides, then they create an ecosystem which depends

on those artificial products, which are often harmful for the environment.

If you grow food organically, using more traditional farming methods, you can grow the same amount

of food without using pesticides at all.

So he thinks we should go back to mediaeval farming or something?

Not exactly.

I can see youre sceptical, but I think you should read it, too.

Its not just theory, by the way.

Hes used his ideas to set up several farms in different countries, and they work just

like he says.

Hmm

I have been thinking about these things, actually, especially with meat.

I saw a documentary about livestock farming and slaughterhouses, and it was shocking.

I guess most people just buy the food and dont think about where it comes from.

Right, so youll definitely like this book, too.

You can borrow it once Ive finished.

Whats it called?

The One-Straw Revolution.”

Do you think about where your food comes from, and how its produced?

Modern farming is heavily mechanisedit depends heavily on machinery, automation,

as well as chemical products like herbicides and pesticides.

Herbicides kill weeds, meaning unwanted plants.

Pesticides kill insects and small animals which might try to eat food crops.

Farming needs to be sustainable.

Sustainablemeans that something can continue.

For example, if you earn $1000 a month and spend $2000, that isnt sustainable.

Maybe you can do that for a few months, but you cant do it long term.

In the same way, some farming methods are unsustainable.

In this case, farming can degrade the land, meaning that, over time, it becomes more and

more difficult to grow anything.

On the other hand, some farming is organic.

Organicmeans that food is grown without using any artificial chemical products.

Of course, farming isnt just about growing plants.

There is alsolivestock farming’: raising animals for meat, eggs or milk.

Animals which are raised to provide meat are generally killed in a slaughterhouse.

What about in your country?

Think about these questions:

Are farms usually bigger and more mechanised, or are they mostly smaller, using more traditional

methods?

Do you think its worth paying extra to eat organic food?

Why or why not?

Is it important to know how your food is produced?

Give a reason!

Pause the video and think about your answers.

Write them down, say them out loud, or do both.

Lets look at our last section.

Do people ever talk about global warming in your country?

For sure!

Its a big issue.

We have a long coastline, and a lot of the land is close to sea level, so the dangers

feel very real.

I feel like people often dont pay attention to these things until its too late.

Its already happening, though.

Theres more flooding than there used to be, and older people, like my grandparents

for example, all say that summers have got much hotter than they were 50 years ago.

Thats kind of scary.

I read somewhere that even if we cut carbon emissions to zero, global warming would continue

for at least fifty years, because of the greenhouse gases that are already in the atmosphere.

The big topic for us is sea levels.

If the ice caps melt, they say sea levels will rise by two or three metres.

For some countries, that wouldnt be a big deal, but wed lose almost half of our land.

I dont think any country will be immune from the problems if it continues.

So, do you think theres a solution?

It doesnt look optimistic from what Ive heard.

I mean, people talk about things like carbon taxes and reforestation programs, which are

helpful, but I dont think therell be any real progress until theres true international

cooperation.

So far, I dont see any sign of that.

In the dialogue, you heard us talking about climate change.

Can you remember phrases we used to describe the causes and effects of climate change?

By the way, you can use the termsglobal warmingorclimate change’.

People use them with the same meaning.

Climate change is caused by increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

The main greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide, or CO2.

Sometimes, instead of talking about carbon dioxide or CO2, people will just refer to

carbon’.

You can hear things like: ‘We need to cut carbon emissions significantly.’

Climate change may lead to several problems, particularly flooding caused by rising sea

levels.

Although there arent clear solutions, some people suggest that carbon taxes or reforestation

programs are good ways to combat climate change.

Acarbon taxmeans that companies would have to pay the government if their operations

released CO2 into the atmosphere.

Lets see: can you use some of this language?

Here are three questions for you.

Are you worried about global warming?

Why or why not?

How would your country be affected if sea levels rose significantly?

What do you think is the best way to deal with climate change?

Pause the video and make your answers now!

How was that?

Theres a lot of language in this lesson, so dont forget to review any sections that

were difficult for you.

Finally, we have a question for you: whats the biggest environmental issue in your country?

Let us know in the comments and practise talking about these topics with other learners!

Thanks for watching!

See you next time!

The Description of How to Talk About the Environment in English - Spoken English Lesson